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2.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003505

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare condition often triggered by infection and characterized by febrile prodromal illness, seizures, altered mental status and bilateral brain lesions. While many cases are isolated, a recurrent familial pattern has been linked to missense mutation of the gene encoding RAN binding protein 2 (RANBP2). Early administration of high dose steroids has been associated with improved outcomes, while IVIG and tocilizumab have also shown benefit. Case Description: A two-year-old male presented with vomiting, somnolence and seizure-like activity. Evaluation revealed positive SARS-CoV2, adenovirus and rhinovirus/enterovirus PCR by nasopharyngeal swab, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM. MRI showed numerous foci of restricted diffusion and microhemorrhage as well as necrotic change in the internal capsules. He was diagnosed with ANE. He recovered to neurologic baseline following treatment with IVIG and corticosteroids. After six months, the patient presented with similar symptoms. SARS-CoV2 IgG was positive, but no new infectious pathogens were identified. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels, suggestive of inflammatory breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Brain MRI demonstrated worsened bilateral T2/fluid attenuated inversion reduction signal abnormalities and necrosis within the midbrain and pons bilaterally, concerning for recurrent ANE. Following multidisciplinary consultation, the patient was treated with corticosteroids and IVIG. Tocilizumab was later added due to elevated CSF IL-6. Worsening MRI findings (Figure 1) coupled with decrease in strength and spontaneous movement prompted plasma exchange (PLEX) therapy. While his exam improved after PLEX, treatment was discontinued due to development of a pericardial effusion. The patient steadily improved neurologically and was transitioned to inpatient rehabilitation with an ongoing steroid taper, monthly IVIG, and tocilizumab therapy. Given recurrence of ANE, an epilepsy genetic sequencing panel was ordered and revealed heterozygous mutation in RANBP2 (c.1966A>G p.Ile656Val). Discussion: During the patient's initial presentation, it was reasonable to conclude an infectious trigger for ANE given the presence of several potential inciting pathogens. Upon recurrence, investigation of underlying genetic predisposition was warranted. This patient exhibited the classic clinical and radiographic findings of recurrent ANE and was found to have RANBP2 mutation. Available literature suggests pathogenicity of the same mutation identified in this case due to its location in a highly conserved genetic region and its presence in affected members of a family with ANE. To our knowledge, this is the second report of this specific RANBP2 mutation in association with ANE. Conclusion: While ANE may present as a singular event following infection, recurrence is rare and should prompt evaluation of underlying genetic predisposition. Consideration of familial ANE with testing for RANBP2 mutation may lead to early genetic counseling. Our case also provides additional support for the pathogenicity of the RANBP2 (p.Ile656Val) mutation. (Figure Presented).

3.
QJM ; 115(9): 605-609, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors associated with depression in residents in the post-epidemic era of COVID-19. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among community residents through self-designed questionnaires and self-rating depression scale (SDS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the influencing factors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1993 residues completed the survey of depression status. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 27.04%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female (odds ratio (OR): 6.239, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.743-10.698), body mass index (BMI) > 24 (OR: 2.684, 95% CI: 1.059-3.759) and drinking (OR: 1.730, 95% CI: 1.480-3.153) were the risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. Married (OR: 0.417, 95% CI: 0.240-0.652), monthly income (3001-5000 yuan, OR: 0.624, 95% CI: 0.280-0.756; >5000 yuan, OR: 0.348, 95% CI: 0.117-0.625), ordinary residents (OR: 0.722, 95% CI: 0.248-0.924) and urban residents (OR: 0.655, 95% CI: 0.394-0.829) were the protective factors of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Under the post-epidemic era of COVID-19, depressive symptoms are still common among community residents in China. Gender, BMI, drinking, marriage, monthly income and nature of personnel and residential area are associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Stud Mycol ; 101: 417-564, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902874

