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1.
Physica A ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1843035

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we use the improved event study method to analyze the changes in the systemic risk trends of various financial sectors after the outbreak of COVID-19. The analysis is based on the daily return data of 45 Chinese financial institutions from January 2, 2019, to November 30, 2020. The improved event study method is also used to explore the horizontal, trend, and public opinion effects of the systemic risk. The empirical analysis results show that: (1) the occurrence of COVID-19 will increase the level and volatility of systemic risk in the financial industry. (2) After the outbreak of COVID-19, there is no horizontal effect in all financial industries. The banking and securities industries have significant and longer-lasting positive trend effects, and from the perspective of trend effects, in the face of external shocks, the banking industry is more stable than the securities industry. (3) After the outbreak of COVID-19, the banking and securities industries have a public opinion effect, which is gradually weakened;but there is no public opinion effect in the insurance industry.

2.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1842931

ABSTRACT

Graphical Image, graphical Background The cytokine storm (CS) triggered by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused serious harm to health of Humanity and huge economic burden to the world, and there is a lack of effective methods to treat this complication. Purpose In this research, we used network pharmacology and molecular docking to reveal the interaction mechanism in the glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) for the treatment of CS, and validated the effect of GA intervention CS by experiments. Study design First, we screened corresponding target of GA and CS from online databases, and obtained the action target genes through the Venn diagram. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of the action target genes were acquired by R language to predict its mechanism. Next, molecular docking was performed on core targets. Finally, experiments in which GA intervened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CS were implemented. Results 84 action target genes were obtained from online database. The PPI network of target genes showed that TNF, IL6, MAPK3, PTGS2, ESR1 and PPARG were considered as the core genes. The results of GO and KEGG showed that action target genes were closely related to inflammatory and immune related signaling pathways, such as TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, Human cytomegalovirus infection, PPAR signaling pathway and so on. Molecule docking results prompted that GA had fine affinity with IL-6 and TNF-α proteins. Finally, in vivo and in vitro experimental results showed that GA could significantly inhibit LPS-induced CS. Conclusion GA has a potential inhibitory effect on CS, which is worthy of further exploration.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809866

ABSTRACT

Syndromic surveillance involves the near-real-time collection of data from a potential multitude of sources to detect outbreaks of disease or adverse health events earlier than traditional forms of public health surveillance. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the role of syndromic surveillance during mass gathering scenarios. In the present review, the use of syndromic surveillance for mass gathering scenarios is described, including characteristics such as methodologies of data collection and analysis, degree of preparation and collaboration, and the degree to which prior surveillance infrastructure is utilized. Nineteen publications were included for data extraction. The most common data source for the included syndromic surveillance systems was emergency departments, with first aid stations and event-based clinics also present. Data were often collected using custom reporting forms. While syndromic surveillance can potentially serve as a method of informing public health policy regarding specific mass gatherings based on the profile of syndromes ascertained, the present review does not indicate that this form of surveillance is a reliable method of detecting potentially critical public health events during mass gathering scenarios.


Subject(s)
Sentinel Surveillance , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Population Surveillance , Public Health Surveillance/methods
5.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1762748

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytokine storm (CS) is a systemic inflammatory syndrome and a major cause of multi-organ failure and even death in COVID-19 patients. With the increasing number of COVID-19 patients, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic strategies for CS. Baicalin is an anti-inflammatory and antiviral traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic mechanism of baicalin against CS through network analysis and experimental validation, and to detect key targets of CS that may bind closely to baicalin through molecular docking. Method: Access to potential targets of baicalin and CS in public databases. We constructed the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of baicalin and CS by Cytoscape 9.0 software and performed network topology analysis of the potential targets. Then, the hub target was identified by molecular docking technique and validated in the CS model. Finally, GO and KEGG pathway functional enrichment analysis of common targets were confirmed using R language, and the location of overlapping targets in key pathways was queried via KEGG Mapper. Result: A total of 86 overlapping targets of baicalin and CS were identified, among which MAPK14, IL2, FGF2, CASP3, PTGS2, PIK3CA, EGFR, and TNF were the core targets. Moreover, it was found that baicalin bound most closely to TNF through molecular docking, and demonstrated that baicalin can effectively inhibit the elevation of TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, bioenrichment analysis revealed that the TNF signaling pathway and IL-17 signaling pathway may be potential key pathways for baicalin to treat CS. Conclusion: Based on this study, baicalin was identified as a potential drug for the alleviation of CS, and the possible key targets and pathways of baicalin for the treatment of CS were elucidated to reveal the main pharmacological mechanisms.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311938

