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1.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796515

ABSTRACT

As one typical cationic disinfectant, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were approved for surface disinfection in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and then unintentionally or intentionally released into the surrounding environment. Concerningly, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community succession happens and the nitrogen (N) cycling processes alter when exposed to QACs. In this study, one common QAC (benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was selected as the target contaminant, and its effects on the temporal changes in soil microbial community structure and nitrogen transformation processes were determined by qPCR and 16S rRNA sequencing-based methods. The results showed that the aerobic microbial degradation of BAC in the two different soils followed first-order kinetics with a half-life (4.92 vs. 17.33 days) highly dependent on the properties of the soil. BAC activated the abundance of N fixation gene (nifH) and nitrification genes (AOA and AOB) in the soil and inhibited that of denitrification gene (narG). BAC exposure resulted in the decrease of the alpha diversity of soil microbial community and the enrichment of Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that BAC degradation is accompanied by changes in soil microbial community structure and N transformation capacity.

2.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 22(4): 311-325, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773006

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular disorders worldwide, affecting 1.13 billion people, or 14% of the global population. Hypertension is the single biggest risk factor for cerebrovascular dysfunction. According to the American Heart Association, high blood pressure (BP), especially in middle-aged individuals (~ 40 to 60 years old), is associated with an increased risk of dementia, later in life. Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease are the two leading causes of dementia, accounting for around 80% of the total cases and usually combining mixed pathologies from both. Little is known regarding how hypertension affects cognitive function, so the impact of its treatment on cognitive impairment has been difficult to assess. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for BP regulation and overactivity of this system has been established to precede the development and maintenance of hypertension. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide within this system, induces vasoconstriction and impairs neuro-vascular coupling by acting on brain Ang-II type 1 receptors (AT1R). In this review, we systemically analyzed the association between RAS and biological mechanisms of cognitive impairment, from the perspective of AT1R located in the central nervous system. Additionally, the possible contribution of brain AT1R to global cognition decline in COVID-19 cases will be discussed as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System
3.
Res Sq ; 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766249

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every five years of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-ß are found in ~20% of deceased patients across age groups. In the general population, they are found in ~1% of individuals aged 20-70 years and in >4% of those >70 years old. With a sample of 1,261 deceased patients and 34,159 uninfected individuals, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to non-carriers. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRD was 17.0[95% CI:11.7-24.7] for individuals under 70 years old and 5.8[4.5-7.4] for individuals aged 70 and over, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRD was 188.3[44.8-774.4] and 7.2[5.0-10.3], respectively. IFRs increased with age, from 0.17%[0.12-0.31] for individuals <40 years old to 26.7%[20.3-35.2] for those ≥80 years old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84%[0.31-8.28] to 40.5%[27.82-61.20] for the same two age groups, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, particularly those neutralizing both IFN-α2 and -ω. Remarkably, IFR increases with age, whereas RRD decreases with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs appears to be second only to age among common predictors of COVID-19 death.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325367

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious threat to global public health, including a wide range of metal health problems. Current research focuses mainly on mental health status and related factors among Chinese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Data from 11133 participants was obtained through an online survey of university students in mainland China. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), respectively. Results: : In total, 37.0% of the subjects were experiencing depressive symptoms, 24.9% anxiety symptoms, 20.9% comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, and 7.3% suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased presence of mental health problems in female students, graduate students, and those with personal COVID-19 exposure. Living with family and awareness of COVID-19 were protective factors against depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, male, depressive and anxiety symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. Living with family, graduate students, prevention and control measures and projections of COVID-19 trends were protective factors against suicidal ideation. Conclusions: : The findings underlined that the mental health of university students should be monitored, and provided important information for healthcare planning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pelvis is one of the most common locations for metastatic bone disease. While many of the publications that describe surgical treatments focus on periacetabular lesions (Enneking zone II), there is a lack of investigation into lesions in the non-periacetabular areas (zones I, III, and IV). We recently described a minimally invasive percutaneous screw application for metastatic zone-II lesions with excellent results. In the present study, we aimed to extend this approach to the other pelvic areas. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive patients with painful non-periacetabular pelvic metastatic cancer were included based on retrospective chart review. There were 16 women and 6 men with an average age of 60 years (range, 36 to 81 years). The most common primary cancers were multiple myeloma (7 cases) and breast (5 cases). The most common locations were the sacrum and the ilium. A pathologic fracture was identified in 15 patients. Most of the lesions were treated with multiple large-diameter screws, except for the isolated zone-III lesions. All of the procedures were completed in a standard operating room without the need for special instruments. Radiation therapy was given to 19 patients; the average dose was 15 Gy. The studied outcomes were pain and functionality as assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score (ECOG), respectively. RESULTS: There were no surgical complications and no need for blood transfusion. The average follow-up time was 7 months (range, 0.3 to 34.0 months). Two patients died within 4 weeks of surgery due to COVID-19 infection. There was significant improvement in the postoperative VAS pain score (p < 0.0001) and the ECOG score (p < 0.05) when compared with the preoperative scores. There was no implant failure or revision surgery. Local bone-healing was observed in 12 of 14 patients (86%) who survived for >3 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous screw application is safe and effective in the treatment of metastatic non-periacetabular pelvic lesions. Given the simplicity of the technique and the instrumentation and the tolerance for concomitant treatments, this approach is worthy of broader consideration. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

