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1.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(2): 30, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the entire world. The effective implementation of vaccination strategy is critical to prevent the resurgence of the pandemic, especially during large-scale population migration. We establish a multiple patch coupled model based on the transportation network among the 31 provinces in China, under the combined strategies of vaccination and quarantine during large-scale population migration. Based on the model, we derive a critical quarantine rate to control the pandemic transmission and a vaccination rate to achieve herd immunity. Furthermore, we evaluate the influence of passenger flow on the effective reproduction number during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush. Meanwhile, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated for different control strategies, viz. global control and local control. The impact of vaccine-related parameters, such as the number, the effectiveness and the immunity period of vaccine, are explored. It is believed that the articulated models as well as the presented simulation results could be beneficial to design of feasible strategies for preventing COVID-19 transmission during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush or the other future events involving large-scale population migration.

2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(12): 984-991, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608702

ABSTRACT

Objective: Early triage of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pivotal in managing the disease. However, studies on the clinical risk score system of the risk factors for the development of severe disease are limited. Hence, we conducted a clinical risk score system for severe illness, which might optimize appropriate treatment strategies. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, single-center study at the JinYinTan Hospital from January 24, 2020 to March 31, 2020. We evaluated the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data and performed a 10-fold cross-validation to split the data into a training set and validation set. We then screened the prognostic factors for severe illness using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and logistic regression, and finally conducted a risk score to estimate the probability of severe illness in the training set. Data from the validation set were used to validate the score. Results: A total of 295 patients were included. From 49 potential risk factors, 3 variables were measured as the risk score: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ( OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.39), albumin ( OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70-0.83), and chest computed tomography abnormalities ( OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.41-2.86) and the AUC of the validation cohort was 0.822 (95% CI, 0.7667-0.8776). Conclusion: This report may help define the potential of developing severe illness in patients with COVID-19 at an early stage, which might be related to the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, albumin, and chest computed tomography abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292598

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we aimed to determine whether continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with oXiris filter may alleviate cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in non-AKI patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: Non-AKI patients with severe and critical COVID-19 treated between February 14 and March 26, 2020 were included and randomly divided into intervention group and control group according to the random number table. Patients in the intervention group received CRRT with oXiris filter plus conventional treatment, while those in the control group only received conventional treatment. Demographic data were collected and collated at admission. During ICU hospitalization, the serum levels of cytokine and inflammatory chemokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, were measured daily to reflect the degree of CRS induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data, including white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil proportion (NEUT%), lymphocyte count (LYMPH), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), platelet (PLT), C-reaction protein (CRP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB), serum creatinine (SCr), D-Dimer, fibrinogen (FIB), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, number of hospital days and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were obtained and collated from medical records during hospitalization, and then compared between the two groups.Results: Age, and SCr significantly differed between the two groups. Besides the IL-2 level that was significantly lower on day 2 than that on day 1 in the intervention group, and the IL-6 levels that were significantly higher on day 1, and day 2 in the intervention group compared to the control group, similar to the IL-10 level on day 5, there were no significant differences between the groups.Conclusion: CRRT with oXiris filter may not effectively alleviate CRS in non-AKI patients with severe and critical COVID-19. Thus, its application in these patients should be considered with caution to avoid increasing the unnecessary burden on society and individuals and making the already overwhelmed medical system even more strained (IRB number: IRB-AF/SC-04).

4.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 79(2): 269-277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study whether D-dimer daily continuous tendency could predict the short-term prognosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODES: According to the short-term prognosis, 81 COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups, one of worse prognosis (Group W) and the other of better prognosis (Group B). The slope of D-dimer linear regression during hospitalization (SLOPE) was calculated as an indicator of D-dimer daily continuous tendency. The SLOPE difference between Group W and Group B was compared. The difference between the discharge results and the 3-month follow-up results was also compared. COX regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between SLOPE and short-term prognosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: There were 16 patients in Group W and 65 patients in Group B. Group W had more critical proportion (p < 0.0001), indicating that the symptoms of its patients were more severe during hospitalization. ARDS, the most visible cause of worse prognosis, accounted for up to 68.75%, and many symptoms merged and resulted in worse prognosis. The D-dimer levels of Group W not only were significantly higher (p < 0.0001), but also showed an increasing trend. In addition, the D-dimer levels at discharge were significantly higher than those at follow-up (p = 0.0261), and the mean difference was as high as 0.7474. SLOPE significantly correlated with the short-term prognosis of COVID-19 independently (RR: 1.687, 95% CI: 1.345-2.116, P < 0.0001). The worst prognosis occurred most likely during the first month after COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our study found that D-dimer daily continuous tendency independently correlates with worse prognosis and can be used as an independent predictor of the short-term prognosis for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19 Testing , China , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 717496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512035