ABSTRACT

This paper is the fourth contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information about the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms, as well as DNA barcodes for the taxa covered. Moreover, 12 whole-genome sequences for the type or new species in the treated genera are provided. The fourth paper in the GOPHY series covers 19 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives, including Ascochyta, Cadophora, Celoporthe, Cercospora, Coleophoma, Cytospora, Dendrostoma, Didymella, Endothia, Heterophaeomoniella, Leptosphaerulina, Melampsora, Nigrospora, Pezicula, Phaeomoniella, Pseudocercospora, Pteridopassalora, Zymoseptoria, and one genus of oomycetes, Phytophthora. This study includes two new genera, 30 new species, five new combinations, and 43 typifications of older names. Taxonomic novelties: New genera: Heterophaeomoniella L. Mostert, C.F.J. Spies, Halleen & Gramaje, Pteridopassalora C. Nakash. & Crous; New species: Ascochyta flava Qian Chen & L. Cai, Cadophora domestica L. Mostert, R. van der Merwe, Halleen & Gramaje, Cadophora rotunda L. Mostert, R. van der Merwe, Halleen & Gramaje, Cadophora vinacea J.R. Úrbez-Torres, D.T. O'Gorman & Gramaje, Cadophora vivarii L. Mostert, Havenga, Halleen & Gramaje, Celoporthe foliorum H. Suzuki, Marinc. & M.J. Wingf., Cercospora alyssopsidis M. Bakhshi, Zare & Crous, Dendrostoma elaeocarpi C.M. Tian & Q. Yang, Didymella chlamydospora Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella gei Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella ligulariae Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella qilianensis Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella uniseptata Qian Chen & L. Cai, Endothia cerciana W. Wang. & S.F. Chen, Leptosphaerulina miscanthi Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora covidalis M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora globospora M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora philosophiae-doctoris M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Phytophthora transitoria I. Milenkovic, T. Májek & T. Jung, Phytophthora panamensis T. Jung, Y. Balci, K. Broders & I. Milenkovic, Phytophthora variabilis T. Jung, M. Horta Jung & I. Milenkovic, Pseudocercospora delonicicola C. Nakash., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora farfugii C. Nakash., I. Araki, & Ai Ito, Pseudocercospora hardenbergiae Crous & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora kenyirana C. Nakash., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora perrottetiae Crous, C. Nakash. & C.Y. Chen, Pseudocercospora platyceriicola C. Nakash., Y. Hatt, L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora stemonicola C. Nakash., Y. Hatt., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora terengganuensis C. Nakash., Y. Hatt., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora xenopunicae Crous & C. Nakash.; New combinations: Heterophaeomoniella pinifoliorum (Hyang B. Lee et al.) L. Mostert, C.F.J. Spies, Halleen & Gramaje, Pseudocercospora pruni-grayanae (Sawada) C. Nakash. & Motohashi., Pseudocercospora togashiana (K. Ito & Tak. Kobay.) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pteridopassalora nephrolepidicola (Crous & R.G. Shivas) C. Nakash. & Crous, Pteridopassalora lygodii (Goh & W.H. Hsieh) C. Nakash. & Crous; Typification: Epitypification: Botrytis infestans Mont., Cercospora abeliae Katsuki, Cercospora ceratoniae Pat. & Trab., Cercospora cladrastidis Jacz., Cercospora cryptomeriicola Sawada, Cercospora dalbergiae S.H. Sun, Cercospora ebulicola W. Yamam., Cercospora formosana W. Yamam., Cercospora fukuii W. Yamam., Cercospora glochidionis Sawada, Cercospora ixorana J.M. Yen & Lim, Cercospora liquidambaricola J.M. Yen, Cercospora pancratii Ellis & Everh., Cercospora pini-densiflorae Hori & Nambu, Cercospora profusa Syd. & P. Syd., Cercospora pyracanthae Katsuki, Cercospora horiana Togashi & Katsuki, Cercospora tabernaemontanae Syd. & P. Syd., Cercospora trinidadensis F. Stevens & Solheim, Melampsora laricis-urbanianae Tak. Matsumoto, Melampsora salicis-cupularis Wang, Phaeoisariopsis pruni-grayanae Sawada, Pseudocercospora angiopteridis Goh & W.H. Hsieh, Pseudocercospora basitruncata Crous, Pseudocercospora boehmeriigena U. Braun, Pseudocercospora coprosmae U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Pseudocercospora cratevicola C. Nakash. & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora cymbidiicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Pseudocercospora dodonaeae Boesew., Pseudocercospora euphorbiacearum U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lygodii Goh & W.H. Hsieh, Pseudocercospora metrosideri U. Braun, Pseudocercospora paraexosporioides C. Nakash. & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora symploci Katsuki & Tak. Kobay. ex U. Braun & Crous, Septogloeum punctatum Wakef.; Neotypification: Cercospora aleuritis I. Miyake; Lectotypification: Cercospora dalbergiae S.H. Sun, Cercospora formosana W. Yamam., Cercospora fukuii W. Yamam., Cercospora glochidionis Sawada, Cercospora profusa Syd. & P. Syd., Melampsora laricis-urbanianae Tak. Matsumoto, Phaeoisariopsis pruni-grayanae Sawada, Pseudocercospora symploci Katsuki & Tak. Kobay. ex U. Braun & Crous. Citation: Chen Q, Bakhshi M, Balci Y, Broders KD, Cheewangkoon R, Chen SF, Fan XL, Gramaje D, Halleen F, Horta Jung M, Jiang N, Jung T, Májek T, Marincowitz S, Milenkovic T, Mostert L, Nakashima C, Nurul Faziha I, Pan M, Raza M, Scanu B, Spies CFJ, Suhaizan L, Suzuki H, Tian CM, Tomsovský M, Úrbez-Torres JR, Wang W, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Yang Q, Yang X, Zare R, Zhao P, Groenewald JZ, Cai L, Crous PW (2022). Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 4. Studies in Mycology 101: 417-564. doi: 10.3114/sim.2022.101.06.