6.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616446

ABSTRACT

The M protein of the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is the major structural component of the viral envelope and is also the minimum requirement for virus particle budding. M proteins generally exist as dimers. In virus assembly, they are the main driving force for envelope formation through lateral interactions and interactions with other viral structural proteins that play a central role. We built 100 candidate models and finally analyzed the six most convincing structural features of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein dimer based on long-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, multiple free energy analyses (potential mean force (PMF) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA)) and principal component analysis (PCA) to obtain the most reasonable structure. The dimer stability was found to depend on the Leu-Ile zipper motif and aromatic amino acids in the transmembrane domain (TMD). Furthermore, the C-terminal domain (CTD) effects were relatively small. These results highlight a model in which there is sufficient binding affinity between the TMDs of M proteins to form dimers through the residues at the interface of the three transmembrane helices (TMHs). This study aims to help find more effective inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 M dimers and to develop vaccines based on structural information.

7.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics ; 932, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1545557

ABSTRACT

Indoor ventilation is essential for a healthy and comfortable living environment. A key issue is to discharge anthropogenic air contamination such as CO\(_2\) gas or, of potentially more direct consequence, airborne respiratory droplets. Here, by employing direct numerical simulations, we study mechanical displacement ventilation with a wide range of ventilation rates \(Q\) from 0.01 to 0.1 m\(

8.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 349: 130739, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447159

ABSTRACT

Accurate and efficient early diagnosis is crucial for the control of COVID-19 pandemic. However, methods that can balance sensitivity, high throughput, detection speed and automation simultaneously are still scarce. Here, we report an automatic label-free chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for rapid SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) detection with high sensitivity and throughput. N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol and Co2+ dual-functionalized chemiluminescent magnetic beads (dfCL-MB) were first applied to the detection of protein by a novel and simple strategy. Sulphydryl polyethylene glycol was coated on the surface of dfCL-MB so as to assemble dfCL-MB and antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles through Au-S bond. Considering the high-risk application scenarios, the immunosensor was integrated with an automatic chemiluminescence analyzer so that the whole testing procedure could be carried out automatically without manual operation. A linear correlation between CL intensities and the logarithm of NP concentration was obtained in the range of 0.1-10,000 pg/mL with a detection limit of 21 fg/mL. The whole process cost 25 min and the sample compartment can bear 24 samples simultaneously. The spiked human serum samples and serum samples from COVID-19 patients were determined with satisfactory recoveries of 91.1-109.4%, suggesting that the proposed label-free CLIA is of great potential for SARS-CoV-2 NP detection in practice.

9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434875

ABSTRACT

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-ß. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-ß do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 669833, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369711

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seriously threatened the global public health security and caused a series of mental health problem. Current research focuses mainly on mental health status and related factors in the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese university students. Data from 11133 participants was obtained through an online survey. The Patient Health Question-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms, the Social Support Rate Scale (SSRS) was used to assess social support. We also used 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to assess anxiety symptoms. Totally, 37.0% of the subjects were experiencing depressive symptoms, 24.9% anxiety symptoms, 20.9% comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, and 7.3% suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased presence of mental health problems in female students, graduate students, and those with personal COVID-19 exposure. Awareness of COVID-19, living with family were protective factors that reduced anxiety and depression symptoms. In addition, male, personal COVID-19 exposure, depressive and anxiety symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. Social support, COVID-19 preventive and control measures, prediction of COVID-19 trends, living with family and graduate students are protective factors for reducing suicidal ideation.