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between echocardiography results and lung ultrasound score (LUS) in coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia patients and to evaluate the impact of their combined application in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : Hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients who underwent lung ultrasound and echocardiography daily were included in this study. Patients with tricuspid regurgitation within 3 days of admission were enrolled, and the correlation and differences between their pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and LUS on days 3, 8, and 13 were compared. The inner diameter of the pulmonary artery root and the size of the atria and ventricles were also observed. Results: : Pulmonary artery pressure within 3 days (on day 3, 8 and 13) of admission was positively correlated with LUS ( r = 0.448, p = 0.003;r = 0.738, p = 0.000;r = 0.325, p = 0.036). On day 8 the values of both PAP and LUS were higher than their corresponding values on days 3 and 13 ( p < 0.01). On day 8 the positive rate for increased PAP and LUS was 92.9% (39/42) and 90.5% (38/42), respectively, and the combined positive rate for these two was 97.6% (41/42). On day 8 the inner diameters of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery differed significantly from their corresponding values on days 3 and 13 ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: : PAP is positively correlated with LUS. The two should be combined for a more informative assessment of the status of recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia.

7.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 20(1): 2, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between echocardiography results and lung ultrasound score (LUS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia patients and evaluate the impact of the combined application of these techniques in the evaluation of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients who underwent daily lung ultrasound and echocardiography were included in this study. Patients with tricuspid regurgitation within three days of admission were enrolled. Moreover, the correlation and differences between their pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and LUS on days 3, 8, and 13 were analyzed. The inner diameter of the pulmonary artery root as well as the size of the atria and ventricles were also considered. RESULTS: The PAP on days 3, 8, and 13 of hospitalization was positively correlated with the LUS (r = 0.448, p = 0.003; r = 0.738, p < 0.001; r = 0.325, p = 0.036, respectively). On day 8, the values of both PAP and LUS were higher than on days 3 and 13 (p < 0.01). Similarly, PAP and LUS were significantly increased in 92.9% (39/42) and 90.5% (38/42) of patients, respectively, and at least one of these two values was positive in 97.6% (41/42) of cases. The inner diameters of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery also differed significantly from their corresponding values on days 3 and 13 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PAP is positively correlated with LUS in COVID-19 pneumonia. The two values could be combined for a more precise assessment of disease progression and recovery status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Echocardiography , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
8.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545908

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Understanding chemical-gene interactions (CGIs) is crucial for screening drugs. Wet experiments are usually costly and laborious, which limits relevant studies to a small scale. On the contrary, computational studies enable efficient in-silico exploration. For the CGI prediction problem, a common method is to perform systematic analyses on a heterogeneous network involving various biomedical entities. Recently, graph neural networks become popular in the field of relation prediction. However, the inherent heterogeneous complexity of biological interaction networks and the massive amount of data pose enormous challenges. This paper aims to develop a data-driven model that is capable of learning latent information from the interaction network and making correct predictions. RESULTS: We developed BioNet, a deep biological networkmodel with a graph encoder-decoder architecture. The graph encoder utilizes graph convolution to learn latent information embedded in complex interactions among chemicals, genes, diseases and biological pathways. The learning process is featured by two consecutive steps. Then, embedded information learnt by the encoder is then employed to make multi-type interaction predictions between chemicals and genes with a tensor decomposition decoder based on the RESCAL algorithm. BioNet includes 79 325 entities as nodes, and 34 005 501 relations as edges. To train such a massive deep graph model, BioNet introduces a parallel training algorithm utilizing multiple Graphics Processing Unit (GPUs). The evaluation experiments indicated that BioNet exhibits outstanding prediction performance with a best area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.952, which significantly surpasses state-of-theart methods. For further validation, top predicted CGIs of cancer and COVID-19 by BioNet were verified by external curated data and published literature.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Models, Biological , Neural Networks, Computer
9.
Chinese Journal of Dermatovenereology ; 35(11):1257-1261, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1524653

