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1.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):7043-7043, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1815605

ABSTRACT

Access to fast and reliable nucleic acid testing continues to play a key role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the context of increased vaccine break-through risks due to new variants. We report a rapid, low-cost (~ 2 USD), simple-to-use nucleic acid test kit for self-administered at-home testing without lab instrumentation. The entire sample-to-answer workflow takes < 60 min, including noninvasive sample collection, one-step RNA preparation, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) in a thermos, and direct visual inspection of a colorimetric test result. To facilitate long-term storage without cold-chain, a fast one-pot lyophilization protocol was developed to preserve all required biochemical reagents of the colorimetric RT-LAMP test in a single microtube. Notably, the lyophilized RT-LAMP assay demonstrated reduced false positives as well as enhanced tolerance to a wider range of incubation temperatures compared to solution-based RT-LAMP reactions. We validated our RT-LAMP assay using simulated infected samples, and detected a panel of SARS-CoV-2 variants with successful detection of all variants that were available to us at the time. With a simple change of the primer set, our lyophilized RT-LAMP home test can be easily adapted as a low-cost surveillance platform for other pathogens and infectious diseases of global public health importance.

2.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022003, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780147

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different degrees of liver injury. However, the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion into the liver are still not fully understood. This review mainly summarizes the recently published works on the abnormal liver biochemical indicators and the mechanism of viral invasion with liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Generally, SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver was caused by blood circulation or retrograde infection of the digestive tract, which led to the liver injury through direct cytopathic effect induced by virus or immunopathological effect caused by excessive inflammation. Besides these, hypoxia, endothelial injury and drug-induced jury were also the main reasons of liver injury in COVID-19 patients. In the liver function indicators, elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels with reduced albumin levels were observed in COVID-19 patients.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332737

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak in China in 2019, the pandemic has spread globally. There is no definitive cure but vaccines have greatly protected human from symptomatic infections and severe complications. However, vaccine efficacy has been greatly reduced by the advent of SARS-CoV-2 variants worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) has classified the variants into 2 groups: Variant of Concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron) and Variant of Interest (Lambda, Mu). Clinical trials and modifications of vaccines are currently undertaken to improve their clinical efficacies. This is particularly worrying in immunocompromised patients since breakthrough infections with multiple lineages of variants can pose a continuous threat of severe diseases in these vulnerable subjects, though there is no evidence showing immunocompromised patients are at a higher risk of vaccine-associated adverse events. However, there is no consensus on the schedule, benefits and risks as well as contraindications (both absolute and relative) of receiving booster vaccinations. This review looks into the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccination booster to guide clinical decisions on when and who to receive booster vaccination.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760307

ABSTRACT

Infection of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, brings public health issues and causes economic burden. Pathogenic bacteria develop several methods to resist antibiotic killing or inhibition, such as mutation of antibiotic function sites, activation of drug efflux pumps, and enzyme-mediated drug degradation. Antibiotic resistance components can be transferred between bacteria by mobile genetic elements including plasmids, transposons, and integrons, as well as bacteriophages. The development of antibiotic resistance limits the treatment options for bacterial infection, especially for MDR bacteria. Therefore, novel or alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) display multiple killing mechanisms against bacterial infections, including directly bactericidal activity and immunomodulatory function, as potential alternatives to antibiotics. In this review, the development of antibiotic resistance, the killing mechanisms of AMPs, and especially, the design, optimization, and delivery of AMPs are reviewed. Strategies such as structural change, amino acid substitution, conjugation with cell-penetration peptide, terminal acetylation and amidation, and encapsulation with nanoparticles will improve the antimicrobial efficacy, reduce toxicity, and accomplish local delivery of AMPs. In addition, clinical trials in AMP studies or applications of AMPs within the last five years were summarized. Overall, AMPs display diverse mechanisms of action against infection of pathogenic bacteria, and future research studies and clinical investigations will accelerate AMP application.

