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1.
Biology ; 12(1):6, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166223

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitors have been demonstrated to protect against hypoxia pathogenesis in several investigations. It has also been utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of COVID-19. COX inhibitors, which have previously been shown to be effective in treating previous viral and malarial infections are strong candidates for improving the COVID-19 therapeutic doctrine. However, another COX inhibitor, ibuprofen, is linked to an increase in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which could increase virus susceptibility. Hence, inhibiting COX2 via therapeutics might not always be protective and we need to investigate the downstream molecules that may be involved in hypoxia environment adaptation. Research has discovered that people who are accustomed to reduced oxygen levels at altitude may be protected against the harmful effects of COVID-19. It is important to highlight that the study's conclusions only applied to those who regularly lived at high altitudes;they did not apply to those who occasionally moved to higher altitudes but still lived at lower altitudes. COVID-19 appears to be more dangerous to individuals residing at lower altitudes. The downstream molecules in the (COX2) pathway have been shown to adapt in high-altitude dwellers, which may partially explain why these individuals have a lower prevalence of COVID-19 infection. More research is needed, however, to directly address COX2 expression in people living at higher altitudes. It is possible to mimic the gene-environment interaction of higher altitude people by intermittent hypoxia training. COX-2 adaptation resulting from hypoxic exposure at altitude or intermittent hypoxia exercise training (IHT) seems to have an important therapeutic function. Swimming, a type of IHT, was found to lower COX-2 protein production, a pro-inflammatory milieu transcription factor, while increasing the anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, Intermittent Hypoxia Preconditioning (IHP) has been demonstrated in numerous clinical investigations to enhance patients' cardiopulmonary function, raise cardiorespiratory fitness, and increase tissues' and organs' tolerance to ischemia. Biochemical activities of IHP have also been reported as a feasible application strategy for IHP for the rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients. In this paper, we aim to highlight some of the most relevant shared genes implicated with COVID-19 pathogenesis and hypoxia. We hypothesize that COVID-19 pathogenesis and hypoxia share a similar mechanism that affects apoptosis, proliferation, the immune system, and metabolism. We also highlight the necessity of studying individuals who live at higher altitudes to emulate their gene-environment interactions and compare the findings with IHT. Finally, we propose COX2 as an upstream target for testing the effectiveness of IHT in preventing or minimizing the effects of COVID-19 and other oxygen-related pathological conditions in the future.

2.
Nano Today ; 48:101749, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165732

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection has been one of the most valued tools in point-of-care diagnostics from life science, agriculture, food safety and environmental surveillance, because of its high sensitivity, great specificity and simple operation. Since polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were discovered, more and more researchers attach importance to exploring ultrafast nucleic acid amplification methods for further expediting the process of detection and curbing infectious diseases' high spread rate, especially after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic event. Nowadays, nanotechnology as one of the most cutting-edge technologies has aroused growing attention. In this review, we describe new advances in nanotechnology research for ultrafast nucleic acid amplification. We have introduced commonly used nanotechnologies, namely nanofluidics, nanoporous materials, nanoparticles and so on. Recent advances in these nanotechnologies for ultrafast sample pretreatments, accelerated enzymatic amplification and rapid heating/cooling processes was summarized. Finally, challenges and perspectives for the future applications of ultrafast nucleic acid amplification are presented.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 888, 2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster increases the burden on the elderly in an aging society. Although an effective vaccine licensed by China Food and Drug Administration in 2019 was introduced into the market in June 2020, the willingness and influencing factors of herpes zoster vaccines in Chinese adults ≥ 50-years-old during coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic are yet to be elucidated. METHODS: An online questionnaire survey was conducted using a simple random sampling method in October 2021 for viewers of the broadcast program. A binary logistic regression and multiple response analysis were conducted for herpes zoster vaccine and vaccination willingness. Pareto's graphs were plotted to present the multiple-choice questions of influencing factors. RESULTS: A total of 3838 eligible participants were included in this study. Among them, 43.02% intended to be vaccinated, including 10.34% self-reported about receiving at least one shot of shingles vaccine, 30.22% declined, and 26.76% were hesitant. This population comprised a large proportion of middle-aged and older people (≥ 50-years-old) who have not experienced an episode of herpes zoster (54.98%) or are unaware of the virus (33.22%). The strongest determinants of vaccine hesitancy among older people were education background of Master's degree or above compared to senior high or equivalent and below, personal monthly income < 3000 RMB compared to 3000-5999 RMB, and living in a rural area. CONCLUSIONS: The willingness to get shingles vaccines can be improved further. Professional education and credible recommendation might prompt the elderly to improve their willingness and reassure them of the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Also, accessibility and affordability should also be improved in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Humans , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , China
4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073987

