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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334264

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 continues, the mutation of SARS-COV-2 is still difficult to control, and the need for antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19 remains urgent. The use of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 is limited and controversial. Methods To clarify the efficacy of arbidol on COVID-19, we collected 25 cases and 178 related studies. We analyzed the treatment information of arbidol based on the obtained cases, expanded the scope of the study, and collected current studies on the treatment of COVID-19 in various databases for in-depth analysis. Results History analysis showed that arbidol was effective (76% cure rate) compared with other drugs. However, compared with other antiviral drugs or standard therapy, the arbidol group had no significant advantage in reducing the time to negative virus transformation, length of hospital stays, or improvement in CT (MD=0.22, 95%CI -0.29-0.73;MD = 0.61, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.67;RR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.50);Analysis of adverse events showed no significant difference between the arbidol group and the other groups (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.25-2.71). Conclusion Our study showed that arbidol had no significant effect on COVID-19, but showed a slight advantage in CT improvement and adverse events. Our study objectively evaluated the efficacy of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 and provided some guidance for arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689575, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775810

ABSTRACT

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can weaken the body's cellular and humoral immunity and is a serious disease without specific drug management and vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics and transmissibility of HIV. Methods: Data on HIV follow-up were collected in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous, China. An HIV transmission dynamics model was built to simulate the transmission of HIV and estimate its transmissibility by comparing the effective reproduction number (R eff ) at different stages: the rapid growth period from January 2001 to March 2005, slow growth period from April 2005 to April 2011, and the plateau from May 2011 to December 2019 of HIV in Nanning City. Results: High-risk areas of HIV prevalence in Nanning City were mainly concentrated in suburbs. Furthermore, high-risk groups were those of older age, with lower income, and lower education levels. The R eff in each stage (rapid growth, slow growth, and plateau) were 2.74, 1.62, and 1.15, respectively, which suggests the transmissibility of HIV in Nanning City has declined and prevention and control measures have achieved significant results. Conclusion: Over the past 20 years, the HIV incidence in Nanning has remained at a relatively high level, but its development trend has been curbed. Transmissibility was reduced from 2.74 to 1.15. Therefore, the prevention and treatment measures in Nanning City have achieved significant improvement.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2029257, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692309

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to explore the association between health behaviors and the COVID-19 vaccination based on the risk compensation concept among health-care workers in Taizhou, China. We conducted a self-administered online survey to estimate the health behaviors among the staff in a tertiary hospital in Taizhou, China, from May 18 to 21 May 2021. A total of 592 out of 660 subjects (89.7%) responded to the questionnaire after receiving an e-poster on WeChat. Subjects who had been inoculated with the COVID-19 vaccine were asked to mention the differences in their health behaviors before and after the vaccination. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in health behaviors between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, except in terms of the type of gloves they used (62.8% in the vaccinated group and 49.2% in the unvaccinated group, p = .048). Subjects who received earlier COVID-19 vaccinations exhibited better health behaviors (22.40% increased for duration of wearing masks (P = .007), 25.40% increased for times of washing hands (P = .01), and 20.90% increased for times of wearing gloves (P = .01)). Subjects also revealed better health behaviors (washing hands, wearing gloves, and wearing masks) after vaccination compared to that before. In conclusion, concept of risk compensation was not applied in our findings. The health behaviors did not reduce after the COVID-19 vaccination, which even may improve health behaviors among health-care workers in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325265

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal vaccination is an essential public health strategy to control the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the virus epidemic by developing an age-specific model based on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China.Methods: An age-specific mathematical model based on the data of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019 to March 16, 2020 was developed, with two scenarios for controlling transmission and reducing severity to estimate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy.Findings: Before the lockdown of the Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was among 14-44 years old (effective reproduction number, Reff = 4·28), followed by 14-44 to 45-64 years old (Reff = 2·61), and 14-44 to ≥ 65 years old (Reff = 1·69). We found that the first priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate nearly 90% individuals of 14-44 years old, followed by 90% individuals of 45-64 years old. However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing severity defined individuals ≥ 65 years old in vaccination priority groups, followed by 14-44 years old groups.Interpretation: The scenario analyses suggested that the optimal vaccination strategy aimed at controlling the transmission of COVID-19 might be to vaccinate about 90% of 15-44 years old individuals;while for reducing severity, the vaccination priority should focus on the older population. Furthermore, we also presented evidence about the heterogeneity of age-specific transmission and vaccination in different areas.Funding Statement: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325244