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impact of COVID-19 on HIV/AIDS case report in Nanning, and provide reference for the AIDS exploration during the period for prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(39): 8185-8201, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414146

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a hyperinflammatory state called the cytokine storm was recognized as a major contributor to multiple organ failure and mortality. However, to date, the diagnosis and treatment of the cytokine storm remain major challenges for the clinical prognosis of COVID-19. In this review, we outline various nanomaterial-based strategies for preventing the COVID-19 cytokine storm. We highlight the contribution of nanomaterials to directly inhibit cytokine release. We then discuss how nanomaterials can be used to deliver anti-inflammatory drugs to calm the cytokine storm. Nanomaterials also play crucial roles in diagnostics. Nanomaterial-based biosensors with improved sensitivity and specificity can be used to detect cytokines. In summary, emerging nanomaterials offer platforms and tools for the detection and treatment of the COVID-19 cytokine storm and future pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Humans
11.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(9): 3332-3339, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406537

ABSTRACT

With the popularization of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) technologies, more and more deep learning methods are developed to facilitate the detection of ophthalmic diseases. In this article, the deep learning-based detections for some common eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are analyzed. Generally speaking, morphological change in retina reveals the presence of eye disease. Then, while using some existing deep learning methods to achieve this analysis task, the satisfactory performance may not be given, since fundus images usually suffer from the impact of data imbalance and outliers. It is, therefore, expected that with the exploration of effective and robust deep learning algorithms, the detection performance could be further improved. Here, we propose a deep learning model combined with a novel mixture loss function to automatically detect eye diseases, through the analysis of retinal fundus color images. Specifically, given the good generalization and robustness of focal loss and correntropy-induced loss functions in addressing complex dataset with class imbalance and outliers, we present a mixture of those two losses in deep neural network model to improve the recognition performance of classifier for biomedical data. The proposed model is evaluated on a real-life ophthalmic dataset. Meanwhile, the performance of deep learning model with our proposed loss function is compared with the baseline models, while adopting accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as the evaluation metrics. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Glaucoma , Algorithms , Fundus Oculi , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , ROC Curve
12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7360-7369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rational use of antibiotics received great attention in China, therefore the multifaceted antimicrobial stewardship (MAMS) is urgently required in hospital management. We conducted this study to assess the impact of a MAMS programme on antimicrobial use in a tertiary teaching hospital in Shanghai. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital in Shanghai. The MAMS programme involved multifaceted interventions consisting of a quality premium with financial incentives, antibiotic restriction, audit and feedback, and education. Data were extracted from the electronic medical records of inpatients to analyse monthly and annual antibiotic consumption and the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions during 2017-2020. Segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time series was used to contrast antimicrobial use during 2019-2020, with non-MAMS data from the 2017-2018 period as the historical control. RESULTS: With MAMS implementation, antibiotic consumption decreased from 63.3 (59.3, 67.2) defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patient-days (PD) to 43.3 (39.0, 49.8) DDDs/100 PD (P<0.001), and the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 44.8% (44.1%, 45.4%) to 43.3% (42.2%, 44.3%) (P<0.001). Segmented regression models suggested a reduction in antibiotic consumption (coefficient = -12.537, P<0.001) and indicated a downward trend in the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions (coefficient =-0.165, P=0.049). Neither antibiotic consumption nor the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions was influenced by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that MAMS plays an important role in reducing antibiotic use and is not affected by special circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This novel intervention, consisting of a quality premium and multidisciplinary cooperation, should be prioritized by policy and decision makers, where rational management of antimicrobial use is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , China , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 626633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325534