5.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI 2021 ; 18:16004-16006, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857051

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate a health-friendly speaker verification system for voice-based identity verification on mobile devices. The system is built upon a speech processing module, a ResNet-based local acoustic feature extractor and a multi-head attention-based embedding layer, and is optimized under an additive margin softmax loss for discriminative speaker verification. It is shown that the system achieves superior performance no matter whether there is mask wearing or not. This characteristic is important for speaker verification services operating in regions affected by the raging coronavirus pneumonia. With this demonstration, the audience will have an in-depth experience of how the accuracy of bio-metric verification and the personal health are simultaneously ensured. We wish that this demonstration would boost the development of next-generation bio-metric verification technologies. Copyright © 2021, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved

7.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-335867

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the most consequential pandemics in the last century, yet the biological mechanisms that confer disease risk are incompletely understood. Further, heterogeneity in disease outcomes is influenced by race, though the relative contributions of structural/social and genetic factors remain unclear. Very recent unpublished work has identified two genetic risk loci that confer greater risk for respiratory failure in COVID-19: the ABO locus and the 3p21.31 locus. To understand how these loci might confer risk and whether this differs by race, we utilized proteomic profiling and genetic information from three cohorts including black and white participants to identify proteins influenced by these loci. We observed that variants in the ABO locus are associated with levels of CD209/DC-SIGN, a known binding protein for SARS-CoV and other viruses, as well as multiple inflammatory and thrombotic proteins, while the 3p21.31 locus is associated with levels of CXCL16, a known inflammatory chemokine. Thus, integration of genetic information and proteomic profiling in biracial cohorts highlights putative mechanisms for genetic risk in COVID-19 disease.

8.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335138

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to represent a global health emergency as a highly transmissible, airborne virus. An important coronaviral drug target for treatment of COVID-19 is the conserved main protease (Mpro). Nirmatrelvir is a potent Mproinhibitor and the antiviral component of Paxlovid™. The significant viral sequencing effort during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic represented a unique opportunity to assess potential nirmatrelvir escape mutations from emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2. To establish the baseline mutational landscape of Mproprior to the introduction of Mproinhibitors, Mprosequences and its cleavage junction regions were retrieved from ∼4,892,000 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomes in GISAID. Any mutations identified from comparison to the reference sequence (Wuhan-hu-1) were cataloged and analyzed. Mutations at sites key to nirmatrelvir binding and protease functionality (e.g., dimerization sites) were still rare. Structural comparison of Mproalso showed conservation of key nirmatrelvir contact residues across the extended Coronaviridae family (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-coronaviruses). Additionally, we showed that over time the SARS-CoV-2 Mproenzyme remained under purifying selection and was highly conserved relative to the spike protein. Now, with the EUA approval of Paxlovid and its expected widespread use across the globe, it is essential to continue large-scale genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Mproevolution. This study establishes a robust analysis framework for monitoring emergent mutations in millions of virus isolates, with the goal of identifying potential resistance to present and future SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.