5.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 362: 131765, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757833

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is one of the greatest threats to global human health. Point-of-care diagnostic tools for SARS-CoV-2 could facilitate rapid therapeutic intervention and mitigate transmission. In this work, we report CRISPR-Cas13a cascade-based viral RNA (Cas13C) assay for label-free and isothermal determination of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutations in clinical samples. Cas13a/crRNA was utilized to directly recognize the target of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the recognition events sequentially initiate the transcription amplification to produce light-up RNA aptamers for output fluorescence signal. The recognition of viral RNA via Cas13a-guide RNA ensures a high specificity to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, as well as viral mutations. A post transcription amplification strategy was triggered after CRISPR-Cas13a recognition contributes to an amplification cascade that achieves high sensitivity for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with a limit of detection of 0.216 fM. In addition, the Cas13C assay could be able to discriminate single-nucleotide mutation, which was proven with N501Y in SARS-Cov-2 variant. This method was validated by a 100% agreement with RT-qPCR results from 12 clinical throat swab specimens. The Cas13C assay has the potential to be used as a routine nucleic acid test of SARS-CoV-2 virus in resource-limited regions.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324487

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization characterized the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11. Many clinical trials on COVID-19 have been registered, and we aim to review the characteristics of the trials and provide guidance for future trials to avoid duplicated effort. Methods All the studies on COVID-19 registered before Mar 3, 2020 on eight registry platforms worldwide were searched and the data of design, participants, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and analyzed. The most promising trials were screened based on study design, rationale, and resource availability. Results 393 studies registered were identified until Mar 3 2020 and 380 (96.7%) studies were from mainland China, while 3 in Japan, 3 in France, 2 in the US, and 3 were international collaborative studies. 363 studies (92.4%) recruited participants from hospitals and 266 studies (67.7%) aimed at therapeutic effect, others were for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, etc. 202 studies (51.4%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The average sample size was 1061 and ranged from 8 to 150,000 per study. 177 out of 266 therapeutic studies (66.5% ) tested Western medicines including antiviral drugs (17.7%), stem cell and cord blood therapy (10.2%), chloroquine and derivatives (8.3%), 16 (6.0%) on Chinese medicines, and 73 (27.4%) on integrated therapy of Western and Chinese medicines. 14 Chinese medicines had its clear rationale for evaluation of therapeutic effects. 31 studies among 266 therapeutic studies (11.7%) used mortality as primary outcome, while the most designed secondary outcomes were symptoms and signs (47.0%). 106 studies (27.0%) were funded by the government, and 268 (68.2%) demonstrated ethical approval. 45.5% studies (179 out of 266) had not started recruiting till Mar 3. Eight RCTs were evaluated as the most promising trials. Conclusions Majority of the studies focused on assessing therapeutics for COVID-19 but inappropriate outcome setting, delayed recruitment and insufficient numbers of new cases in China implied many studies may fail to complete. Strategies and protocols of the studies with robust and rapid data sharing from international collaboration are warranted for emergency public health events, helping to accelerate priority setting for timely evidence-based decision-making.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324297

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China spreading rapidly worldwide. Over 100 countries have reported surpassing 100,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID- 19, and in which 2.1% were under aged 19 years. However, little is known about the imaging features about pediatric COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report two cases about COVID-19 involving the clinical data as well as chest images. Case presentation: Two pediatric patients admitted to hospital because of high fever or dry cough. Both children had been recent exposure to the COVID-19 confirmed patients of their family members. Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) test of these two patients’ sputum were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, and diagnosed as COVID-19 infection. Laboratory tests indicate normal white cell count (5.02 x10

