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1.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3699-3702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine treatment of three severe crona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of three severe COVID-19 confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed.On the basis of conventional western medical treatment, intradermal embedding treatment was used for the Kongzu, Dazhui, and Feishu points. Lung CT reports of patients before and after treatment were compared, including the percentage of neutrophil, lymphocyte, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, oxygen index and other indicators. RESULTS: The three severe COVID-19 patients were discharged from hospital after treatment with significant relief of symptoms. Lung CT re-examination showed absorption of lesions and normal inflammatory indicators, and nucleic acid reexamination was negative. CONCLUSION: At present, elderly patients with severe COVID-19 have complicated conditions and high mortality. As an auxiliary means, intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine therapy is simple, safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19, which is a new exploration for the treatment of complicated COVID-19 conditions.

2.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294445

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) issued a significant and urgent threat to global health. The exact animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains obscure and understanding its host range is vital for preventing interspecies transmission. Previously, we have assessed the target cell profiles of SARS-CoV-2 in pets, livestock, poultry and wild animals. Herein, we expand this investigation to a wider range of animal species and viruses to provide a comprehensive source for large-scale screening of potential virus hosts. Single cell atlas for several mammalian species (alpaca, hamster, hedgehog, chinchilla etc.), as well as comparative atlas for lung, brain and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for various lineages of animals were constructed, from which we systemically analyzed the virus entry factors for 113 viruses over 20 species from mammalians, birds, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Conserved cellular connectomes and regulomes were also identified, revealing the fundamental cell-cell and gene-gene cross-talks between these species. Overall, our study could help identify the potential host range and tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and a diverse set of viruses and reveal the host-virus co-evolution footprints.

3.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) delivered via colonoscopic infusion or enemas have been shown to induce remission in a proportion of patients with active ulcerative colitis. Whether orally administered FMT is effective in ulcerative colitis is unknown. We aimed to assess the efficacy of oral lyophilised FMT for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at two centres in Australia. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with active ulcerative colitis (defined as clinical and endoscopic active ulcerative colitis, with a total Mayo score of 4-10, and a Mayo endoscopic subscore ≥1). After 2 weeks of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and doxycycline, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either oral lyophilised FMT or placebo capsules for 8 weeks, using a prespecified computer-generated randomisation list with a permuted block size of 8. The primary outcome was corticosteroid-free clinical remission with endoscopic remission or response (total Mayo score ≤2, all subscores ≤1, and ≥1 point reduction in endoscopic subscore) at week 8. At week 8, FMT responders were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio, permuted block size of 8) to either continue or withdraw FMT for a further 48 weeks. Analyses were done by modified intention-to-treat, including all patients who received at least one study dose. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand Trial Registry, number ACTRN 12619000611123; this is the final report of the trial. FINDINGS: Between May 20, 2019, and March 24, 2020, 35 patients were randomly assigned: 15 to receive FMT and 20 to receive placebo. Recruitment was terminated early due to the COVID-19 pandemic. At week 8, eight (53%) of 15 patients in the FMT group were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission with endoscopic remission or response, as were three (15%) of 20 patients in the placebo group (difference 38·3%, 95% CI 8·6-68·0; p=0·027; odds ratio 5·0, 95% CI 1·8-14·1). Adverse events occurred in 10 (67%) patients in the FMT group and 17 (85%) of those in the placebo group during the 8-week induction period, and were generally mild and self-limiting gastrointestinal complaints. Serious adverse events included worsening ulcerative colitis (two in the FMT group, one in the placebo group) and per-rectal bleeding (one in the placebo group). Ten patients in the FMT group who achieved a clinical or endoscopic response entered the maintenance phase and were randomly assigned to continue open-label FMT (n=4) or withdraw therapy (n=6). All four (100%) patients who continued FMT were in clinical, endoscopic, and histologic remission at week 56 compared with none of the patients who had FMT withdrawn. INTERPRETATION: Antibiotics followed by orally administered FMT was associated with the induction of remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Continuing FMT was well tolerated and appeared to demonstrate clinical, endoscopic, and histological efficacy. Oral FMT could be a promising and feasible treatment option for patients with ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: St Vincent's Clinic Foundation, Gastroenterological Society of Australia, Gutsy Group.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534068

ABSTRACT

After COVID-19 appeared in China in December 2019, the mental health of adolescents, as a vulnerable group in public health emergencies, was negatively affected by the epidemic and the unprecedented prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) among Chinese adolescents. A total of 915 participants completed the PTSD. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and multi-group CFAs were used to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of PTSD. The CFA results showed that five-factor PCL was the optimal fitting model with satisfactory reliability and validity; moreover, it was suggested that the properties of PCL were invariant across gender, PTSD and asymptomatic groups, early and late adolescents, as well as over time. In summary, PCL is applicable among Chinese adolescents and can be used for effective measurement of PTSD caused by epidemics and to conduct cross-group studies.