9.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1724020

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common medical complication following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Studies have suggested that VTE rates were higher among patients with a history of COVID-19. We examined the risk of VTE in AIS patients with and without a history of COVID-19 among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: We identified Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries aged ≥65 years with AIS hospitalizations from 04/01/2020 to 06/30/2021. COVID-19 cases were identified by the first diagnosis of COVID-19 on a claim at any health care setting. We defined AIS with COVID-19 if the dates of COVID-19 diagnoses were earlier than AIS admission dates. To identify VTE for each AIS admission, we used the following secondary diagnoses codes: ICD-CM-10: I80, I81, I82, I26. We compared the prevalence ratio (PR) of VTE between AIS patients with and without a history of COVID-19. Results: Among 178,830 Medicare FFS beneficiaries with AIS admissions, 6.1% had a history of COVID-19 and 2.6% had VTE as a complication. VTE prevalence among AIS patients with a history of COVID-19 was 3.98% (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.62-4.36%) and 2.53% (95% CI, 2.46- 2.61%) among patients without a history of COVID-19. The adjusted PR of VTE was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.40-1.70, p<0.001) comparing AIS admissions with a history of COVID-19 and those without a history of COVID-19. Non-Hispanic Black patients had the highest VTE prevalence, 6.14% among those with a history of COVID-19 and 3.89% among those without a history of Covid-19, as compared to other race/ethnicity groups. Both Non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black patients with a history of COVID-19 had >50% increased risk of VTE than those without a history of COVID-19 (Adjusted PR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.42-1.78 for Non-Hispanic White, 1.58, 95% CI, 1.28-1.94 for Non-Hispanic Black, p<0.001). Conclusion: AIS patients with a history of COVID-19 had an increased risk of VTE compared with patients without COVID-19. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the increased risks of VTE among AIS patients with COVID-19 and implement protocols for early VTE prevention.

10.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1723999

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Findings of association between COVID-19 and stroke remain inconsistent, ranging from significant association, absence of association to less than expected ischemic stroke among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The present study examined the association between COVID19 and risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: We included 19,553 Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries aged ≥65 years diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 1 and November 30, 2020 and AIS hospitalization from January 1, 2019 through November 30, 2020. We used a self-controlled case series design to examine the association between COVID-19 and AIS and estimated the incident rate ratios (IRR) by comparing incidence of AIS in risk periods (0-3, 4-7, 8-14, 15-28 days after diagnosis of COVID-19) vs. control periods. Results: Among 19,553 Medicare FFS beneficiaries with COVID-19 and AIS, the median age at diagnosis of COVID-19 was 80.5 (interquartile range 73.6-87.3) years and 57.5% were women. IRRs at 0-3, 4-7, 8-14, and 15-28 days following COVID-19 diagnosis were 10.97 (95% confidence interval 10.30-11.68), 1.59 (1.35-1.87), 1.23 (1.07-1.41), and 1.06 (0.95-1.18), respectively. The association appeared to be stronger among younger beneficiaries and among beneficiaries without prior history of stroke but largely consistent across sex and race/ethnicities. Conclusions: Risk of AIS among Medicare FFS beneficiaries was ten times as high during the first 3 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 as during the control period and the risk associated with COVID-19 appeared to be stronger among those aged 65-74 years and those without prior history of stroke.

11.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326965

ABSTRACT

A new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage, B.1.1.529, was recently detected in Botswana and South Africa and is now circulating globally. Just two days after it was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), this strain was classified as a variant of concern (VOC) and named Omicron. Omicron has an unusually large number of mutations, including up to 39 amino acid modifications in the spike (S) protein, raising concerns that its recognition by neutralizing antibodies from convalescent and vaccinated individuals may be severely compromised. In this study, we tested pseudoviruses carrying the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of either the Wuhan reference strain, the Beta, the Delta or the Omicron variants of concern with sera of 51 participants that received two doses or a third dose (≥6 months after dose 2) of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2. Immune sera from individuals who received two doses of BNT162b2 had more than 22-fold reduced neutralizing titers against the Omicron as compared to the Wuhan pseudovirus. One month after a third dose of BNT162b2, the neutralization titer against Omicron was increased 23-fold compared to two doses and antibody titers were similar to those observed against the Wuhan pseudovirus after two doses of BNT162b2. These data suggest that a third dose of BNT162b2 may protect against Omicron-mediated COVID-19, but further analyses of longer-term antibody persistence and real-world effectiveness data are needed.

12.
Chemical Senses ; 46, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1665919

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is assumed to spread through exhaled respiratory droplets and aerosols, but very little research has directly measured the virus in exhaled breath, and our understanding of the relationship between olfactory symptoms of COVID-19 and infectious shedding of the virus is limited. Whether there is any relationship between olfactory dysfunction and viral shedding in nasal exhalate is unknown. Here, we developed a device and a method for collecting and quantifying SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the exhaled breath condensate of COVID-19 patients. Our device is portable, inexpensive and simple enough to use that breath samples can be self-collected by patients in their homes. It has configurations for both oral and nasal breath collection, allowing for comparison of viral loads across the two breathing routes. This device can be used to determine whether there is a difference between oral and nasal shedding of the virus on breath, and to determine whether viral shedding on nasal or oral breath is related to chemosensory symptoms.