ABSTRACT

The antibody repertoire is a critical component of the adaptive immune system and is believed to reflect an individual's immune history and current immune status. Delineating the antibody repertoire has advanced our understanding of humoral immunity, facilitated antibody discovery, and showed great potential for improving the diagnosis and treatment of disease. However, no tool to date has effectively integrated big Rep-seq data and prior knowledge of functional antibodies to elucidate the remarkably diverse antibody repertoire. We developed a Rep-seq dataset Analysis Platform with an Integrated antibody Database (RAPID; https://rapid.zzhlab.org/), a free and web-based tool that allows researchers to process and analyse Rep-seq datasets. RAPID consolidates 521 WHO-recognized therapeutic antibodies, 88,059 antigen- or disease-specific antibodies, and 306 million clones extracted from 2,449 human IGH Rep-seq datasets generated from individuals with 29 different health conditions. RAPID also integrates a standardized Rep-seq dataset analysis pipeline to enable users to upload and analyse their datasets. In the process, users can also select set of existing repertoires for comparison. RAPID automatically annotates clones based on integrated therapeutic and known antibodies, and users can easily query antibodies or repertoires based on sequence or optional keywords. With its powerful analysis functions and rich set of antibody and antibody repertoire information, RAPID will benefit researchers in adaptive immune studies.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 639-653, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is a heterogeneous condition with multiple underlying causes, risk factors, and outcomes. Subtyping CKD with multidimensional patient data holds the key to precision medicine. Consensus clustering may reveal CKD subgroups with different risk profiles of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used unsupervised consensus clustering on 72 baseline characteristics among 2696 participants in the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to identify novel CKD subgroups that best represent the data pattern. Calculation of the standardized difference of each parameter used the cutoff of ±0.3 to show subgroup features. CKD subgroup associations were examined with the clinical end points of kidney failure, the composite outcome of cardiovascular diseases, and death. RESULTS: The algorithm revealed three unique CKD subgroups that best represented patients' baseline characteristics. Patients with relatively favorable levels of bone density and cardiac and kidney function markers, with lower prevalence of diabetes and obesity, and who used fewer medications formed cluster 1 (n=1203). Patients with higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity and who used more medications formed cluster 2 (n=1098). Patients with less favorable levels of bone mineral density, poor cardiac and kidney function markers, and inflammation delineated cluster 3 (n=395). These three subgroups, when linked with future clinical end points, were associated with different risks of CKD progression, cardiovascular disease, and death. Furthermore, patient heterogeneity among predefined subgroups with similar baseline kidney function emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus clustering synthesized the patterns of baseline clinical and laboratory measures and revealed distinct CKD subgroups, which were associated with markedly different risks of important clinical outcomes. Further examination of patient subgroups and associated biomarkers may provide next steps toward precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Function Tests , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Young Adult
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: An unblinded cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. Two cabins were randomly allocated to a CM or control group, with 204 mild COVID-19 participants in each cabin. All participants received conventional treatment over a 7 day period, while the ones in CM group were additionally given Huashibaidu granule 10 g twice daily. Participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was worsening symptoms before the clinical endpoint. The secondary outcomes were cure and discharge before the clinical endpoint and alleviation of composite symptoms after the 7 days of treatment. Results: All 408 participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of worsening patients in the CM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%) with a significant difference between groups (P = 0.014). Eight foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups (P = 0.151). Conclusion: Seven days of early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced the likelihood of worsening symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19. Our study supports Huashibaidu granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar well-managed medical environments. Clinical Trial Registration:www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49408, identifier: ChiCTR2000029763.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 731593, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441121

