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2.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1848-1856, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377034

ABSTRACT

Immune cell responses are strikingly altered in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the immunoregulatory process in these individuals is not fully understood. In this study, 23 patients with mild and 22 patients with severe COVID-19 and 6 asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 were enrolled, along with 44 healthy controls (HC). Peripheral immune cells in HC and patients with COVID-19 were comprehensively profiled using mass cytometry. We found that in patients with severe COVID-19, the number of HLA-DRlow/- monocytes was significantly increased, but that of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells was greatly reduced. MAIT cells were highly activated but functionally impaired in response to Escherichia coli and IL-12/IL-18 stimulation in patients with severe COVID-19, especially those with microbial coinfection. Single-cell transcriptome analysis revealed that IFN-stimulated genes were significantly upregulated in peripheral MAIT cells and monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. IFN-α pretreatment suppressed MAIT cells' response to E. coli by triggering high levels of IL-10 production by HLA-DRlow/--suppressive monocytes. Blocking IFN-α or IL-10 receptors rescued MAIT cell function in patients with severe COVID-19. Moreover, plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 inhibited HLA-DR expression by monocytes through IL-10. These data indicate a unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19, which is characterized by enrichment of suppressive HLA-DRlow/- monocytes associated with functional impairment of MAIT cells through the IFN/IL-10 pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Escherichia coli Infections/immunology , Escherichia coli/physiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Monocytes/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cells, Cultured , Child , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
China Tropical Medicine ; 21(2):166-168, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1190668

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze nucleic acid detection results of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' nasal swabs and sputum specimens, and we provide reference for clinical sampling methods.

4.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(3): 100061, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164618

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. Rapid and accurate detection of the causative virus SARS-CoV-2 is vital for the treatment and control of COVID-19. In this study, the comparative sensitivity of different respiratory specimen types were retrospectively analyzed using 3,552 clinical samples from 410 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Guangdong CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Except for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the sputum possessed the highest positive rate (73.4%-87.5%), followed by nasal swabs (53.1%-85.3%) for both severe and mild cases during the first 14 days after illness onset (d.a.o.). Viral RNA could be detected in all BALF samples collected from the severe group within 14 d.a.o. and lasted up to 46 d.a.o. Moreover, although viral RNA was negative in the upper respiratory samples, it was also positive in BALF samples in most cases from the severe group during treatment. Notably, no viral RNA was detected in BALF samples from the mild group. Despite typical ground-glass opacity observed via computed tomographic scans, no viral RNA was detected in the first three or all upper respiratory tract specimens from some COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, sputum is most sensitive for routine laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, followed by nasal swabs. Detection of viral RNA in BALF improves diagnostic accuracy in severe COVID-19 patients.

5.
Cell Discov ; 6: 73, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889178

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanism that leads to immune dysfunction in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial for the development of effective treatment. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found a close association of decreased dendritic cells (DCs) and increased monocytes resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which correlated with lymphopenia and inflammation in the blood of severe COVID-19 patients. Those MDSC-like monocytes were immune-paralyzed. In contrast, monocyte-macrophages in BALFs of COVID-19 patients produced massive amounts of cytokines and chemokines, but secreted little interferons. The frequencies of peripheral T cells and NK cells were significantly decreased in severe COVID-19 patients, especially for innate-like T and various CD8+ T cell subsets, compared to healthy controls. In contrast, the proportions of various activated CD4+ T cell subsets among the T cell compartment, including Th1, Th2, and Th17-like cells were increased and more clonally expanded in severe COVID-19 patients. Patients' peripheral T cells showed no sign of exhaustion or augmented cell death, whereas T cells in BALFs produced higher levels of IFNG, TNF, CCL4, CCL5, etc. Paired TCR tracking indicated abundant recruitment of peripheral T cells to the severe patients' lung. Together, this study comprehensively depicts how the immune cell landscape is perturbed in severe COVID-19.

6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(12): 2271-2277, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652076

ABSTRACT

We developed a chemiluminescence immunoassay method based on the recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and assessed its performance for the clinical diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infections by detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in patients. Full-length recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and tosyl magnetic beads were used to develop the chemiluminescence immunoassay approach. Plasmas from 29 healthy cohorts, 51 tuberculosis patients, and 79 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients were employed to evaluate the chemiluminescence immunoassay method performance for the clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. A commercial ELISA kit (Darui Biotech, China) using the same nucleocapsid antigen was used for the in-parallel comparison with our chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The IgM and IgG manner of testing in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 60.76% (95% CI 49.1 to 71.6) and 92.25% (95% CI 83.4 to 97.2) and 82.28% (95% CI 72.1 to 90.0) and 97.5% (95% CI 91.3 to 99.7), respectively. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method compared with the Darui Biotech ELISA kit. The developed high sensitivity and specificity chemiluminescence immunoassay IgG testing method combined with the RT-PCR approach can improve the clinical diagnosis for SARS-CoV-2 infections and thus contribute to the control of COVID-19 expansion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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