11.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367379

ABSTRACT

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-ß. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-ß do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Talanta ; 233: 122591, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267931

ABSTRACT

The existing CRISPR-mediated diagnostic tests require a two-step procedure (DNA or RNA amplification followed by CRISPR-mediated sequence-specific detection) for nucleic acid detection, which increases complexity and the risk of sample cross-contamination. Here, we report a new CRISPR-mediated test, called CRISPR-top (CRISPR-mediated testing in one-pot), which integrates simultaneous target pre-amplification with CRISPR/cas12b-mediated detection into a one-pot reaction mixture, performed at a constant temperature. The novel CRISPR-top assay was applied to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). COVID-19 CRISPR-top targets the ORF1ab (opening reading frame 1a/b) and NP (nucleoprotein) genes of SARS-CoV-2, and operates at 59 °C for 40 min with minimal instrument. The COVID-19 CRISPR-top assay can return results within 60-min and is easily interpreted by visual fluorescence or lateral flow readouts. The analytical limit of detection (LoD) for COVID-19 CRISPR-top is 10 copies (for each detection target) per reaction with no cross-reactivity observed from non-SARS-CoV-2 templates. Among clinically collected non-COVID-19 samples, the assay's specificity was 100% (80/80 oropharynx swab samples). Among 52 COVID-19 positive clinical samples collected, the COVID-19 CRISPR-top assay yielded 38 (73.1%) positive results using fluorescence readout and 35 (67.3%) positive results with lateral-flow readout. These diagnostic results were similar to those obtained using RT-PCR (34 positive (65.4%)). These data indicate that COVID-19 CRISPR-top is a simple, rapid, accurate and highly sensitive method for SARS-CoV-2 detection which can be used in the clinic, field laboratories and primary care facilities in resource-challenged settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Science ; 371(6536): 1374-1378, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255508

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continually poses serious threats to global public health. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a central role in viral replication. We designed and synthesized 32 new bicycloproline-containing Mpro inhibitors derived from either boceprevir or telaprevir, both of which are approved antivirals. All compounds inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.6 to 748.5 nM. The cocrystal structure of Mpro in complex with MI-23, one of the most potent compounds, revealed its interaction mode. Two compounds (MI-09 and MI-30) showed excellent antiviral activity in cell-based assays. In a transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, oral or intraperitoneal treatment with MI-09 or MI-30 significantly reduced lung viral loads and lung lesions. Both also displayed good pharmacokinetic properties and safety in rats.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Humans , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Oligopeptides , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication
14.
Protein Sci ; 30(6): 1114-1130, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162948

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is one of the most influential epidemics in history. Understanding the impact of coronaviruses (CoVs) on host cells is very important for disease treatment. The SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein is a small structural protein involved in many aspects of the viral life cycle. The E protein promotes the packaging and reproduction of the virus, and deletion of this protein weakens or even abolishes the virulence. This review aims to establish new knowledge by combining recent advances in the study of the SARS-CoV-2 E protein and by comparing it with the SARS-CoV E protein. The E protein amino acid sequence, structure, self-assembly characteristics, viroporin mechanisms and inhibitors are summarized and analyzed herein. Although the mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV E proteins are similar in many respects, specific studies on the SARS-CoV-2 E protein, for both monomers and oligomers, are still lacking. A comprehensive understanding of this protein should prompt further studies on the design and characterization of effective targeted therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sequence Alignment , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
15.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200117, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155977