ABSTRACT

Objective: Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures to control the disease in Jilin Province, China. Methods: : The data of reported COVID-19 cases were collected, including imported and local cases from Jilin Province as of March 14, 2019. A Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Asymptomatic–Recovered (SEIAR) model was developed to fit the data, and the effective reproduction number ( R eff ) was calculated at different stages in the province. Finally, the effectiveness of the countermeasures was assessed. Results: : A total of 97 COVID-19 infections were reported in Jilin Province, among which 45 were imported infections (including one asymptomatic infection) and 52 were local infections (including three asymptomatic infections). The model fit well with the reported data ( R 2 = 0.593, P < 0.001). The R eff of COVID-19 before and after February 1, 2020 was 1.64 and 0.05, respectively. Without the intervention taken on February 1, 2020, the predicted cases would reach a peak of 177,011 on October 22, 2020 (284 days from the first case). The projected number of cases until the end of the outbreak (on October 9, 2021) would be 17,129,367, with a total attack rate of 63.66%. Based on the comparison between the predicted incidence of the model and the actual incidence, the comprehensive intervention measures implemented in Jilin Province on February 1 reduced the incidence of cases by 99.99%. Therefore, according to the current measures and implementation efforts, Jilin Province can achieve good control of the virus’s spread. Conclusions: : COVID-19 has a moderate transmissibility in Jilin Province, China. The interventions implemented in the province had proved effective, increasing social distancing and a rapid response by the prevention and control system will help control the spread of the disease.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324421

ABSTRACT

Background: Control measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have limited the spread of infectious diseases. This study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the spread of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Methods: A mathematical model was established to fit the reported data of HFMD in six selected cities in mainland China from 2015 to 2020. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) between the reported incidence in 2020, and simulated maximum, minimum, or median incidence of HFMD in 2015-2019 were calculated. Findings: The incidence and Reff of HFMD have decreased in six selected cities since the outbreak of COVID-19, and in the second half of 2020, the incidence and R eff of HFMD have rebounded. The results show that the total attack rate (TAR) in 2020 was lower than the maximum, minimum, and median TAR fitted in previous years in six selected cities (except Changsha city). For the maximum, median, minimum fitted TAR, the range of RD (%) is 42·20-99·20%, 36·35-98·41% 48·35-96·23% (except Changsha city) respectively. Interpretation: Based on the incidence data of six cities from 2015 to 2019, the SEIAR model demonstrated a significant effect on the incidence of HFMD. During the period of COVID-19, the incidence and R eff of HFMD decreased, the prevention and control measures taken during the period of COVID-19, such as school suspension, home quarantine, closing all kinds of leisure places, wearing masks, advocating frequent hand washing, etc., have not only effectively suppressed the spread of COVID-19 epidemic, but also have significantly contributed to the containment of HFMD transmission.Funding Statement: This study was partly supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interests.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320374

ABSTRACT

Background: In most countries, it is hard to effectively control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study conducted the most comprehensive evaluation of the effects of pharmacological (like vaccination, pharmacotherapy ) and non-pharmacological (like isolation, social distancing and mask-wearing) interventions taken singly or in combination for the first time globally.Methods: We estimate that across these 12 countries that are different but presentative, interventions prevented or delayed roughly millions of confirmed cases. This study constructs mathematical model, which interventions includes vaccination, pharmacotherapy, isolation, social distancing and mask-wearing , and analyses the effect of these interventions used alone and in combination.Findings: The basic reproduction number (R0) of each country mostly range from 3 to 5. In terms of the effect of single intervention, for countries such as China, South Korea, Thailand, US, South Africa and Algeria, it is preferred to recommend these countries to adopt isolation to prevent and control the second wave of COVID-19 outbreak, while for countries such as Russia, UK, Saudi Arabia, India and Brazil, wearing masks is the best choice. Especially pharmacotherapy can play a good role in Iran. When combinations with different interventions were taken, the situation was different. For US, Brazil and Algeria, the combination of “Vaccination & Isolation & Wearing mask” is recommended in these countries to prevent and control the development of COVID-19, and the combination of “Isolation & Social distancing & Wearing mask” is recommended in UK and China. For the rest, we suggest that Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, Thailand and South Africa take the intervention measures of “Vaccination & Medical treatment & Isolation & Wearing mask”, “Vaccination & Medical treatment”, “Vaccination & Social distancing & Wearing mask”, “Medical treatment & Social distancing & Wearing mask”, “Vaccination & Medical Treatment & Isolation”, “Vaccination & Medical Treatment & Wearing mask”, respectively to deal with the second wave of outbreaks that may come by the end of this year.Interpretation: Our model is operable and selective for the prevention and control of epidemic situations in various countries. These findings may help policy makers in the 180+ countries where COVID-19 has been reported around the world to identify the most effective and socioeconomically acceptable measures to prevent and control the second wave of COVID-19 epidemic, and inform if when these policies should be deployed, intensified or replaced.Funding: This study was partly supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834), the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province (No: 2020Y0002), the Xiamen New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Emergency Tackling Special Topic Program (No: 3502Z2020YJ03), and the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics (SKLVD2019KF005).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315664

