Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7329-7339, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to build a radiomics model with deep learning (DL) and human auditing and examine its diagnostic value in differentiating between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Forty-three COVID-19 patients, whose diagnoses had been confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) tests, and 60 CAP patients, whose diagnoses had been confirmed with sputum cultures, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The candidate regions of interest (ROIs) on the computed tomography (CT) images of the 103 patients were determined using a DL-based segmentation model powered by transfer learning. These ROIs were manually audited and corrected by 3 radiologists (with an average of 12 years of experience; range 6-17 years) to check the segmentation acceptance for the radiomics analysis. ROI-derived radiomics features were subsequently extracted to build the classification model and processed using 4 different algorithms (L1 regularization, Lasso, Ridge, and Z test) and 4 classifiers, including the logistic regression (LR), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme Gradient Boosting (XGboost). A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of the model. RESULTS: Quantitative CT measurements derived from human-audited segmentation results showed that COVID-19 patients had significantly decreased numbers of infected lobes compared to patients in the CAP group {median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 4 [3, 4] and 4 [4, 5]; P=0.031}. The infected percentage (%) of the whole lung was significantly more elevated in the CAP group [6.40 (2.77, 11.11)] than the COVID-19 group [1.83 (0.65, 4.42); P<0.001], and the same trend applied to each lobe, except for the superior lobe of the right lung [1.81 (0.09, 5.28) for COVID-19 vs. 1.32 (0.14, 7.02) for CAP; P=0.649]. Additionally, the highest proportion of infected lesions were observed in the CT value range of (-470, -370) Hounsfield units (HU) in the COVID-19 group. Conversely, the CAP group had a value range of (30, 60) HU. Radiomic model using corrected ROIs exhibited the highest area under ROC (AUC) of 0.990 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.962-1.000] using Lasso for feature selection and MLP for classification. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed radiomics model based on human-audited segmentation made accurate differential diagnoses of COVID-19 and CAP. The quantification of CT measurements derived from DL could potentially be used as effective biomarkers in current clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Computers , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929851, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Through January 2021, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to create significant pressure on medical staff who have worked to treat patients with the disease and control its spread. This study aimed to increase understanding of the situation and influencing factors of nurses' work interruption in Wuhan's isolation ward during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS A self-designed general situation questionnaire and work interruption questionnaire were used to survey 160 nurses from Beijing, Chongqing, and Jilin who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in March 2020. The questionnaire could only be answered once by each nurse via a WeChat account. The submitted answers were verified by 2 researchers. RESULTS The results showed that the rate of interruption of work among nurses in the isolation ward was 25%, and the rate of nurses experiencing a negative experience was 96.9%. The results of univariate analysis showed that the following factors were related to the work interruption of the nurses in the isolation ward (all P<0.05): emergency public incident training; emergency public incident treatment experience; knowledge of COVID-19 pneumonia; hours worked per shift in the quarantine area; and negative physiologic experience. Logistic regression analysis showed that negative experience, hours worked per shift, and emergency public incident training were the independent factors influencing work interruption among nurses in the isolation wards. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of interruption of work among nurses in the isolation ward was 25%. Negative experiences, long working hours per shift, and lack of emergency public incident training made the nurses more prone to work interruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/economics , Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , China/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/supply & distribution , Nurses/trends , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/economics
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173659, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071289

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is currently spreading around the world. The WHO declared on January 31 that the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was a public health emergency. SARS-Cov-2 is a member of highly pathogenic coronavirus group that also consists of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although respiratory tract lesions were regarded as main manifestation of SARS-Cov-2 infection, gastrointestinal lesions were also reported. Similarly, patients with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were also observed. Common gastrointestinal symptoms of patients mainly included diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal lesions could be used as basis for early diagnosis of patients, and at the same time, controlling gastrointestinal lesions better facilitated to cut off the route of fecal-oral transmission. Hence, this review summarizes the characteristics and mechanism of gastrointestinal lesions caused by three highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, as well as SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it is expected to gain experience from gastrointestinal lesions caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections in order to be able to better relieve SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Targetin gut microbiota to regulate the process of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be a concern. Especially, the application of nanotechnology may provide help for further controlling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033603