5.
Environ Res ; 202: 111763, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330805

ABSTRACT

Environmental contamination caused by COVID-19 patients could be a medium of transmission. Previous reports of SARS-CoV-2 in environmental surfaces were about short-term contamination. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 RNA existence in room-temperature and low-temperature environments long after exposure (>28 days). A department store, where a COVID-19 outbreak was occurred in January 2020 (the epicenter of 43 COVID-19 patients), and a patient's apartment were included as room-temperature environments after being blocked for 57 days and 48 days, respectively. Seven cold storages and imported frozen foods inside were included as low-temperature environments (under -18 °C). Twenty food markets with potential contamination of imported frozen foods were also included to study the consecutive contamination. Information about temperature, relative humidity, and the number of days of environmental samples since the last exposure was collected and analyzed. In sum, 11,808 swab samples were collected before disinfection, of which 35 samples were positive. Persistent contamination of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified in the apartment (6/19), the department store (3/50), food packages in cold storages (23/1360), environmental surfaces of cold storages (2/345), and a package in the food market (1/10,034). Two positive samples were isolated from the bathroom of the apartment (66.7 %, 2/3), and doorknobs were proved with contamination in the apartment (40 %, 2/5) and cold storage (33.3 %, 1/3). The epidemiology information and environmental contamination results of an imported frozen food related COVID-19 case (138th COVID-19 patient in Tianjin) were analyzed. Based on the Ct values, the number of copies of two target genes was calculated by standard curves and linear regressions. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in room-temperature environments at least 57 days after the last exposure, much longer than previous reports. Based on the results of this study and previous studies, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could exist for at least 60 days on the surface of cold-chain food packages. Doorknobs and toilets (bathrooms) were important positions in COVID-19 control. High-risk populations of cold-chain-related logistic operations, such as porters, require strict prevention and high-level personal protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution , Humans , RNA, Viral
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238060

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(3):341-345, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1140719

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the early clinical characteristics and radiographic changes in confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and COVID-19 excluded patients.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2105-2113, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913100

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster for human society. A convenient and reliable neutralization assay is very important for the development of vaccines and novel drugs. In this study, a G protein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVdG) bearing a truncated spike protein (S with C-terminal 18 amino acid truncation) was compared to that bearing the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and showed much higher efficiency. A neutralization assay was established based on VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus and hACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells (BHK21-hACE2 cells). The experimental results can be obtained by automatically counting the number of EGFP-positive cells at 12 h after infection, making the assay convenient and high-throughput. The serum neutralizing titer measured by the VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus assay has a good correlation with that measured by the wild type SARS-CoV-2 assay. Seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were obtained. This efficient and reliable pseudovirus assay model could facilitate the development of new drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
11.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-651

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breaking out in late December 2019 is gradually being controlled in China, but it is still spreading in othe

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 172, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733534

ABSTRACT

No effective drug treatments are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host-directed therapies targeting the underlying aberrant immune responses leading to pulmonary tissue damage, death, or long-term functional disability in survivors require clinical evaluation. We performed a parallel assigned controlled, non-randomized, phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) infusions in the treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease. The study enrolled 18 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 9 for each group). The treatment group received three cycles of intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs (3 × 107 cells per infusion) on days 0, 3, and 6. Both groups received standard COVID-treatment regimens. Adverse events, duration of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, length of hospitalization, serial chest computed tomography (CT) images, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, dynamics of cytokines, and IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed. No serious UC-MSCs infusion-associated adverse events were observed. Two patients receiving UC-MSCs developed transient facial flushing and fever, and one patient developed transient hypoxia at 12 h post UC-MSCs transfusion. Mechanical ventilation was required in one patient in the treatment group compared with four in the control group. All patients recovered and were discharged. Our data show that intravenous UC-MSCs infusion in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 is safe and well tolerated. Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials with long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of UC-MSCs to reduce deaths and improve long-term treatment outcomes in patients with serious COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and disease severity in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: We searched six databases including three Chinese and three English databases for all the published articles on COVID-19. Studies were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relevant data were extracted and all the statistical analyses were performed using Revman5.3. RESULT: In a meta-analysis of 9 studies, comprising 3022 patients, 479 patients (13.7%, 95% CI 0.125 to 0.149) had severe disease and 624 patients (14.7%, 95% CI 0.136 to 0.159) had GI symptoms. Of 624 patients with GI symptoms, 118 patients had severe disease (20.5%, 95% CI 0.133 to 0.276) and of 2397 cases without GI symptoms, 361 patients had severe disease (18.2%, 95% CI 0.129 to 0.235). Comparing disease severity of patients with and without GI symptoms, the results indicated: I²=62%, OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.56, p=0.13; there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The funnel plot was symmetrical with no publication bias. CONCLUSION: Current results are not sufficient to demonstrate a significant correlation between GI symptoms and disease severity in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635899