13.
Obesity ; 29(SUPPL 2):78-79, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1616057

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is considered a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness. Thus, individuals with obesity may be especially motivated to lose weight because of COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess COVID-related motivators to lose weight and whether they predict weight loss. Methods: In this prospective study, 530 new users of a digital commercial weight loss program completed a baseline survey in January 2021 assessing overall motivation to lose weight due to COVID (one item: 'how much of your interest in losing weight is because of COVID-19 or its impact, however minor, on your life?'), and three specific COVID motivators. These specific motivators were measured by the validated Fear of COVID-19 scale (F-C), one item assessing motivation to improve eating habits which got worse during COVID-19 (EH-C), and one item assessing motivation to prevent diseases that could increase COVID-19 risk (D-C). The main outcome was weight loss at 2 months, extracted from self-reported weight on the program. Results: Participants were 84% female, had a median age of 46, mean baseline BMI of 32.12 (SD = 6.96), and lost 3.13kg (3.49%) at 2 months (SD = 2.72kg). Overall COVID motivation was high;66% reported that their interest in losing weight was due to COVID. There was high F-C (M = 25.2 out of 35) and EH-C (M = 7.7 out of 10), and moderate D-C (M = 5.4 out of 10). Despite high COVID-related motivation, overall motivation, F-C, and EH-C did not predict weight loss at 2 months. D-C marginally significantly predicted weight loss at 2 months (B = -. 09, p = .06). Conclusions: Results suggest that even though individuals showed initial high motivation due to COVID, it did not manifest in actual weight loss, except in the most at-risk individuals who sought to prevent diseases that put them at greater risk. Individuals may need support to translate initial COVID-related motivation to actual weight loss. Next, we will examine relationships between COVID motivators, vaccination status, and weight loss at 4 months.

14.
Qiangjiguang Yu Lizishu/High Power Laser and Particle Beams ; 33(11), 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1600028

ABSTRACT

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has been widely used in viral molecular detection due to its high sensitivity, simple operation and rapid detection. The research of virus detection by Raman technology at home and abroad mainly focuses on the detection of the SERS spectrum of viral nucleic acids and various bases that make up the nucleic acids, and detection of viral proteins is rare. In this paper, the S protein of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is used as the detection object, and with the label-free SERS detection method, the ordinary Raman spectra of solid and saturated liquid S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 and the SERS spectra of the low-concentration S protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the substrate of gold nanoparticles with a size of 40 nm are compared. The results show that it is completely feasible to use SERS technology to detect the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the substrate of 40 nm gold nanoparticles. The carboxyl groups in the S protein molecule of SARS-CoV-2 and gold nanoparticles are molecularly enhanced, and the amino groups and gold nanoparticles are electromagnetically enhanced, so that the Raman effect of the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 is enhanced and the peak position is moved to a certain extent. The experiments obtained relatively good SERS spectra of the low-concentration S protein of SARS-CoV-2, which provides a method for the establishment of a sensitive, specific and rapid detection technology for the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2. © 2021, Editorial Office of High Power Laser and Particle Beams. All right reserved.

15.
Chemical Senses ; 46:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576456
17.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 21(9):1055-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527004

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the efficacy of treatments for β-coronaviruses. Methods PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI and WanFang Data databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) of treatments for β-coronaviruses from inception to June 17th, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed using Stata 14.0 software. Results A total of 109 studies invoving 23 210 patients were included. The results of the systematic review showed that compared with standard of care, corticosteroids could reduce mortality and increase cure rate for COVID-19. However, chloroquine could decrease cure rate. In severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients, corticosteroids could decrease the cure rate. In Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) patients, ribavirin/interferon/both drugs showed higher mortality. Conclusions The currently limited evidence shows that corticosteroids may be effective to COVID-19 patients while having limited effects on SARS patients. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine may have negative effects on COVID-19 patients. Ribavirin/interferon may be harmful to MERS patients. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusions.

18.
Journal of Crohns & Colitis ; 15:S507-S507, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1510944
19.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:16004-16006, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436630

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate a health-friendly speaker verification system for voice-based identity verification on mobile devices. The system is built upon a speech processing module, a ResNet-based local acoustic feature extractor and a multi head attention-based embedding layer, and is optimized under an additive margin softmax loss for discriminative speaker verification. It is shown that the system achieves superior performance no matter whether there is mask wearing or not. This characteristic is important for speaker verification services operating in regions affected by the raging coronavirus pneumonia. With this demonstrationl, the audience will have an in-depth experience of how the accuracy of bio-metric verification and the personal health are simultaneously ensured. We wish that this demonstration would boost the development of next-generation bio-metric verification technologies.

20.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
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