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 Phobia Scale is an instrument for measuring the phobia of coronavirus. It has a stable four-factor structure and good reliability and validity in other countries and regions. In order to expand related research, this study aims to test the reliability and validity of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale in Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. The C19P-SC was translated into Chinese by the method of forward and back translation and tested in 1933 Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to test and compare the four-factor model of the C19P-SC. Then we tested the measurement invariance of the C19P-SC across gender and time. Finally, the reliability was measured with the McDonald's omega coefficients. Consistent with previous studies, the C19P-SC showed a stable four-factor structure. The results showed that ESEM was better than CFA and more reasonable. In addition, the results of multi-group ESEM showed that the C19P-SC met the strict invariance at male and female and partial longitudinal strict invariance. The Mcdonald's omega coefficients of the C19P-SC total scale and each subscale reached the expected acceptable level. In short, the reliability and validity index of C19P-SC has reached an acceptable level, and the measurement invariance of different genders and different time points was established, but the cross-factor phenomenon of individual items was abnormal, and a further revision and testing are still needed.

5.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 130050, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041932

ABSTRACT

With rapid growing of environmental contact infection, more and more attentions are focused on the precise and absolute quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in cold chain foods via point-of-care test (POCT). In this work, we propose a hydrogel-mediated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for ultrafast and absolute quantification of SARS-CoV-2. Cross-linked hydrogel offers opportunities for digital single molecule amplification in nanoconfined spaces, facilitating the virus lysis, RNA reverse transcription and amplification process, which is about 3.4-fold faster than conventional bulk RT-LAMP. Ultrafast quantification of SARS-CoV-2 is accomplished in 15min without virus pre-lysis and RNA extraction. The sensitivity can accurately quantify SARS-CoV-2 down to 0.5 copy/µL. Furthermore, the integrated system has an excellent specificity, reproducibility and storage stability, which can be also used to test SARS-CoV-2 on various cold chain fruits. The developed ultrafast and simple hydrogel RT-LAMP will be an enormous potential for surveillance of virus or other hazardous microbes in environmental, agricultural and food industry.

6.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(8): e886, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exact animal origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains obscure and understanding its host range is vital for preventing interspecies transmission. METHODS: Herein, we applied single-cell sequencing to multiple tissues of 20 species (30 data sets) and integrated them with public resources (45 data sets covering 26 species) to expand the virus receptor distribution investigation. While the binding affinity between virus and receptor is essential for viral infectivity, understanding the receptor distribution could predict the permissive organs and tissues when infection occurs. RESULTS: Based on the transcriptomic data, the expression profiles of receptor or associated entry factors for viruses capable of causing respiratory, blood, and brain diseases were described in detail. Conserved cellular connectomes and regulomes were also identified, revealing fundamental cell-cell and gene-gene cross-talks from reptiles to humans. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study provides a resource of the single-cell atlas of the animal kingdom which could help to identify the potential host range and tissue tropism of viruses and reveal the host-virus co-evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 632, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 sounded the alarm for early inspection on acute respiratory infection (ARI). However, diagnosis pathway of ARI has still not reached a consensus and its impact on prognosis needs to be further explored. METHODS: ESAR is a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial on evaluating the diagnosis performance and its impact on prognosis of ARI between mNGS and multiplex PCR. Enrolled patients will be divided into two groups with a ratio of 1:1. Group I will be directly tested by mNGS. Group II will firstly receive multiplex PCR, then mNGS in patients with severe infection if multiplex PCR is negative or inconsistent with clinical manifestations. All patients will be followed up every 7 days for 28 days. The primary endpoint is time to initiate targeted treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of significant events (oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, etc.), clinical remission rate, and hospitalization length. A total of 440 participants will be enrolled in both groups. DISCUSSION: ESAR compares the efficacy of different diagnostic strategies and their impact on treatment outcomes in ARI, which is of great significance to make precise diagnosis, balance clinical resources and demands, and ultimately optimize clinical diagnosis pathways and treatment strategies. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT04955756, Registered on July 9th 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
9.
VIEW ; 3(4):e224, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1955945