ABSTRACT

Background: No study has revealed spatial transmission characteristics of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. We aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan and its influence factors. Methods: : Information of 32,682 COVID-19 cases reported through March 18 were extracted from the national infectious disease surveillance system. Geographic information system methods were applied to analysis transmission of COVID-19 and its influence factors in different periods. Results: : We found decrease in effective reproduction number ( Rt ) and COVID-19 related indicators through taking a series of effective public health measures including restricting traffic, centralized quarantine and strict stay-at home policy. The distribution of COVID-19 cases number in Wuhan showed an obvious global aggregation and a local aggregation in central urban areas, but such aggregations was decreased in the later period of the epidemic. In addition, the analysis at streets-level suggested population density and the number of hospitals were influence factors of spatial difference. Conclusions: : The epidemic situation showed obvious global and local spatial aggregations. High population density and directional flow of the Population to hospitals may account for the aggregations. Strong quarantine measures and restrictions on movement of residents in Wuhan make the epidemic under control in a short time.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315496

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Only drugs or vaccines can eliminate the virus. Methods: We adopted our age-specific transmission model by susceptible-exposed-infectious -critically ill-asymptomatic-removed (SEICAR) model. Effects of different drug types were simulated by changing transmission rate (β), critical case fatality rate (fc), and disease duration of each age group. Evaluation indexes were based on outbreak duration(OD), cumulative number of cases(CNC), total attack rate(TAR), peak date(PD), number of peak cases(NPC), and case fatality rate(f). Findings: When without intervention, changing in β and disease duration, as the age increased, OD decreased, TAR increased, PD advanced, CCN and NPC initially increased and then decreased, while f decreased first and then increased. When disease duration and β remained unchanged, changing fc did not affect the epidemic. All age groups had 40% shorter disease duration but unchanged fc, while β was reduced by 60%, which reduced TAR of group 1 (≤14 years) from 2·35% to 0·09%;f of group 4 (≥65 years) was reduced from 1·04% to 0·05%. Interpretation: Drugs had different age-dependent effects. If a drug can control the disease duration or β of all age groups, younger people would have the fastest transmission control and seniors will have the best improvement in disease severity. Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834);the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province (No: 2020Y0002), and the Xiamen New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Emergency Tackling Special Topic Program (No: 3502Z2020YJ03).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315495

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. This study aims to explore the relationship between key natural and social factors and the transmission of COVID-19 in China. Methods This study collected the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 21 provinces and cities in China as of February 28, 2020. Three provinces were included in the sample: Hainan, Guizhou, and Qinghai. The 18 cities included Shanghai, Tianjin and so on. Key natural factors comprised monthly average temperatures in the January and February 2020 and spatial location as determined by longitude and latitude. Social factors were population density, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), number of medical institutions and health practitioners;as well as the per capita values for GDP, medical institutions, and health practitioners. Excel was used to collate the data and draw the temporal and spatial distribution map of the prevalence rate (PR) and the proportion of local infection (PLI). The influencing factors were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 statistical software, and the relationship between the dependent and independent variables was simulated by 11 models. Finally, we choose the exponential model according to the value of R 2 and the applicability of the model. Results The temporal and spatial distribution of the PR varies across the 21 provinces and cities identified. The PR generally decreases with distance from Hubei, except in the case of Shenzhen City, where the converse is observed. The results of the exponential model simulation show that the monthly minimum, median, and maximum average temperatures in January and February, and the latitude and population density are significant and thus will affect the PLI. The corresponding values of R 2 are 0.297, 0.322, 0.349, 0.290, 0.314, 0.339, 0.344, and 0.301. The effects of other factors were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the selected key natural and social factors, higher temperatures may decrease the transmission of COVID-19. From this analysis, it is evident that if the temperature decreases by 1℃, the average PLI increases by 0.01. Further, it was established that locations at more northern latitudes had a higher PLI, and population density showed an inverse relationship with PLI.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314877

