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1.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 85-96, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(1): 13-16, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847850

ABSTRACT

A previously unknown beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered from a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan since the end of 2019. Ever since the start of COVID-19, government administrations, academic institutions, and technology enterprises are under unprecedented cooperation in controlling this outbreak from pathogen identification, epidemic situation assessment, to outbreak containment. Timely identification, isolation, and whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 have laid the foundation for effective control of this novel infection. With the increasing case numbers worldwide, more real-time information is emerging, changing our understandings to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, and nonetheless refining the outbreak control responses. The efficient management of COVID-19 requires global collaboration and an efficient share of information.

4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-592

ABSTRACT

Background: 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is spreading in China and the disease was named as COVID-19, short for “coronavirus disease 2019”. However, other

5.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745023

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoprevention/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(3): 376-382, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631729

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics and chest CT findings of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH). Methods A total of 13 patients with COVID-19 confirmed at PUMCH from January 20 to February 6,2020 were selected as the research subjects.Their epidemiological histories,clinical characteristics,laboratory tests,and chest CT findings were analyzed retrospectively.The location,distribution,density,and other accompanying signs of abnormal lung CT lesions were recorded,and the clinical types of these patients were assessed. Results The clinical type was "common type" in all these 13 patients aged(46.8±14.7)years(range:27-68 years).Ten patients had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan,2 cases had recent travel histories,and 1 case had a travel history to Beijing suburb.The white blood cell(WBC)count was normal or decreased in 92.3% of the patients and the lymphocyte count decreased in 15.4% of the patients.Twelve patients(92.3%)had a fever,among whom 11 patients were admitted due to fever and 2 patients(15.4%)had low fever.Eight patients(61.5%)had dry cough.The CT findings in these 13 patients were all abnormal.The lesions were mainly distributed along the bronchi and under the pleura.The lesions were relatively limited in 8 patients(affecting 1-3 lobes,predominantly in the right or left lower lobe),and diffuse multiple lesions of bilateral lungs were seen in 5 patients.The CT findings mainly included ground glass opacities(GGOs)(n=10,76.9%),focal consolidation within GGOs(n=7,53.8%),thickened vascular bundle passing through the lesions(n=10,76.9%),bronchial wall thickening(n=12,92.3%),air bronchogram(n=10,76.9%),vacuole signs in the lesions(n=7,53.8%),fine reticulation and interlobular septal thickening(n=3,23.1%),reversed halo-sign(n=2,15.4%),crazy-paving pattern(n=2,15.4%),and pleural effusion(n=2,15.4%).Conclusions Most of our patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at PUMCH had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan.The first symptoms of COVID-19 mainly include fever and dry cough,along with normal or reduced counts of WBC and lymphocytes.CT may reveal that the lesions distribute along the bronchi and under the pleura;they are typically localized GGOs in the early stage but can become multiple GGOs and infiltrative consolidation in both lungs in the advanced stage.Scattered vacuole signs may be visible inside the lesions in some patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 266-269, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading. Here, we summarized the composition of pathogens in fever clinic patients and analyzed the characteristics of different respiratory viral infections. METHODS: Retrospectively collected patients with definite etiological results using nasal and pharyngeal swabs in a fever clinic. RESULTS: Overall, 1860 patients were screened, and 136 patients were enrolled. 72 (52.94%) of them were diagnosed as influenza (Flu) A virus infection. 32 (23.53%) of them were diagnosed as Flu B virus infection. 18 (13.24%) and 14 (10.29%) of them were diagnosed as COVID-19 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections, respectively. The COVID-19 group had a higher rate of contact with the epidemic area within 14 days and of clustering onset than other groups. Fever was the most common symptom in these patients. The ratio of fever to the highest temperature was higher in Flu A virus infection patients than in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients had a lower white blood cell count and neutrophil count than Flu A virus and RSV infection groups, but higher lymphocyte count than Flu A and B virus infection groups. The COVID-19 group (83.33%) had a higher rate of pneumonia in chest CT scans than Flu A and B virus infection groups. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza viruses accounted for a large proportion of respiratory virus infection even during the epidemic of COVID-19 in Beijing. No single symptom or laboratory finding was suggestive of a specific respiratory virus; however, epidemic history was significant for the screening of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 924-927, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52604

ABSTRACT

Confirmative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections has been challenged due to unsatisfactory positive rate of molecular assays. Here we identified a family cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with five of six family members were SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin serology testing positive, while molecular assays only detected two of this five patients even repeated twice. We comprehensively analyzed this familial cluster of cases based on the clinical characteristics, chest CT images, SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection results, and serology testing results. At last, two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, two were suspected of COVID-19, and two were considered close contacts. Our results emphasized the significance of serology testing to assist timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections, especially for COVID-19 close contacts screening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections , Family , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/standards , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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