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in more than 50 million confirmed cases and over 1 million deaths worldwide as of November 2020. Currently, there are no effective antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration to contain this pandemic except the antiviral agent remdesivir. In addition, the trimeric spike protein on the viral surface is highly glycosylated and almost 200,000 variants with mutations at more than 1,000 positions in its 1,273 amino acid sequence were reported, posing a major challenge in the development of antibodies and vaccines. It is therefore urgently needed to have alternative and timely treatments for the disease. In this study, we used a cell-based infection assay to screen more than 3,000 agents used in humans and animals, including 2,855 small molecules and 190 traditional herbal medicines, and identified 15 active small molecules in concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 50 µM. Two enzymatic assays, along with molecular modeling, were then developed to confirm those targeting the virus 3CL protease and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Several water extracts of herbal medicines were active in the cell-based assay and could be further developed as plant-derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Some of the active compounds identified in the screen were further tested in vivo, and it was found that mefloquine, nelfinavir, and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (RF3), Perilla frutescens, and Mentha haplocalyx were effective in a challenge study using hamsters as disease model.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Repositioning/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(12): 1271-5, 2020 Dec 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect and the mechanism of the adjuvant treatment with moxibustion on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 95 patients with COVID-19 were randomly divided into a moxibustion group (45 cases) and a basic treatment group (50 cases). The routine treatment of western medicine was applied in the patients of both groups. In the moxibustion group, on the base of the treatment of western medicine, moxibustion was applied to Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Qihai (CV 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), once daily and consecutively for 14 days. At the end of treatment courses, clinical symptom scores for cough, asthmatic breathing, chest oppression and short breath, as well as their remission rates were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Before and after treatment, the white blood cell (WBC) count, the levels of c-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the absolute number of T lymphocyte subsets, i.e. , and of the peripheral blood were compared in the patients between the two groups. The principal component analysis was adopted to analyze the common data extracted from the above 10 clinical indexes variables and comprehensively evaluate the differences in the therapeutic effect of two regimens. RESULTS: The clinical symptom scores were all decreased after treatment in both of the moxibustion group and the basic treatment group as compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the clinical symptom scores of cough, chest oppression and asthmatic breathing in the moxibustion group were lower significantly than those in the basic treatment group (P<0.05) and the remission rates of cough, chest oppression and asthmatic breathing were higher than the basic treatment group (P<0.05). After treatment, WBC count was increased as compared with that before treatment in either group (P<0.05) and the levels of CRP and IL-6 in the moxibustion group were reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). The reducing range of IL-6 level in the moxibustion group was larger than the basic treatment group (P<0.05). After treatment, the absolute number of , and T lymphocytes was increased as compared with that before treatment in the moxibustion group (P<0.05), and its increase range was larger than the basic treatment group (P<0.05). The difference value was 33.38 for the score of comprehensive evaluation before and after treatment in the moxbustion group, higher obviously than 8.91 in the basic treatment group. CONCLUSION: On the base of the routine treatment with western medicine, moxibustion therapy supplemented relieves the clinical symptoms, reduces the levels of inflammatory indexes, i.e. IL-6 and CRP as well as improves the absolute number of peripheral T lymphocyte subsets. The clinical therapeutic effect of such regimen with moxibustion supplemented is significantly better than the simple routine treatment of western medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Inflammation/therapy , Moxibustion , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Acupuncture Points , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count
7.
World J Diabetes ; 11(12): 644-653, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease spreading all over the world and has aroused global concerns. The increasing mortality has revealed its severity. It is important to distinguish severe patients and provide appropriate treatment and care to prevent damages. Diabetes is reported to be a common comorbidity in COVID-19 patients and associated with higher mortality. We attempted to clarify the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 patients' severity. AIM: To determine the role of type 2 diabetes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: To study the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19, we retrospectively collected 61 patients' data from a tertiary medical center in Wuhan. All the patients were diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and admitted to the center from February 13 to March 1, 2020. Patients' age, sex, laboratory tests, chest computed tomography findings, capillary blood glucose (BG), and treatments were collected and analyzed. Fisher exact test was used for categorical data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and patients' severity. RESULTS: In the 61 patients, the comorbidity of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases were 24.6% (15 out of 61), 37.7% (23 out of 61), and 11.5% (7 out of 61), respectively. The diabetic group was related to more invasive treatments (P = 0.02) and severe status (P = 0.003). In univariate logistic regression, histories of diabetes (OR = 7.13, P = 0.003), hypertension (OR = 3.41, P = 0.039), and hepatic dysfunction (OR = 7.69, P = 0.002) were predictors of patients' severity while heart disease (OR = 4.21, P = 0.083) and large lung involvement (OR = 2.70, P = 0.093) also slightly exacerbated patients' conditions. In the multivariate analysis, diabetes (OR = 6.29, P = 0.016) and hepatic dysfunction (OR = 5.88, P = 0.018) were risk factors for severe patients. Diabetic patients showed elevated BG in 61.7% of preprandial tests and 33.3% of postprandial tests, revealing the limited control of glycemia in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: A history of type 2 diabetes is correlated with invasive treatments and severe status. Suboptimal glycemic control and hepatic dysfunction have negative effects on severity status and may lead to the exacerbation of COVID-19 patients.