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310867

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients are at increased risks of novelcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, surgical strategies for cancer patients with COVID-19 are generally suggested to be properly delayed. Case presentation: We presented a 69-year-old Chinese female colon cancer patientwith COVID-19, the first case accepted the surgical treatment during the epidemic season in China. Thepatient developed a fever on January 28, 2020. After treatments with Ceftriaxone and Abidol, her fever was not reduced yet. A repeat chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed the infectious lesions significantly exacerbated, with a positive result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. An abdomen CT scan indicated the tumor of ascending colon with local wrapped changes. She was diagnosed with ‘Severe novel coronavirus pneumonia’ and ‘Incomplete bowel obstruction: Colon cancer?’. After actively anti-inflammatory and anti-viral therapies, aright colectomy with lymph node dissection was performed on March 11. The pathological changes of tissue specimens were further investigated.The patient successfully recovered from COVID-19 and surgery, without any postoperative related complications, and was discharged on the 9th day after operation. No case of surgeon, nurse or anesthetist in our team infected by SARS-CoV-2 occurred. Microscopically, significant degeneration, necrosis and slough of focal intestinal and colonic mucosal epithelial cells were observed. Conclusions: : It is meaningful and imperative to share our experience to protect health care personnel from SARS-CoV-2infection and to provide references for optimizing treatment of cancer patient, at least for the operative intervention absolutely necessary or emergency surgery,during the outbreak of COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315937

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January 2020, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been fully and deeply involved in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. An increasing number of clinical trials has been registered to evaluate the effects of TCM in the prevention and therapeutic management of COVID-19. Objective: This study aims to review the existing TCM registered trials, identify promising and available TCM therapies, in order to provide reference for the global management of COVID-19. Methods: : All clinical trials on TCM for COVID-19 registered in eight registry platforms worldwide were searched up to May 14, 2020. The data of registration trend, design, objective, interventions, current status, and relevant information were reviewed and summarized. Supportive information on the progress, results and potential value of the included registered trials were searched and reviewed from databases and official websites. Results: : 161 TCM trials registered in three registries from January 26 to May 14 were included. 94 (58.4%) were randomized controlled trials, followed by controlled clinical trials (25, 15.5%), single-arm clinical studies (18, 11.2%) and others (24, 14.9%). 114 trials (70.8%) assessed therapeutic effects;while the remaining were for prevention, rehabilitation, and TCM syndrome epidemiology. The three most evaluated TCM interventions were Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the preparation forms of formulae decoction/granule (41.7%), Chinese patent medicine (24.8%) and Chinese herbal-derived injections (8.1%). The common outcomes in therapeutic trials were symptoms and signs (65.8%), time to viral clearance on PCR (50.9%), and improvement in CT images (43.9%). 78 trials (48.4%) had started recruiting and six trials (3.7%) had completed recruiting. Among the TCM interventions identified from the registered trials, the following are worthy of attention and may have the potential feasibility of being evaluated and then used worldwide due to their rigorous design, previous evidence and availability: for prevention in high-risk populations or suspected cases, moxibustion, Huoxiang Zhengqi pill and Jinye Baidu granule could be considered;for treatment, Qingfei Paidu decoction or granules in mild, moderate and severe cases, Huashi Baidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen caplsule, Toujie Quwen granule and Xiyanping injection in mild and moderate cases, and Xuebijing injection in severe cases could be considered. For rehabilitation of cured patients, the effect of Tai Chi and Liuzijue on the patients’ lung function and quality of life deserves attention. Conclusion: A series of promising potentially effective TCM interventions including CHM formulae, Chinese patent medicines, herbal-derived injections and non-drug therapies have been identified in clinical practice and are being evaluated by registered clinical trials. Available and applicable interventions within relevant trials are worthy of worldwide attention and application, in order to contribute to the global management of COVID-19 epidemic.

10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(3): e302-e303, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672450

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We presented here a 71-year-old man with a history of thyroid cancer post total thyroidectomy and 131I ablation and right renal cell carcinoma post right partial nephrectomy. He reported persistent chest tightness and pain after the first dose of the Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine. Thus, coronary heart disease was suspected, and the patient was referred for MPI (myocardial perfusion imaging). Focal 201Tl uptake in the left axillary region was found incidentally on MPI, and SPECT/CT revealed enlarged benign-looking lymph nodes. The diagnostic is in favor of reactive hyperplasia after the intramuscular injection of vaccine into left deltoid muscle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Incidental Findings , Iodine Radioisotopes , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thallium Radioisotopes , Vaccination
11.
J Loss Prev Process Ind ; 76: 104746, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652634
12.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1172, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1648330