ABSTRACT

In article number 20200181, Chuanbin Mao, Mingying Yang and their co-wokers have demonstrated that nanobiotechnology holds promise for combating COVID-19. It provides nanoscale probes to detect COVID-19, nanoscale vaccines to prevent COVID-19, and nanoscale therapeutics to treat COVID-19. Because nanoparticles are comparable to the virus particles that cause COVID-19, the nanoparticles can be engineered to detect, prevent or treat COVID-19 in a more efficient manner than the other agents.

10.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(3): 292-303, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rotaviruses and noroviruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. While previous studies in China have mainly focused on rotavirus, we investigated the incidence of norovirus in addition to rotavirus in Southwestern China. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2020, cases of rotavirus or norovirus infections among children under five ages with acute gastroenteritis were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: The detection rate of rotavirus was 24.5% (27,237/111,070) and norovirus was 26.1% (4649/17,797). Among 17,113 cases submitted for dual testing of both rotavirus and norovirus, mixed rotavirus/norovirus infections were detected in 5.0% (859/17,113) of cases. While there was no difference in norovirus incidence in outpatient compared to hospitalized cases, rotavirus was detected two times more in outpatients compared to hospitalized cases (26.6% vs.13.6%; P < 0.001). Both rotavirus and norovirus infections peaked in children aged 12-18 months seeking medical care with acute gastroenteritis (35.6% rotavirus cases; 8439/23,728 and 32.5% norovirus cases; 1660/5107). Rotavirus infections were frequent between December and March of each year while norovirus was detected earlier from October to December. Our results showed significant correlation between virus detection and environmental factors such as average monthly temperature but not relative humidity. In addition, we observed a reduction in the detection rates of rotavirus and norovirus at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that rotavirus and norovirus are still important viral agents in pediatric acute gastroenteritis in Southwestern China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caliciviridae Infections , Coinfection , Gastroenteritis , Norovirus , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Rotavirus Infections/diagnosis , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 884034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847188

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), public health worldwide has been greatly threatened. The development of an effective treatment for this infection is crucial and urgent but is hampered by the incomplete understanding of the viral infection mechanisms and the lack of specific antiviral agents. We previously reported that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that has been commonly used in the clinic to treat bacterial infection, significantly restrained the cell entry of Ebola virus, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L (CTSL). Here, we found that the cleavage sites of CTSL on the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were highly conserved among all the variants. The treatment with teicoplanin suppressed the proteolytic activity of CTSL on spike and prevented the cellular infection of different pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Teicoplanin potently prevented the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cellular cytoplasm with an IC50 of 2.038 µM for the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain and an IC50 of 2.116 µM for the SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) variant. The pre-treatment of teicoplanin also prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 mice. In summary, our data reveal that CTSL is required for both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of teicoplanin for universal anti-CoVs intervention.

12.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738179, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775885

ABSTRACT

Background: It is important that physicians be aware of LH. We designed a questionnaire to determine physician awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding LH in clinical practice. Participants: A total of 499 questionnaires were completed by physicians in hospitals from 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, China. Key Results: Compared with physicians at tertiary hospitals, significantly fewer physicians at primary hospitals reported awareness of LH and its screening methods. The proportion of resident physicians aware of LH was significantly lower than the proportion of senior physicians. The proportion of physicians who could identify all LH risk factors among the low-GDP group was significantly higher than the high-GDP group. Only 38.7% of doctors could successfully identify all the hazards associated with LH, but more doctors in tertiary hospitals were able to do so compared to those in secondary and primary hospitals. Compared with tertiary hospitals, the proportions of primary and secondary hospitals with management processes were significantly lower. The proportion of doctors who educated patients regarding LH prevention and treatment in primary hospitals was markedly lower than in tertiary hospitals. Conclusions: Overall, physicians have an inadequate understanding of LH, especially in primary hospitals.