8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(1): e23654, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing cardiac injury. Identifying the factors that affect high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I may indicate the cause of cardiac injury in elderly patients, and this could hopefully assist in protecting heart function in this patient population. METHODS: One hundred and eighty inpatients who were admitted for COVID-19 were screened. Patients older than 60 years were included in this study, and the clinical characteristics and laboratory results of the cohort were analyzed. The correlation between cardiac injury and clinical/laboratory variables was statistically analyzed, and further logistic regression was performed to determine how these variables influence cardiac injury in geriatric patients. RESULTS: Age (p < 0.001) significantly correlated with cardiac injury, whereas sex (p = 0.372) and coexisting diseases did not. Rising procalcitonin (p = 0.001), interleukin-2 receptor (p < 0.001), interleukin 6 (p = 0.001), interleukin 10 (p < 0.001), tumor necrosis factor α (p = 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), white blood cells (p < 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.001), declining lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and natural killer cells (p = 0.005) were associated with cardiac injury and showed predictive ability in the multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that age and inflammatory factors influence cardiac injury in elderly patients. Interfering with inflammation in this patient population may potentially confer cardiac protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Killer Cells, Natural , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/virology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Risk Factors , Troponin T/blood
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 17-26, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866906

ABSTRACT

Since the initial emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, a rapid spread of the disease occurred around the world, rising to become an international global health concern at pandemic level. In the face of this medical challenge threatening humans, the development of rapid and accurate methods for early screening and diagnosis of COVID-19 became crucial to containing the emerging public health threat, and prevent further spread within the population. Despite the large number of COVID-19 confirmed cases in China, some problematic cases with inconsistent laboratory testing results, were reported. Specifically, a high false-negative rate of 41% on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays was observed in China. Although serological testing has been applied worldwide as a complementary method to help identify SARS-CoV-2, several limitations on its use have been reported in China. Therefore, the use of both qRT-PCR and serological testing in the diagnosis of COVID-19 in China and elsewhere, presented considerable challenges, but when used in combination, can be valuable tools in the fight against COVID-19. In this review, we give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of different molecular techniques for SARS-CoV-2 detection that are currently used in several labs, including qRT-PCR, gene sequencing, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid mass spectrometry (MS), and gene editing technique based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas13) system. Then we mainly review and analyze some causes of false-negative qRT-PCR results, and how to resolve some of the diagnostic dilemma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Viral Load
10.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-989

ABSTRACT

Background: An emerging outbreak of COVID-19 has rapidly caused global pandemic. Few studies were reported on the incidence and role of influenza virus co-infec

11.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(4): 1516-1527, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782600

