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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296376

ABSTRACT

Health-related rumors spreading online during a public crisis may pose a serious threat to people's well-being. Existing crisis informatics research lacks in-depth insights into the characteristics of health rumors and the efforts to debunk them on social media in a pandemic. To fill this gap, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of four months of rumor-related online discussion during COVID-19 on Weibo, a Chinese microblogging site. Results suggest that the dread (cause fear) type of health rumors provoked significantly more discussions and lasted longer than the wish (raise hope) type. We further explore how four kinds of social media users (i.e., government, media, organization, and individual) combat health rumors, and identify their preferred way of sharing debunking information and the key rhetoric strategies used in the process. We examine the relationship between debunking and rumor discussions using a Granger causality approach, and show the efficacy of debunking in suppressing rumor discussions, which is time-sensitive and varies across rumor types and debunkers. Our results can provide insights into crisis informatics and risk management on social media in pandemic settings.

2.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(1): 121-126, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. Confronting the new coronavirus infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging and requires excluding patients with suspected COVID-19 who actually have other diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical features and CT manifestations of COVID-19 by comparing patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia who presented at a fever observation department in Shanghai, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients were retrospectively enrolled in the study from January 19 through February 6, 2020. All patients underwent real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. RESULTS. Eleven patients had RT-PCR test results that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, whereas 22 patients had negative results. No statistical difference in clinical features was observed (p > 0.05), with the exception of leukocyte and platelet counts (p < 0.05). The mean (± SD) interval between onset of symptoms and admission to the fever observation department was 4.40 ± 2.00 and 5.52 ± 4.00 days for patients with positive and negative RT-PCR test results, respectively. The frequency of opacifications in patients with positive results and patients with negative results, respectively, was as follows: ground-glass opacities (GGOs), 100.0% versus 90.9%; mixed GGO, 63.6% versus 72.7%; and consolidation, 54.5% versus 77.3%. In patients with positive RT-PCR results, GGOs were the most commonly observed opacification (seen in 100.0% of patients) and were predominantly located in the peripheral zone (100.0% of patients), compared with patients with negative results (31.8%) (p = 0.05). The median number of affected lung lobes and segments was higher in patients with positive RT-PCR results than in those with negative RT-PCR results (five vs 3.5 affected lobes and 15 vs nine affected segments; p < 0.05). Although the air bronchogram reticular pattern was more frequently seen in patients with positive results, centrilobular nodules were less frequently seen in patients with positive results. CONCLUSION. At the point during the COVID-19 outbreak when this study was performed, imaging patterns of multifocal, peripheral, pure GGO, mixed GGO, or consolidation with slight predominance in the lower lung and findings of more extensive GGO than consolidation on chest CT scans obtained during the first week of illness were considered findings highly suspicious of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Outbreaks , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-499

ABSTRACT

Background: To study the clinical features and CT manifestations of patients with confirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia and compare between patients with and without 20

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21429, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696106

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The COVID-19 cases increased very fast in January and February 2020. The mortality among critically ill patients, especially the elder ones, is relatively high. Considering many patients died of severe inflammation response, it is urgent to develop effective therapeutic strategies for these patients. The human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have shown good capabilities to modulate the immune response and repair the injured tissue. Therefore, investigating the potential of hUCMSCs to the treatment of COVID-19 critically ill patients is necessary. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old woman felt fatigued and had a fever with body temperature of 38.2C, coughed up white foaming sputum. After 1 day, she had chest tightness with SPO2 of 81%, and blood pressure of 160/91 mm Hg. DIAGNOSE: According to the guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (Trial 4th Edition), COVID-19 was diagnosed, based on the real-time RT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: After regular treatment for 12 days, the inflammation symptom of the patient was still very severe and the potential side effects of corticosteroid were observed. Then, allogenic hUCMSCs were given 3 times (5 × 10 cells each time) with a 3-day interval, together with thymosin α1 and antibiotics daily injection. OUTCOMES: After these treatments, most of the laboratory indexes and CT images showed remission of the inflammation symptom. The patient was subsequently transferred out of ICU, and the throat swabs test reported negative 4 days later. LESSONS: These results indicated the clinical outcome and good tolerance of allogenic hUCMSCs transfer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Radiol Infect Dis ; 7(3): 97-105, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644939

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients with progressive and non-progressive CT manifestations. Methods: 160 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively included from Wenzhou and Wuhan, China. CT features including lesion position, attenuation, form and total scores (0-4) at the segment level were evaluated. Other images signs were also assessed. 65 patients were classified as progressive (group 1) and 95 as non-progressive CT (group 2) groups according to score changes between the initial and second CT. Results: Symptoms onset-initial CT interval time in group 1 [5 (2, 7) days] were significantly shorter than that in group 2 [10 (8, 14) days] (P < 0.001). Group 2 had higher radiological scores, with more lobes and segments affected, and other CT signs (P < 0.05). In group 1, radiological scores, the number of lobes and segments affected as well as lesions in both peripheral and central distribution, mixed ground grass opacity and consolidation density, and patchy form increased in the second CT (P < 0.05). More reticular pattern, subpleural linear opacity and bronchial dilatation were also found (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Typically radiological characteristics of progressive CT patients could potentially help to predict changes and increase understanding of the natural history of COVID-19.

