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World J Clin Cases ; 11(1): 73-83, 2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231114


An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally, with over 500 million cases and 6 million deaths to date. COVID-19 is associated with a systemic inflammatory response and abnormalities of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is also involved in inflammatory storms. Upon viral infection, ECM proteins are involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and interference with target organ metabolism, including in the lungs. Additionally, serum biomarkers of ECM turnover are associated with the severity of COVID-19 and may serve as potential targets. Consequently, understanding the expression and function of ECM, particularly of the lung, during severe acute respiratory syndrome of the coronavirus 2 infection would provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of COVID-19 progression. In this review, we summarize the current findings on ECM, such as hyaluronic acid, matrix metalloproteinases, and collagen, which are linked to the severity and inflammation of COVID-19. Some drugs targeting the extracellular surface have been effective. In the future, these ECM findings could provide novel perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.

J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520952256, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760417


Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, an epidemic has spread rapidly worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. A 42-year-old woman presented to hospital who was suffering from epigastric discomfort and dyspepsia for the past 5 days. Before the onset of symptoms, she was healthy, and had no travel history to Wuhan or contact with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. An examination showed chronic superficial gastritis with erosion and esophagitis. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a lesion in the right lower lobe of the lungs. Chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacity in the lungs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. There was no improvement after antibiotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction performed 2 days later was positive and she was diagnosed with COVID-19. After several days of antiviral and symptomatic treatments, her symptoms improved and she was discharged. None of the medical staff were infected. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are nonspecific, making differentiating it from other diseases difficult. This case shows the sequence in which symptoms developed in a patient with COVID-19 with gastrointestinal symptoms as initial manifestations.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2