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A susceptible – exposed – infectious – asymptomatic – recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. Data of symptomatic and asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2 were collected to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. Results: A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic has an increasing trend. The proportion of asymptomatic of elder people was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistical significant (Fisher’s Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic, with a proportion of 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate of asymptomatic was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no significance was observed (χ2 = 1.350, P = 0.245) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43 which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions were not strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would last about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. Asymptomatic infection has the same transmissibility as symptomatic. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which found to be exceedingly effective in China.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308345

ABSTRACT

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known chemotherapeutic drug for most malgnencies including breast cancer and leukemia whilst the usage of DOX is limited owing to its cardiotoxicity. The present study analyzed the effects of crocin on doxorubicin’s cardiotoxic efect in rat myocardium and searched their mechanistic interaction in the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myocardial toxicity. Forty rats were divided into four groups;(a) control (received normal saline as a dose of 1 ml/kg by ip for 15 days), (b) Crocin (received crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h by ip for 15 days), (c) DOX (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection, cumulative dose 12 mg/kg), and (d) DOX+Crocin (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection and crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h ip for 15 days). According to the present study, DOX administration caused significant increases in lipid indices (triglyseride, low-dencity lipoproteins and very low-dencity lipoproteins) as well as cardiac markers (Creatine kinase-muscle/brain and Cardiac Troponin I). Morever, DOX caused significant increases in oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde and total oxidant status) as well as decreases in antioxidant defense systems (glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant status). The present study also demonstrated that co-administration of crocin with DOX significantly ameliorated the lipid profile and biochemical parameters in rats receiving DOX. The results were supported by histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Taken together, our results reveal that crocin might be a cardioprotective agent in DOX treated patients for cancer.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312633

ABSTRACT

Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases. Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: : The incidence of malaria in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever (HF) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SEFT) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: : In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, especially malaria, HF and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

14.
Epidemiology and infection ; 149, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609638

ABSTRACT

The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 140, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. METHODS: We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45-64 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15-64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Cities , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(50): 1071-1074, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567031

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccination booster shots are completely necessary for controlling breakthrough infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China. The study aims to estimate effectiveness of booster vaccines for high-risk populations (HRPs). Methods: A vaccinated Susceptible-Exposed-Symptomatic-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model was developed to simulate scenarios of effective reproduction number (R eff ) from 4 to 6. Total number of infectious and asymptomatic cases were used to evaluated vaccination effectiveness. Results: Our model showed that we could not prevent outbreaks when covering 80% of HRPs with booster unless R eff =4.0 or the booster vaccine had efficacy against infectivity and susceptibility of more than 90%. The results were consistent when the outcome index was confirmed cases or asymptomatic cases. Conclusions: An ideal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination strategy for HRPs would be expected to reach the initial goal to control the transmission of the Delta variant in China. Accordingly, the recommendation for the COVID-19 booster vaccine should be implemented in HRPs who are already vaccinated and could prevent transmission to other groups.

17.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 4632745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556856

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication which is normally diagnosed in the second trimester of gestation. With an increasing incidence, GDM poses a significant threat to maternal and offspring health. Therefore, we need a deeper understanding of GDM pathophysiology and novel investigation on the diagnosis and treatment for GDM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenic small noncoding RNAs with a length of approximately 19-24 nucleotides, have been reported to exert their function in gene expression by binding to proteins or being enclosed in membranous vesicles, such as exosomes. Studies have investigated the roles of miRNAs in the pathophysiological mechanism of GDM and their potential as noninvasive biological candidates for the management of GDM, including diagnosis and treatment. This review is aimed at summarizing the pathophysiological significance of miRNAs in GDM development and their potential function in GDM clinical diagnosis and therapeutic approach. In this review, we summarized an integrated expressional profile and the pathophysiological significance of placental exosomes and associated miRNAs, as well as other plasma miRNAs such as exo-AT. Furthermore, we also discussed the practical application of exosomes in GDM postpartum outcomes and the potential function of several miRNAs as therapeutic target in the GDM pathological pathway, thus providing a novel clinical insight of these biological signatures into GDM therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression/physiology , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Pregnancy
18.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(3): 421-428, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555800