7.
Eur Radiol ; 30(12): 6797-6807, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a predictive model and scoring system to enhance the diagnostic efficiency for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: From January 19 to February 6, 2020, 88 confirmed COVID-19 patients presenting with pneumonia and 80 non-COVID-19 patients suffering from pneumonia of other origins were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical data and laboratory results were collected. CT features and scores were evaluated at the segmental level according to the lesions' position, attenuation, and form. Scores were calculated based on the size of the pneumonia lesion, which graded at the range of 1 to 4. Air bronchogram, tree-in-bud sign, crazy-paving pattern, subpleural curvilinear line, bronchiectasis, air space, pleural effusion, and mediastinal and/or hilar lymphadenopathy were also evaluated. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that history of exposure (ß = 3.095, odds ratio (OR) = 22.088), leukocyte count (ß = - 1.495, OR = 0.224), number of segments with peripheral lesions (ß = 1.604, OR = 1.604), and crazy-paving pattern (ß = 2.836, OR = 2.836) were used for establishing the predictive model to identify COVID-19-positive patients (p < 0.05). In this model, values of area under curve (AUC) in the training and testing groups were 0.910 and 0.914, respectively (p < 0.001). A predicted score for COVID-19 (PSC-19) was calculated based on the predictive model by the following formula: PSC-19 = 2 × history of exposure (0-1 point) - 1 × leukocyte count (0-2 points) + 1 × peripheral lesions (0-1 point) + 2 × crazy-paving pattern (0-1 point), with an optimal cutoff point of 1 (sensitivity, 88.5%; specificity, 91.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Our predictive model and PSC-19 can be applied for identification of COVID-19-positive cases, assisting physicians and radiologists until receiving the results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. KEY POINTS: • Prediction of RT-PCR positivity is crucial for fast diagnosis of patients suspected of having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). • Typical CT manifestations are advantageous for diagnosing COVID-19 and differentiation of COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. • A predictive model and scoring system combining both clinical and CT features were herein developed to enable high diagnostic efficiency for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(4): 940-944, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. Because CT plays an important role in diagnosis, isolation, treatment, and effective evaluation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), infection prevention and control management of CT examination rooms is important. CONCLUSION. We describe modifications to the CT examination process, strict disinfection of examination rooms, arrangement of waiting areas, and efforts to increase radiographers' awareness of personal protection made at our institution during the COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, we discuss the potential of using artificial intelligence in imaging patients with contagious diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Radiol Infect Dis ; 7(2): 55-61, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125055

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and to explore whether quantitative computer tomography (CT) could be used to assess severity on admission. Materials and methods: From January 17 to February 9, 2020, 38 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were consecutively enrolled in our hospitals. All clinical data and the chest CT on admission were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Firstly, a quantitative method based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks was used to assess the infected lung segments and this was compared with the semi-quantitative method. Secondly, the quantitative method was tested with laboratory results and the pneumonia severity index (PSI) by correlation analyses. Thirdly, both quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters between patients with different PSI were compared. Results: Thirty cases were finally enrolled: 16 (53.33%) of them were male, and the mean age was 48 years old. The interval from onset symptoms to first chest CT scan was 8 days. The proportion of ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and the total lesion based on the quantitative method was positively correlated with the semi-quantitative CT score (P < 0.001 for all; rs = 0.88, 0.87, 0.90), CRP (P = 0.0278, 0.0168, 0.0078; rs = 0.40, 0.43, 0.48) and ESR (P = 0.0296, 0.0408, 0.0048; rs = 0.46, 0.44, 0.58), respectively, and was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count (P = 0.0222, 0.0024, 0.0068; rs = -0.42, -0.53, -0.48). There was a positive correlation trend between the proportion of total infection and the pneumonia severity index (P = 0.0994; rs = 0.30) and a tendency that patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia had higher percentage of consolidation and total infection (P = 0.0903, 0.0989). Conclusions: Quantitative CT may have potential in assessing the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia on admission.

11.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47416

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a public health emergency due to its rapid transmission. The appearance of pneumonia is one of the major clues for the diagnosis, progress and therapeutic evaluation. More and more literatures about imaging manifestations and related research have been reported. In order to know about the progress and prospective on imaging of COVID-19, this review focus on interpreting the CT findings, stating the potential pathological basis, proposing the challenge of patients with underlying diseases, differentiating with other diseases and suggesting the future research and clinical directions, which would be helpful for the radiologists in the clinical practice and research.

13.
J Infect ; 80(4): 388-393, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about COVID-19 outside Hubei. The aim of this paper was to describe the clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 149 RT-PCR confirmed positive patients were consecutively enrolled from January 17th to February 10th, 2020 in three tertiary hospitals of Wenzhou. Outcomes were followed up until Feb 15th, 2020. FINDINGS: A total of 85 patients had Hubei travel/residence history, while another 49 had contact with people from Hubei and 15 had no traceable exposure history to Hubei. Fever, cough and expectoration were the most common symptoms, 14 patients had decreased oxygen saturation, 33 had leukopenia, 53 had lymphopenia, and 82 had elevated C-reactive protein. On chest computed tomography (CT), lung segments 6 and 10 were mostly involved. A total of 287 segments presented ground glass opacity, 637 presented mixed opacity and 170 presented consolidation. Lesions were more localized in the peripheral lung with a patchy form. No significant difference was found between patients with or without Hubei exposure history. Seventeen patients had normal CT on admission of these, 12 had negative findings even10 days later. INTERPRETATION: Most patients presented with a mild infection in our study. The imaging pattern of multifocal peripheral ground glass or mixed opacity with predominance in the lower lung is highly suspicious of COVID-19 in the first week of disease onset. Nevetheless, some patients can present with a normal chest finding despite testing positive for COVID-19. FUNDING: We did not receive any fundings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough , Female , Fever , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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