ABSTRACT

To promote the United Nations’Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), public awareness of the importance and urgency of sustainable development should be raised by providing relevant education programs. Although game-based learning has been confirmed to be one of the most effective routes to deepen public understanding of the SDGs and sustainable development in general, games for comprehensive sustainable development-based courses have yet to be popularized. Thus, we developed a game-based learning approach that delivers comprehensive conceptual information on SDGs. Based on Kolb’s theory of experiential learning, students understood the relevance of the SDGs by playing a board game designed to simulate the real world, including national and international policies. Furthermore, considering the suspension of in-person learning and shifts to digital instruction caused by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a digital version of the board game was created to compare the effects of digital and non-digital game-based learning. A comprehensive sustainable development evaluation questionnaire was developed and optimized using the fuzzy Delphi method to assess the participants’knowledge of and attitudes toward the SDGs. Our results reveal that the digital and non-digital board game both improve students’knowledge and attitude toward sustainable development. However, the digital board game was more effective than the non-digital board game.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 765106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593805

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) comprises more than just severe acute respiratory syndrome. It also interacts with the cardiovascular, nervous, renal, and immune systems at multiple levels, increasing morbidity in patients with underlying cardiometabolic conditions and inducing myocardial injury or dysfunction. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS), which is derived from auricular acupuncture, has become a popular therapy that is increasingly accessible to the general public in modern China. Here, we begin by outlining the historical background of taVNS, and then describe important links between dysfunction in proinflammatory cytokine release and related multiorgan damage in COVID-19. Furthermore, we emphasize the important relationships between proinflammatory cytokines and depressive symptoms. Finally, we discuss how taVNS improves immune function via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and modulates brain circuits via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, making taVNS an important treatment for depressive symptoms on post-COVID-19 sequelae. Our review suggests that the link between anti-inflammatory processes and brain circuits could be a potential target for treating COVID-19-related multiorgan damage, as well as depressive symptoms using taVNS.

14.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin ; 30(11A):12224, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1565059

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of albuvir-tide (ABT) in the treatment of patients with Corona-virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study was conducted in 22 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infections in the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu from February to April, 2020. All patients intravenously received 320 mg of ABT on Day 1, 2, 3, 8 in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was a coronavirus-negative result and the pneumonia was alleviated in patients. It showed that the average age of the patients was 48.2 ± 18.0 years old, and 10 of them (45.5%) were male. The most common symptoms were cough (81.8%), expectoration (72.7%o), fever (27.3%), while no abnormal blood cell count was observed among these patients. The CT examination showed that 6 patients (27.3%) with unilateral pneumonia and 15 of them (68.2%) with bilateral pneumonia, confirmed by massive patchy shadows and ground glass opacities within patient lungs. After the ABT treatment, the cough, expectoration and fever were relieved by 33.3%, 43.8% and 100%, respectively. The mean body temperature recovery time was 2.5 days (range, 1-4 days). The alleviated pneumonia was seen in 14 patients (63.6%) by CT scanning after day 8. Based on nasopharyngeal sampling, the COVID-19 RNA was negatively detected in 14 of 22 patients after 8 days of ABT treatment. Meanwhile, no obvious adverse events occurred during and after treatment. The results showed that ABT presents a favorable clinical response in patients infected with COVID-19.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 733274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518492