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated whether there were sex differences in adverse reactions to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among medical staff in China. Methods: From 24 February to 7 March 2021 an online cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered COVID-19 vaccine questionnaire among medical staff in Taizhou, China. In total, 1397 interviewees (1,107 women and 290 men) participated in the survey. Results: In our study, 178 (16.1%) women and 23 (7.9%) men reported adverse reactions following their first vaccination, and 169 (15.3%) women and 35 (12.1%) men reported adverse reactions following their second vaccination. After adjusting for confounding factors, adverse reactions to other vaccines, worry about adverse reactions, knowledge of the inactivated vaccine being used in the hospital, taking the vaccine for one's family proactively and receiving an influenza vaccination were significantly related to adverse reactions to both injections in women. In contrast, in men, concerns about adverse reactions independently increased the risk of adverse reactions following either vaccination, and a history of adverse reactions to other vaccines also increased the risk of adverse reactions to both injections. Conclusions: Sex differences in the frequency of reported adverse reactions to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and potential factors were demonstrated in a sample of medical staff.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048611, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a virtual reality simulation training programme, and further verify the effect of the programme on improving the response capacity of emergency reserve nurses confronting public health emergencies. DESIGN: A prospective quasiexperimental design with a control group. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 nurses were recruited and randomly divided into the control group and the intervention group. INTERVENTION: Participants underwent a 3-month training. The control group received the conventional training of emergency response (eg, theoretical lectures, technical skills and psychological training), while the intervention group underwent the virtual reality simulation training in combination with skills training. The COVID-19 cases were incorporated into the intervention group training, and the psychological training was identical to both groups. At the end of the training, each group conducted emergency drills twice. Before and after the intervention, the two groups were assessed for the knowledge and technical skills regarding responses to fulminate respiratory infectious diseases, as well as the capacity of emergency care. Furthermore, their pandemic preparedness was assessed with a disaster preparedness questionnaire. RESULTS: After the intervention, the scores of the relevant knowledge, the capacity of emergency care and disaster preparedness in the intervention group significantly increased (p<0.01). The score of technical skills in the control group increased more significantly than that of the intervention group (p<0.01). No significant difference was identified in the scores of postdisaster management in two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The virtual reality simulation training in combination with technical skills training can improve the response capacity of emergency reserve nurses as compared with the conventional training. The findings of the study provide some evidence for the emergency training of reserve nurses in better response to public health emergencies and suggest this methodology is worthy of further research and popularisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses, Public Health , Simulation Training , Virtual Reality , China , Clinical Competence , Emergencies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 16: 100268, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415636

ABSTRACT

Background: Non pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) including hand washing directives were implemented in China and worldwide to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, which are likely to have had impacted a broad spectrum of enteric pathogen infections. Methods: Etiologically diagnostic data from 45 937 and 67 395 patients with acute diarrhea between 2012 and 2020, who were tested for seven viral pathogens and 13 bacteria respectively, were analyzed to assess the changes of enteric pathogen infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. Findings: Test positive rates of all enteric viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with a relative decrease of 71•75% for adenovirus, 58•76% for norovirus, 53•50% for rotavirus A, and 72•07% for the combination of other four uncommon viruses. In general, a larger reduction of positive rate in viruses was seen among adults than pediatric patients. A rebound of rotavirus A was seen after September 2020 in North China rather than South China. Test positive rates of bacteria decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, excepting for nontyphoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter coli with 66•53% and 90•48% increase respectively. This increase was larger for pediatric patients than for adult patients. Interpretation: The activity of enteric pathogens changed profoundly alongside the NPIs implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Greater reductions of the test positive rates were found for almost all enteric viruses than for bacteria among acute diarrhea patients, with further large differences by age and geography. Lifting of NPIs will lead to resurgence of enteric pathogen infections, particularly in children whose immunity may not have been developed and/or waned. Funding: China Mega-Project on Infectious Disease Prevention; National Natural Science Funds.