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health concern. We aimed to study the cytokine profile during the convalescent phase and its association with liver functions. We performed a retrospective study to investigate the longitudinal dynamic serum cytokine, liver function, and metabolomic profiles, as well as their potential correlations, from the viral replication phase to early convalescence. Our results demonstrated that liver injury was common. Liver injury was significantly associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). However, alanine aminotransferase levels decreased during the first week after hospital discharge (p < 0.01). In parallel, T-cell and B-cell immune response-stimulating cytokine IL-4, but not IL-2, was significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Furthermore, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TFN-α) levels increased, in contrast to the decrease in IL-6 and IL-10 levels; liver function returned to normal. The metabolomic analysis supported active recovery during early convalescence of COVID-19 patients that had distinct metabolic profiles associated with the hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified a metabolomic association of IL-4 with liver repair. Our findings suggest that discharged patients continue to recover from the physiological effects of COVID-19, and the association of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels with metabolic changes and liver function repair may have important implications for clinical manifestations and treatment of COVID-19.

14.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104872, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318931

ABSTRACT

The rapidly progressing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global concern. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of current option of therapies for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) besides COVID-19, in an attempt to identify promising therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The primary outcomes were mortality, virological eradication and clinical improvement, and secondary outcomes were improvement of symptoms and chest radiography results, incidence of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), utilization of mechanical ventilation, and adverse events (AEs). Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models, and the quality of evidence was appraised using GRADEpro. Eighteen articles (5 RCTs, 2 prospective cohort studies, and 11 retrospective cohort studies) involving 4,941 patients were included. Compared with control treatment, anti-coronary virus interventions significantly reduced mortality (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.96; I2 = 81.3%), remarkably ameliorate clinical improvement (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.19) and radiographical improvement (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.36, I2 = 11.0 %), without manifesting clear effect on virological eradication, incidence of ARDS, intubation, and AEs. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the combination of ribavirin and corticosteroids remarkably decreased mortality (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.68). The lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination showed superior virological eradication and radiographical improvement with reduced rate of ARDS. Likewise, hydroxychloroquine improved radiographical result. For safety, ribavirin could induce more bradycardia, anemia and transaminitis. Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine could increase AEs rate especially diarrhea. Overall, the quality of evidence on most outcomes were very low. In conclusion, although we could not draw a clear conclusion for the recommendation of potential therapies for COVID-19 considering the very low quality of evidence and wide heterogeneity of interventions and indications, our results may help clinicians to comprehensively understand the advantages and drawbacks of each anti-coronavirus agents on efficacy and safety profiles. Lopinavir/ritonavir combinations might observe better virological eradication capability than other anti-coronavirus agents. Conversely, ribavirin might cause more safety concerns especially bradycardia. Thus, large RCTs objectively assessing the efficacy of antiviral therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infections should be conducted with high priority.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(11): e2021GL092770, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294437

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), China conducted a nationwide lockdown (LD) which significantly reduced anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the different impacts of COVID-19 on black carbon (BC) in the two representative regions in China, one-year continuous online measurements of BC were conducted simultaneously in Beijing and Tibet. The average concentration in the LD period was 20% higher than that in the pre-LD period in Beijing, which could be attributed to the increase of transport from southwestern neighboring areas and enhanced aged BC. In contrast to megacity, the average concentration of BC in Tibet decreased over 70% in the LD period, suggesting high sensitivity of plateau background areas to the anthropogenic emission reduction in South Asia. Our study clearly showed that BC responded very differently in megacity and background areas to the change of anthropogenic emission under the lockdown intervention.