Subject(s)
Lipodystrophy , Physicians , Hospitals , Humans , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9802969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761681

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive efforts, COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still at large. Vaccination is an effective approach to curb virus spread, but several variants (e.g., delta, delta plus, omicron, and IHU) appear to weaken or possibly escape immune protection. Thus, novel and quickly scalable approaches to restrain SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Multiple evidences showed thermal sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 and negative correlation between environmental temperature and COVID-19 transmission with unknown mechanism. Here, we reveal a potential mechanism by which mild heat treatment destabilizes the wild-type RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (also known as nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12)) of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the P323L mutant commonly found in SARS-CoV-2 variants, including omicron and IHU. Mechanistically, heat treatment promotes E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNF598-dependent NSP12 ubiquitination leading to proteasomal degradation and significantly decreases SARS-CoV-2 RNA copy number and viral titer. A mild daily heat treatment maintains low levels of both wild-type and P323L mutant of NSP12, suggesting clinical potential. Collectively, this novel mechanism, heat-induced NSP12 degradation, suggests a prospective heat-based intervention against SARS-CoV-2.

15.
View (Beijing) ; 3(4): 20200181, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739242

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of confirmed cases and deaths has increased globally at a dramatic speed. In view of the serious health threat to humans, this review discusses the state-of-the-art studies about fighting this disease. It summarizes the current strategies and recent advances in detecting, preventing, and treating COVID-19 and interprets the underlying mechanisms in detail. Detection of COVID-19 can be successfully achieved by multiple techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, computed tomography imaging, and nano-biosensing. Inactivated virus vaccine, nucleic acid vaccine, and different nanoparticles have been employed to effectively prevent COVID-19. A variety of agents such as antiviral agents, neutralizing antibodies, and nanotherapeutics have been developed to treat COVID-19 with exciting efficacy. Although nanobiotechnology has shown great potential in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19, efforts should be made to explore new biocompatible nano-biomaterials to advance this field to clinical applications. Hence, nanobiotechnology paves a new way to detect, prevent, and treat COVID-19 effectively.

16.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3699-3702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine treatment of three severe crona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of three severe COVID-19 confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed.On the basis of conventional western medical treatment, intradermal embedding treatment was used for the Kongzu, Dazhui, and Feishu points. Lung CT reports of patients before and after treatment were compared, including the percentage of neutrophil, lymphocyte, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, oxygen index and other indicators. RESULTS: The three severe COVID-19 patients were discharged from hospital after treatment with significant relief of symptoms. Lung CT re-examination showed absorption of lesions and normal inflammatory indicators, and nucleic acid reexamination was negative. CONCLUSION: At present, elderly patients with severe COVID-19 have complicated conditions and high mortality. As an auxiliary means, intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine therapy is simple, safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19, which is a new exploration for the treatment of complicated COVID-19 conditions.