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined current (past 30-day) dual- and polytobacco use patterns and COVID-19 symptomatology, testing, and diagnosis status among college student electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online questionnaire administered during October-December 2020. SETTING: Four large, U.S. public universities in geographically diverse locations. SAMPLE: College students (N=756) ages 18-24 who reported current e-cigarette use. MEASURES: Current use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and cigars, and self-reported COVID-19 symptomatology, testing, and diagnosis status were measured. ANALYSIS: Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for students' demographics, university site, fraternity/sorority membership, and current residence. RESULTS: Over half (53.6%) of students were exclusive e-cigarette users, 20.4% were dual e-cigarette and combustible cigarette users, 4.6% were dual e-cigarette and cigar users, and 21.4% were poly users of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and cigars. Compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes (AOR=2.12, 95%CI=1.05-4.27) and poly users of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and cigars (AOR=3.70, 95%CI=1.78-7.70) had increased odds of COVID-19 symptomatology, even when accounting for covariates. While current tobacco use groups did not differ based on COVID-19 testing, polytobacco users had significantly increased odds (AOR=2.16, 95%CI=1.11-4.20) of having received a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Given use of two or more tobacco products increased COVID-19-related risks, results underscore the need to prevent dual- and polytobacco use behaviors in college student e-cigarette users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292228

ABSTRACT

Massively generated single-cell multi-omics datasets are revolutionizing biological studies of heterogenous tissues and organisms, which necessitate powerful computational methods to unleash the full potential of these tremendous data. Here, we present Concerto, stands for self-distillation contrastive learning of cell representations, a self-supervised representation learning framework optimized with asymmetric teacher-student configuration to analyze single-cell multi-omics datasets with scalability up to building 10 million-cell reference within 1.5 hour and querying 10k cells within 8 seconds. Concerto leverages dropout layer as minimal data augmentation to learn meaningful cell representations in a contrastive manner. The teacher module uses attention mechanism to aggregate contextualized gene embeddings within cellular context, while the student module uses simpler dense structure with discreate input. The learned task-agnostic representations can be adapted to a broad range of single-cell computation tasks. 1) Via supervised fine-tuning, Concerto enables automatic cell classification as well as novel cell-type discovery;2) Attention weights provide model interpretability via automatically extracting specific molecular signatures at single-cell resolution without the needs of clustering;3) Via source-aware training, Concerto supports efficient data integration by projecting all cells across multiple batches into a joint embedding space. 4) Via batch-aware inference or unsupervised fine-tuning, Concerto enables mapping query cells onto reference and accurately transferring annotations. Concerto can flexibly extend to multi-omics datasets simply through cross-modality summation operation to obtain unified cell embeddings. Using examples from human peripheral blood, human thymus, human pancreas, and mouse tissue atlas, Concerto shows superior performance benchmarking against other top-performing methods. We also demonstrate Concerto recapitulates detailed COVID-19 disease variation through query-to-reference mapping. Concerto can operate on all genes and represents a fully data-driven approach with minimum prior distribution assumptions, eliminating the needs of PCA-like or autoencoder-like dimensionality reduction, which significantly reforms the current best practice. Concerto is a simple, straightforward, robust, and scalable framework, offering a brand new perspective to derive cell representations and can effectively satisfy the emerging paradigm of query-to-reference mapping in the era of atlas-level single-cell multimodal analysis.

20.
Addict Behav ; 126: 107170, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487565

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This investigation assessed whether current (past 30-day) electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and cannabis use was associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptomatology, testing, and diagnosis among college student e-cigarette users. METHODS: Participants were 18-26-year-old college student e-cigarette users attending four geographically diverse, large U.S. public universities during October-December 2020 (N = 800). Multivariable logistic regression models explored associations between exclusive e-cigarette use and concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis use and COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and diagnosis. Models controlled for demographics, university site, and current use of combustible cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. RESULTS: Over half of student e-cigarette users (52.0%) concurrently used cannabis. Compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis users were 3.53 times more likely (95%CI = 1.96-6.36) to report COVID-19 symptoms, after adjusting for the covariates. Compared to infrequent exclusive e-cigarette users, infrequent concurrent users (AOR = 4.72, 95%CI = 1.31-17.00), intermediate concurrent users (AOR = 5.10, 95%CI = 1.37-18.97), and frequent concurrent users (AOR = 7.44, 95%CI = 2.06-26.84) were at increased odds of reporting COVID-19 symptoms. Compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis users were 1.85 times more likely (95%CI = 1.15-2.98) to report a COVID-19 diagnosis. Intermediate concurrent users (AOR = 2.88, 95%CI = 1.13-7.35) and frequent concurrent users (AOR = 3.22, 95%CI = 1.32-7.87) were at increased odds of reporting a COVID-19 diagnosis, compared to infrequent exclusive e-cigarette users. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis may be an underlying risk factor of COVID-19 symptomatology and diagnosis, with more pronounced odds found among intermediate and frequent users. Results highlight the need to educate students about the impacts of e-cigarette and cannabis use on respiratory, immune, and overall health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Young Adult
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