15.
Chem Sci ; 11(36): 9904-9909, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387499

ABSTRACT

We present a near-term treatment strategy to tackle pandemic outbreaks of coronaviruses with no specific drugs/vaccines by combining evolutionary and physical principles to identify conserved viral domains containing druggable Zn-sites that can be targeted by clinically safe Zn-ejecting compounds. By applying this strategy to SARS-CoV-2 polyprotein-1ab, we predicted multiple labile Zn-sites in papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro), nsp10 transcription factor, and nsp13 helicase. These are attractive drug targets because they are highly conserved among coronaviruses and play vital structural/catalytic roles in viral proteins indispensable for virus replication. We show that five Zn-ejectors can release Zn2+ from PLpro and nsp10, and clinically-safe disulfiram and ebselen can not only covalently bind to the Zn-bound cysteines in both proteins, but also inhibit PLpro protease. We propose combining disulfiram/ebselen with broad-spectrum antivirals/drugs to target different conserved domains acting at various stages of the virus life cycle to synergistically inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and reduce the emergence of drug resistance.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1403, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374723

ABSTRACT

Background: The occupancy of healthcare resources by the COVID-19 outbreak had led to the unmet health needs of non-COVID-19 diseases. We aimed to explore whether the social media information could help surveil and understand the characteristics of unmet non-COVID-19 health needs during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan city. Methods: This was an observational study based on social media data. The study period was set during the 3 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. Non-COVID-19 urgent and emergent health needs in Wuhan city were derived from Sina Weibo-one of China's largest social media platforms. Lag Spearman correlation was used to investigate the epidemiological relationship between the COVID-19 outbreak and non-COVID-19 health needs. Patient's primary diseases and needed care were annotated and categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision. The delay time in seeking help was calculated and compared. Results: After screening 114,795 Weibo posts, a total of 229 patients with non-COVID-19 health needs were included in our study. There were significant correlations between the daily number of COVID-19 cases at a 10-day lag, deaths at a 5-day lag, and non-COVID-19 Weibo. The actual number of non-COVID-19 patients with urgent and emergent health needs was estimated to be about 6,966. Patients with non-COVID-19 health needs were skewed to those aged 50 to 70 years. The non-COVID-19 diseases were diverse, with 46.3% as non-neoplastic diseases and 53.7% as neoplasms. The most needed cares were palliative cancer care (22.7%), chemotherapy (18.8%), and critical care (17.0%). The median delay in seeking help was 3 days [interquartile range (IQR), 1 to 15 days] for acute care, and 18.5 days (IQR, 6 to 30 days) for cancer care. Conclusions: Our preliminary findings in Wuhan city indicated that the social media data might provide a viable option to surveil and understand the unmet health needs during an outbreak. Those heterogeneous health needs derived from the social media data might inspire a more resilient healthcare system to address the unmet needs promptly.

17.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1051-1071, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352581

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. No specific treatment and vaccine with documented safety and efficacy for the disease have been established. Hence it is of utmost importance to identify more therapeutics such as Chinese medicine formulae to meet the urgent need. Qing Fei Pai Du Tang (QFPDT), a Chinese medicine formula consisting of 21 herbs from five classical formulae has been reported to be efficacious on COVID-19 in 10 provinces in mainland China. QFPDT could prevent the progression from mild cases and shorten the average duration of symptoms and hospital stay. It has been recommended in the 6th and 7th versions of Clinical Practice Guideline on COVID-19 in China. The basic scientific studies, supported by network pharmacology, on the possible therapeutic targets of QFPDT and its constituent herbs including Ephedra sinica, Bupleurum chinense, Pogostemon cablin, Cinnamomum cassia, Scutellaria baicalensis were reviewed. The anti-oxidation, immuno-modulation and antiviral mechanisms through different pathways were collated. Two clusters of actions identified were cytokine storm prevention and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding regulation. The multi-target mechanisms of QFPDT for treating viral infection in general and COVID-19 in particular were validated. While large scale clinical studies on QFPDT are being conducted in China, one should use real world data for exploration of integrative treatment with inclusion of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and herb-drug interaction studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/history , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 336-341, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343609