ABSTRACT

Background: Radiological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) featured ground-glass opacities (GGOs), especially in the early stage, which might create confusion in differential diagnosis with early lung cancer. We aimed to specify the radiological characteristics of COVID-19 and early lung cancer and to unveil the discrepancy between them. Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven COVID-19 patients and 374 early lung cancer patients from four hospitals in China were retrospectively enrolled. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics were compared between the two groups using propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Results: COVID-19 patients had more distinct symptoms, tended to be younger (P<0.0001), male (P<0.0001), and had a higher body mass index (P=0.014). After 1:1 PSM, 121 matched pairs were identified. Regarding radiological characteristics, patients with a single lesion accounted for 17% in COVID-19 and 89% in lung cancer (P<0.0001). Most lesions were peripherally found in both groups. Lesions in COVID-19 involved more lobes (median 3.5 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and segments (median 6 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and tended to have multiple types (67%) with patchy form (54%). Early lung cancer was more likely to have a single type (92%) with oval form (66%). Also, COVID-19 and early lung cancer either had some distinctive features on computed tomography (CT) images. Conclusions: Both COVID-19 and early lung cancers showed GGOs, with similar but independent features. The imaging characteristics should be fully understood and combined with epidemiological history, pathogen detection, laboratory tests, short-term CT reexamination, and pathological results to aid differential diagnosis.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21310, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-702282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, there have been many cases of viral pneumonia of unknown causes in Wuhan City, Hubei Province. During the period of novel coronavirus, according to the observation of limited autopsy and biopsy pathological results, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis appeared in some pathological changes of lung. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia with unknown etiology and pathological changes limited to the lung. At present, there is still a lack of reevaluation of systematic evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine treatment IPF. Therefore, a systematic re-evaluation of the systematic evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis may help to understand the effective treatment scheme of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis and provide more reliable evidence for the first-line clinicians to treat novel coronavirus. METHODS: We will search 3 foreign electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed) and 4 Chinese electronic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], WangFang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database [CBM], and Chinese Scientific Journal Database [VIP]) to collect potential systematic reviews from their inceptions to February 2020. The language of publication is limited to Chinese or English. We will consider SRs and meta-analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Two reviewers will identify relevant studies, and then assess the methodological quality by assessment of multiple systematic reviews-2 tool. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) report checklist to assess the quality of reports included in the study. In order to better evaluate the systematic evaluation included in this research, risk of bias in systematic review tool is included in this research to evaluate the methodological quality. The quality of evidence of the included systematic reviews was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The Primary outcomes include: Clinical total effective rate, curative effect of TCM symptoms, pulmonary function and blood gas analysis. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to obtain reliable evidence from systematic analysis of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in an available and useful document. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202060029.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
13.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(8): 2535-2545, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754993

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), took tens of thousands of lives and caused tremendous economic losses. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a potential target for treatment of COVID-19 due to its critical role in maturation of viral proteins and subsequent viral replication. Conceptually and technically, targeting therapy against Mpro is similar to target therapy to treat cancer. Previous studies show that GC376, a broad-spectrum dipeptidyl Mpro inhibitor, efficiently blocks the proliferation of many animal and human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). Due to the conservation of structure and catalytic mechanism of coronavirus main protease, repurposition of GC376 against SARS-CoV-2 may be an effective way for the treatment of COVID-19 in humans. To validate this conjecture, the binding affinity and IC50 value of Mpro with GC376 was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, respectively. The results showed that GC376 binds to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro tightly (KD = 1.6 µM) and efficiently inhibit its proteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.89 µM). We also elucidate the high-resolution structure of dimeric SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in complex with GC376. The cocrystal structure showed that GC376 and the catalytic Cys145 of Mpro covalently linked through forming a hemithioacetal group and releasing a sulfonic acid group. Because GC376 is already known as a broad-spectrum antiviral medication and successfully used in animal, it will be a suitable candidate for anti-COVID-19 treatment.