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 188-202.e5, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612608

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented threat to global public health. Herein, we utilized a combination of targeted and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the plasma lipidome and metabolome in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A panel of 10 plasma metabolites effectively distinguished COVID-19 patients from healthy controls (AUC = 0.975). Plasma lipidome of COVID-19 resembled that of monosialodihexosyl ganglioside (GM3)-enriched exosomes, with enhanced levels of sphingomyelins (SMs) and GM3s, and reduced diacylglycerols (DAGs). Systems evaluation of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 was performed using multiscale embedded differential correlation network analyses. Using exosomes isolated from the same cohort, we demonstrated that exosomes of COVID-19 patients with elevating disease severity were increasingly enriched in GM3s. Our work suggests that GM3-enriched exosomes may partake in pathological processes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis and presents the largest repository on the plasma lipidome and metabolome distinct to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , G(M3) Ganglioside/blood , Gangliosides/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Diglycerides/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingomyelins/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
17.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 50(7): 2891-2904, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-251794

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breaking out in late December 2019 is gradually being controlled in China, but it is still spreading rapidly in many other countries and regions worldwide. It is urgent to conduct prediction research on the development and spread of the epidemic. In this article, a hybrid artificial-intelligence (AI) model is proposed for COVID-19 prediction. First, as traditional epidemic models treat all individuals with coronavirus as having the same infection rate, an improved susceptible-infected (ISI) model is proposed to estimate the variety of the infection rates for analyzing the transmission laws and development trend. Second, considering the effects of prevention and control measures and the increase of the public's prevention awareness, the natural language processing (NLP) module and the long short-term memory (LSTM) network are embedded into the ISI model to build the hybrid AI model for COVID-19 prediction. The experimental results on the epidemic data of several typical provinces and cities in China show that individuals with coronavirus have a higher infection rate within the third to eighth days after they were infected, which is more in line with the actual transmission laws of the epidemic. Moreover, compared with the traditional epidemic models, the proposed hybrid AI model can significantly reduce the errors of the prediction results and obtain the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) with 0.52%, 0.38%, 0.05%, and 0.86% for the next six days in Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, and countrywide, respectively.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20037259

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 has been a global pandemic, but the emergence of asymptomatic patients has caused difficulties in the prevention of the epidemic. Therefore, it is significant to understand the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. MethodsIn this single-center, retrospective and observational study, we collected data from 167 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in Chongqing Public Health Medical Center (Chongqing, China) from January to March 2020. The epidemiological characteristics and variable of these patients were collected and analyzed. Findings82.04% of the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients had a travel history in Wuhan or a history of contact with returnees from Wuhan, showing typical characteristics of imported cases, and the proportion of severe Covid-19 patients was 13.2%, of which 59% were imported from Wuhan. For the patients who was returnees from Wuhan, 18.1% was asymptomatic patients. In different infection periods, compared with the proportion after 1/31/2020, the proportion of asymptomatic patient among SARS-CoV-2 infected patient was higher(19% VS 1.5%). In different age groups, the proportion of asymptomatic patient was the highest(28.6%) in children group under 14, next in elder group over 70 (27.3%). Compared with mild and common Covid-19 patients, the mean latency of asymptomatic was longer (11.25 days VS 8.86 days), but the hospital length of stay was shorter (14.3 days VS 16.96 days). ConclusionThe SARS-CoV-2 prevention needs to focus on the screening of asymptomatic patients in the community with a history of contact with the imported population, especially for children and the elderly population.

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