ABSTRACT

The prognostic role and diagnostic ability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease indicators are not elucidated, thus, the current study aimed to investigate the prognostic role and diagnostic ability of several COVID-19 disease indicators including the levels of oxygen saturation, leukocytes, lymphocytes, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and D-dimer in patients with COVID-19. The levels of oxygen saturation, lymphocytes, and albumin were significantly higher in the common and severe clinical type patients compared with those in critical type patients. However, levels of leukocytes, CRP, IL-6, and D-dimer were significantly lower in the common and severe type patients compared with those in critical type patients (P < 0.001). Moreover, the current study demonstrated that the seven indicators have good diagnostic and prognostic powers in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, a two-indicator (CRP and D-dimer) prognostic signature in training and testing datasets was constructed and validated to better understand the prognostic role of the indicators in COVID-19 patients. The patients were classified into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the median-risk scores. The findings of the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis indicated a significant divergence between the high-risk and low-risk groups. The findings of the receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis indicated the good performance of the signature in the prognosis prediction of COVID-19. In addition, a nomogram was constructed to assist clinicians in developing clinical decision-making for COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, the findings of the current study demonstrated that the seven indicators are potential diagnostic markers for COVID-19 and a two-indicator prognostic signature identification may improve clinical management for COVID-19 patients.

16.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(3): 286-287, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477745

ABSTRACT

In this report, we present 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of reactive left axillary and supraclavicular hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy, as well as ipsilateral deltoid muscle injection site radiotracer uptake, related to recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in a patient with osteosarcoma. With the growing number of patients receiving COVID-19 vaccine, recognition of benign characteristic 18F-FDG PET/CT image findings will ensure staging and restaging accuracy and avoid unnecessary biopsy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463866

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the global challenge. Reaching global herd immunity will help end the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccine shortage and vaccine hesitancy are the obstacles to achieve global herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2. The current homologous vaccine regimen is experimentally switching to heterologous vaccination at several study sites. However, the reactogenicity of heterologous ChAdOx1-S and mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear. We have conducted a systematic review to summarize the current findings on the safety and immunogenicity of this heterologous vaccination and elucidate their implications against SARS-CoV-2. This systematic review was conducted by the guidelines of PRISMA. Articles were searched from PubMed and other sources (MedRixv and Google scholar) starting from 1 January to 5 September 2021. The search term was heterologous ChAdOx1-S and BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccination. Our review found that participants with ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/ChAdOx1-S did not have the serious adverse events seen with homologous vaccination. Participants with the heterologous regimen (ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/ChAdOx1-S), compared with those with two doses of ChAdOx1-S, have shown a more robust immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, such as higher levels of responsive antibodies or increased numbers of spike-specific T-cells. Nevertheless, these immune responses were slightly diminished in the recipients of BNT162b2/ChAdOx1-S. Also, the safety study of heterologous ChAdOx1-S/mRNA vaccination was based on small populations. Further studies to enclose diverse categories, such as race/ethnicity or geography, may be necessary. Overall, the heterologous immunization with ChAdOX1-S and the mRNA vaccine may improve the vaccine shortage related slow pace of reaching herd immunity, especially using the heterologous immunization with ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444341

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been spreading worldwide since late 2019. There is no definitive cure to date. Global vaccination programs are urgently required to confer herd immunity, reducing the incidence of COVID-19 infections and associated morbidity and mortality. However, a significant proportion of special populations are hesitant to receive vaccination due to their special conditions, namely, age (pediatrics and geriatrics), immunocompromised state, autoimmune diseases, chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions, active or treated cancers, and pregnancy. This review aims to evaluate the existing evidence of COVID-19 vaccinations on these special populations and to provide clues to guide vaccination decision making to balance the benefits and risks of vaccinations.

20.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(34): 645-650, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355404

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, while the profile of antibody response against the COVID-19 virus has not been well clarified. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: In this study, 210 serum samples from 160 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities were recruited. The IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against COVID-19 virus were determined. Our findings indicated that four antibodies could be detectable at low levels within 2 weeks of disease onset, then rapidly increasing and peaking from the 3rd to 5th Weeks. NAb decreased between 5th and 9th Weeks, and a higher IgM/IgA level was observed in the groups with mild/moderate severity within 2 weeks (p<0.05), while all 4 types of antibodies were higher in the group with severe/critical severity after 4 weeks (p<0.05). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Our study on the dynamics of serological antibody responses against COVID-19 virus among COVID-19 patients complements the recognition regarding the humoral immune response to COVID-19 virus infection. The findings will help in the interpretation of antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and be beneficial for the evaluation of vaccination effects.

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