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize and compare the initial clinical and imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric and adult patients undergoing chest CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 61 patients, consisting of 47 adults (aged 18 years or older) and 14 pediatric patients (aged younger than 18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction between January 25 and February 15, 2020, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent chest CT within 3 days after the initial reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. The clinical presentation, serum markers, and CT findings were assessed and compared between the adult and pediatric patients. RESULTS: Fever was less common in pediatric patients than in adults (six of 14, 42.9% vs 39 of 47, 83%; P = .008). Leukopenia or normal, lymphopenia or normal, and increased or normal C-reactive protein level were common in both groups with no difference (P > .05). Compared with the adults, pediatric patients had a lower rate of positive CT findings and a milder clinical grade (P = .004 and P = .001, respectively). At chest CT, the number of pulmonary lobes involved was found to be reduced in pediatric patients when compared with adults (P = .012). Subpleural distribution of lung opacities was a dominant feature in both groups, whereas bronchial distribution was more common in the pediatric group (P = .048). Among the CT features in adults, ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were the most common finding (24 of 43, 53.5%), followed by GGO with consolidation (14 of 43, 27.9%). In pediatric patients, GGOs accounted for 42.9% (three of seven), bronchial wall thickening occurred in 28.6% (two of seven), and GGOs with consolidations and nodular opacities occurred in 14.3% (one of seven). However, these CT features did not differ in the two groups, except for bronchial wall thickening, which was more commonly found in pediatric patients (P = .048). In addition, the semiquantitative scores of lung involvement were higher in adults than in pediatric patients (8.89 ± 4.54 vs 1.86 ± 2.41; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Compared with adults, pediatric patients with COVID-19 showed distinctive clinical and CT features. Pediatric patients tend to have milder clinical symptoms, fewer positive results at CT, and less extensive involvement at imaging. Bronchial wall thickening was relatively more frequent on CT images from pediatric patients with COVID-19 in comparison with adults.Supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2020.

16.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(3): 034502, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060608

ABSTRACT

To quantify the fate of respiratory droplets under different ambient relative humidities, direct numerical simulations of a typical respiratory event are performed. We found that, because small droplets (with initial diameter of 10 µm) are swept by turbulent eddies in the expelled humid puff, their lifetime gets extended by a factor of more than 30 times as compared to what is suggested by the classical picture by Wells, for 50% relative humidity. With increasing ambient relative humidity the extension of the lifetimes of the small droplets further increases and goes up to around 150 times for 90% relative humidity, implying more than 2 m advection range of the respiratory droplets within 1 sec. Employing Lagrangian statistics, we demonstrate that the turbulent humid respiratory puff engulfs the small droplets, leading to many orders of magnitude increase in their lifetimes, implying that they can be transported much further during the respiratory events than the large ones. Our findings provide the starting points for larger parameter studies and may be instructive for developing strategies on optimizing ventilation and indoor humidity control. Such strategies are key in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in the present autumn and upcoming winter.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids/chemistry , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Microbiology , Air Movements , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Exhalation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4064

ABSTRACT

A review. The new coronavirus (1919-nCoV) is a newly discovered new strain of coronavirus that can cause human new coronavirus pneumonia. he new coronavirus (1919-nCoV) has now been confirmed acute respiratory infectious disease, with fever, fatigue, and dry cough as the main manifestations. I severe cases, it can quickly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis that is difficult to correct, and coagulopathy. At present, clin. diagnosis is mainly based on epidemics, clin. manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest imaging, and real-time fluorescent RT-PCR nucleic acid detection in laboratory examinations is particularly important for the diagnosis of new coronaviruses. This article reviews the pathogenic characteristics of new coronaviruses and their relationship with real-time fluorescent RT-PCR nucleic acid detection.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 583971, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993445

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological stress experienced by healthcare workers, frontline workers, and the general public and to assess the factors associated with psychological stress in each of these groups. Methods: We conducted an online survey targeting healthcare workers, frontline workers, and the general public. Psychological stress was assessed with the revised impact of event scale (IES-R). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: We surveyed 1,336 participants (64.6% female; mean age, 36.6). The occupation group distribution of respondents was 50.7% healthcare workers, 27.2% frontline workers, and 22.1% general public. The healthcare (23.6 ± 15.8) and frontline (23.6 ± 17.8) workers had higher IES-R scores than the general public (15.3 ± 10.6; p < 0.01). Poor health perception and perception of infection avoidance were associated with psychological stress in the healthcare and frontline workers, but not in the general public. Conclusion: Both healthcare and frontline workers are suffering elevated psychological stress, compared to the general public, and this elevated stress may be related especially to their perceptions of their own health and infection risk. Interventions addressing these factors should be developed to alleviate psychological stress in these populations, and thus reduce their risk of mental illness pathogenesis.

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