17.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(2): 141-151, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) delivered via colonoscopic infusion or enemas have been shown to induce remission in a proportion of patients with active ulcerative colitis. Whether orally administered FMT is effective in ulcerative colitis is unknown. We aimed to assess the efficacy of oral lyophilised FMT for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at two centres in Australia. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with active ulcerative colitis (defined as clinical and endoscopic active ulcerative colitis, with a total Mayo score of 4-10, and a Mayo endoscopic subscore ≥1). After 2 weeks of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and doxycycline, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either oral lyophilised FMT or placebo capsules for 8 weeks, using a prespecified computer-generated randomisation list with a permuted block size of 8. The primary outcome was corticosteroid-free clinical remission with endoscopic remission or response (total Mayo score ≤2, all subscores ≤1, and ≥1 point reduction in endoscopic subscore) at week 8. At week 8, FMT responders were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio, permuted block size of 8) to either continue or withdraw FMT for a further 48 weeks. Analyses were done by modified intention-to-treat, including all patients who received at least one study dose. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand Trial Registry, number ACTRN 12619000611123; this is the final report of the trial. FINDINGS: Between May 20, 2019, and March 24, 2020, 35 patients were randomly assigned: 15 to receive FMT and 20 to receive placebo. Recruitment was terminated early due to the COVID-19 pandemic. At week 8, eight (53%) of 15 patients in the FMT group were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission with endoscopic remission or response, as were three (15%) of 20 patients in the placebo group (difference 38·3%, 95% CI 8·6-68·0; p=0·027; odds ratio 5·0, 95% CI 1·8-14·1). Adverse events occurred in 10 (67%) patients in the FMT group and 17 (85%) of those in the placebo group during the 8-week induction period, and were generally mild and self-limiting gastrointestinal complaints. Serious adverse events included worsening ulcerative colitis (two in the FMT group, one in the placebo group) and per-rectal bleeding (one in the placebo group). Ten patients in the FMT group who achieved a clinical or endoscopic response entered the maintenance phase and were randomly assigned to continue open-label FMT (n=4) or withdraw therapy (n=6). All four (100%) patients who continued FMT were in clinical, endoscopic, and histologic remission at week 56 compared with none of the patients who had FMT withdrawn. INTERPRETATION: Antibiotics followed by orally administered FMT was associated with the induction of remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Continuing FMT was well tolerated and appeared to demonstrate clinical, endoscopic, and histological efficacy. Oral FMT could be a promising and feasible treatment option for patients with ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: St Vincent's Clinic Foundation, Gastroenterological Society of Australia, Gutsy Group.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Freeze Drying , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Remission Induction
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534068

ABSTRACT

After COVID-19 appeared in China in December 2019, the mental health of adolescents, as a vulnerable group in public health emergencies, was negatively affected by the epidemic and the unprecedented prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) among Chinese adolescents. A total of 915 participants completed the PTSD. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and multi-group CFAs were used to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of PTSD. The CFA results showed that five-factor PCL was the optimal fitting model with satisfactory reliability and validity; moreover, it was suggested that the properties of PCL were invariant across gender, PTSD and asymptomatic groups, early and late adolescents, as well as over time. In summary, PCL is applicable among Chinese adolescents and can be used for effective measurement of PTSD caused by epidemics and to conduct cross-group studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Checklist , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
19.
Environ Res ; 202: 111763, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330805

ABSTRACT

Environmental contamination caused by COVID-19 patients could be a medium of transmission. Previous reports of SARS-CoV-2 in environmental surfaces were about short-term contamination. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 RNA existence in room-temperature and low-temperature environments long after exposure (>28 days). A department store, where a COVID-19 outbreak was occurred in January 2020 (the epicenter of 43 COVID-19 patients), and a patient's apartment were included as room-temperature environments after being blocked for 57 days and 48 days, respectively. Seven cold storages and imported frozen foods inside were included as low-temperature environments (under -18 °C). Twenty food markets with potential contamination of imported frozen foods were also included to study the consecutive contamination. Information about temperature, relative humidity, and the number of days of environmental samples since the last exposure was collected and analyzed. In sum, 11,808 swab samples were collected before disinfection, of which 35 samples were positive. Persistent contamination of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified in the apartment (6/19), the department store (3/50), food packages in cold storages (23/1360), environmental surfaces of cold storages (2/345), and a package in the food market (1/10,034). Two positive samples were isolated from the bathroom of the apartment (66.7 %, 2/3), and doorknobs were proved with contamination in the apartment (40 %, 2/5) and cold storage (33.3 %, 1/3). The epidemiology information and environmental contamination results of an imported frozen food related COVID-19 case (138th COVID-19 patient in Tianjin) were analyzed. Based on the Ct values, the number of copies of two target genes was calculated by standard curves and linear regressions. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in room-temperature environments at least 57 days after the last exposure, much longer than previous reports. Based on the results of this study and previous studies, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could exist for at least 60 days on the surface of cold-chain food packages. Doorknobs and toilets (bathrooms) were important positions in COVID-19 control. High-risk populations of cold-chain-related logistic operations, such as porters, require strict prevention and high-level personal protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution , Humans , RNA, Viral
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238060

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
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