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spreading and ravaging all over the world, and the number of deaths is increasing day by day without downward trend. However, there is limited knowledge of pathogenesis on the deterioration of COVID-19 at present. In this study we aim to determine whether cytokine storm is really the chief culprit for the deterioration of COVID-19. The confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into moderate group (n = 89), severe group (n = 37), and critical group (n = 41). Demographic data were collected and recorded on admission to ICU. Clinical data were obtained when moderate, severe, or critical COVID-19 was diagnosed, and then compared between groups. The proportion of enrolled COVID-19 patients was slightly higher among males (52.5%) than females (47.5%), with an average age of 64.87 years. The number of patients without comorbidities exceed one third (36.1%), and patients with 1, 2, 3, 4 kinds of comorbidities accounted for 23.0%, 23.0%, 13.1%, and 4.9%, respectively. IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IFN-γ, including oxygenation index, sequential organ failure assessment score, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, platelet, C-reaction protein, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, albumin, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen showed significant difference between groups. Some, but not all, cytokines and chemokines were involved in the deterioration of COVID-19, and thus cytokine storm maybe just the tip of the iceberg and should be used with caution to explain pathogenesis on the deterioration of COVID-19, which might be complex and related to inflammation, immunity, blood coagulation, and multiple organ functions. Future studies should focus on identification of specific signaling pathways and mechanisms after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections (IRB number: IRB-AF/SC-04/01.0).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Deterioration , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(21): 5955-5962, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a highly contagious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is wreaking havoc around the world due to continuous spread among close contacts mainly via droplets, aerosols, contaminated hands or surfaces. Therefore, centralized isolation of close contacts and suspected patients is an important measure to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. At present, the quarantine duration in most countries is 14 d due to the fact that the incubation period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is usually identified as 1-14 d with median estimate of 4-7.5 d. Since COVID-19 patients in the incubation period are also contagious, cases with an incubation period of more than 14 d need to be evaluated. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine of The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University on April 5 due to a cough with sputum and shortness of breath. On April 10, the patient was transferred to the Fever Clinic for further treatment due to close contact to one confirmed COVID-19 patient in the same room. During the period from April 10 to May 6, nucleic acid and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were tested 7 and 4 times, respectively, all of which were negative. On May 7, the patient developed fever with a maximum temperature of 39℃, and his respiratory difficulties had deteriorated. The results of nucleic acid and antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2 were positive. On May 8, the nucleic acid and antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2 by Heilongjiang Provincial Center for Disease Control were also positive, and the patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 and reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of the SARS-CoV-2 incubation period. Further epidemiological investigations and clinical observations are urgently needed to identify the optimal incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 and formulate rational and evidence-based quarantine policies for COVID-19 accordingly.

20.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327426

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and ravages the world.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that R. crenulata might have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating the immune response and inhibiting cytokine storm.Aim. We aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism for Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata), against the immune regulation of COVID-19, and to provide a referenced candidate Tibetan herb (R. crenulata) to overcome COVID-19.Methodology. Components and targets of R. crenulata were retrieved from the TCMSP database. GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were built by R bioconductor package to explore the potential biological effects for targets of R. crenulata. The R. crenulata-compound-target network, target pathway network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed using Cytoscape 3.3.0. Autodock 4.2 and Discovery Studio software were applied for molecular docking.Result. Four bioactive components (quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside and tamarixetin) and 159 potential targets of R. crenulata were identified from the TCMSP database. The result of GO annotation and KEGG-pathway-enrichment analyses showed that target genes of R. crenulata were associated with inflammatory response and immune-related signalling pathways, especially IL-17 signalling pathway, and TNF signalling pathway. Targets-pathway network and PPI network showed that IL-6, IL-1B and TNF-α were considered to be hub genes. Molecular docking showed that core compound (quercetin) had a certain affinity with IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α.Conclusion. R. crenulata might play an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory role in the cytokine storm of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Rhodiola/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tibet
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