14.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003195, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of June 1, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 6,000,000 infected persons and 360,000 deaths globally. Previous studies revealed pregnant women with COVID-19 had similar clinical manifestations to nonpregnant women. However, little is known about the outcome of neonates born to infected women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective study, we studied 29 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection delivered in 2 designated general hospitals in Wuhan, China between January 30 and March 10, 2020, and 30 neonates (1 set of twins). Maternal demographic characteristics, delivery course, symptoms, and laboratory tests from hospital records were extracted. Neonates were hospitalized if they had symptoms (5 cases) or their guardians agreed to a hospitalized quarantine (13 cases), whereas symptom-free neonates also could be discharged after birth and followed up through telephone (12 cases). For hospitalized neonates, laboratory test results and chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) were extracted from hospital records. The presence of antibody of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in the serum of 4 neonates. Among 29 pregnant COVID-19-infected women (13 confirmed and 16 clinical diagnosed), the majority had higher education (56.6%), half were employed (51.7%), and their mean age was 29 years. Fourteen women experienced mild symptoms including fever (8), cough (9), shortness of breath (3), diarrhea (2), vomiting (1), and 15 were symptom-free. Eleven of 29 women had pregnancy complications, and 27 elected to have a cesarean section delivery. Of 30 neonates, 18 were admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital for quarantine and care, whereas the other 12 neonates discharged after birth without any symptoms and had normal follow-up. Five hospitalized neonates were diagnosed as COVID-19 infection (2 confirmed and 3 suspected). In addition, 12 of 13 other hospitalized neonates presented with radiological features for pneumonia through X-ray or CT screening, 1 with occasional cough and the others without associated symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 specific serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured in 4 neonates and 2 were positive. The limited sample size limited statistical comparison between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed COVID-19 or radiological features of pneumonia in some, but not all, neonates born to women with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that intrauterine or intrapartum transmission is possible and warrants clinical caution and further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031954 (Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter retrospective cohort study).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(11): 10059-10069, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459080

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the clinical value of abnormal laboratory results of multiple organs in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and to help clinicians perform correct treatment. RESULTS: Elevated neutrophil-to-LYM ratio (NLR), D-dimer(D-D), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-2, interferon-Y, and age were significantly associated with the severity of illness. However, significant and sustained decreases were observed in the LYM subset (p<0.05). D-D, T cell counts, and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 patients who survived the disease gradually recovered at later time points to levels that were comparable to those of mild cases. Second, D-D increased from 0.5 to 8, and the risk ratio increased from 2.75 to 55, eventually leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Moreover, the acute renal function damage occurred earlier than abnormal heart and liver functions (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The degrees of lymphopenia and proinflammatory cytokine storm were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in mild cases. The degree was associated with the disease severity. Advanced age, NLR, D-D, and cytokine levels may serve as useful prognostic factors for the early identification of severe COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 93 confirmed COVID-19 patients. The samples were examined for lymphocyte (LYM) subsets by flow cytometry and cytokine profiles by specific immunoassays. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the best diagnostic thresholds for laboratory results, and principal component analysis was used to screen the major risk factors. The prognostic values were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curve and univariate and multivariate COX regression models.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokines/blood , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(4): 515-525, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-325674

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN)-λ plays an essential role in mucosal cells which exhibit strong antiviral activity. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) has substantial application potential in the food and medical industries because of its probiotic properties. Alphacoronaviruses, especially porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), cause high morbidity and mortality in piglets resulting in economic loss. Co-infection by these two viruses is becoming increasingly frequent. Therefore, it is particularly important to develop a new drug to prevent diarrhea infected with mixed viruses in piglets. In this study, we first constructed an anchored expression vector with CWA (C-terminal cell wall anchor) on L. plantarum. Second, we constructed two recombinant L. plantarum strains that anchored IFN-λ3 via pgsA (N-terminal transmembrane anchor) and CWA. Third, we demonstrated that both recombinant strains possess strong antiviral effects against coronavirus infection in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2). However, recombinant L. plantarum with the CWA anchor exhibited a more powerful antiviral effect than recombinant L. plantarum with pgsA. Consistent with this finding, Lb.plantarum-pSIP-409-IFN-λ3-CWA enhanced the expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) (ISG15, OASL, and Mx1) in IPEC-J2 cells more than did recombinant Lb.plantarum-pSIP-409-pgsA'-IFN-λ3. Our study verifies that recombinant L. plantarum inhibits PEDV and TGEV infection in IPEC-J2 cells, which may offer great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in therapeutic applications for combating porcine epidemic diarrhea and transmissible gastroenteritis. This study is the first to show that recombinant L. plantarum suppresses PEDV and TGEV infection of IPEC-J2 cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/prevention & control , Interferons/administration & dosage , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/genetics , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/immunology , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Gene Expression , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Male , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...