16.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(11): e2021GL092770, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223062

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), China conducted a nationwide lockdown (LD) which significantly reduced anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the different impacts of COVID-19 on black carbon (BC) in the two representative regions in China, one-year continuous online measurements of BC were conducted simultaneously in Beijing and Tibet. The average concentration in the LD period was 20% higher than that in the pre-LD period in Beijing, which could be attributed to the increase of transport from southwestern neighboring areas and enhanced aged BC. In contrast to megacity, the average concentration of BC in Tibet decreased over 70% in the LD period, suggesting high sensitivity of plateau background areas to the anthropogenic emission reduction in South Asia. Our study clearly showed that BC responded very differently in megacity and background areas to the change of anthropogenic emission under the lockdown intervention.

17.
Environ Res ; 197: 111157, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193309

ABSTRACT

Based on a review of COVID-19 research from an environmental health perspective, this study theorizes the interdependence of the society, environment and health, and presents an integrated framework for environmental health problems arising due to COVID-19. Five guiding principles are proposed for conducting environmental health research, including employing a transdisciplinary approach, embracing complexity and uncertainty, addressing vulnerability, boosting resilience and promoting sustainable development. This study propagates that the pandemic could be an opportunity for sustainable transformation, wherein visionary leadership that facilitates sustainability policies based on environmental health science is required. This study can serve as a consolidated guide for professionals and stakeholders who conduct environmental health research in this challenging field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Environmental Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4195

ABSTRACT

A review. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has run rampant across the world, with a rapid transmission rate and a high infection rate. Ultrasound can dynamically guide the diagnosis of pneumonia in COVID-19 patients, monitor patients' medical conditions, and facilitate the treatment evaluation for the adjustment of therapeutic decision-making, for its advantages of portability, easy sterilization, and multiple diagnostic mode. Moreover, ultrasonic remote consultation can be carried out by intelligent ultrasonic equipment with the support of 4G/5G network. Ultrasonic experts can complete real-time scanning through remote operation of ultrasonic robot manipulators, thus effectively relieving the shortage of ultrasonic doctors in isolation wards and reducing infection risks. At present, ultrasound is the only visual imaging device that can be brought into the isolation zone for bedside examination of COVID-19 patients. This article aims to analyze the ultrasound technol. applied in the examination, diagnosis, medical condition monitoring, and treatment evaluation of lung injury and even systemic multiple organ diseases in patients with COVID-19, and discuss the prospect of application of remote ultrasound and artificial in the relevant fields.

19.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3987

ABSTRACT

A review. COVID-19 is spreading worldwide, but there is still a lack of specific treatments for severe patients. Viral infection induces cytokine storm (CS), leading to immunopathol. damage, which is the core mechanism of the occurrence and development of severe pneumonia. Therefore, the treatment for viral pneumonia by immunomodulation and inhibiting the CS is increasingly concerned. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of epidemics. With strong anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, TCM is expected to inhibit the CS, reduce the tissue damage, and improve the prognosis of patients. In this paper, based on the perspective of anti-inflammation and the CS inhibition, the role and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of TCM in the treatment of viral pneumonia are summarized, and the application prospect of TCM to the intervention for COVID-19 is prospected.

20.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(22): 1527, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, first manifested in December 2019, and spread rapidly worldwide. Facing this lethal disease, there is an urgent need to develop potent therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetically and symptomatically resembles SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Numerous agents have been utilised during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemics, which may show some benefit against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CBM Disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and the China Science and Technology Journal Database will be searched. Manual searches will be conducted by searching pre-printing websites, clinical trial registers, and screening the reference lists of inclusive studies. The screening of all citations and the selection of inclusive articles will be conducted by two reviewers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled cohort studies reporting antiviral therapies, including ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon, for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 will be included. The primary outcomes will be mortality, incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and utilisation of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit admission. The secondary outcomes will be improvement in symptoms and chest radiography results, virus clearance, changes in blood test results, and serum tests. The quality of the retrieved RCTs and observational studies will be appraised according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. If feasible, we will perform a fixed- or random-effects meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will summarise all the available evidence for the efficacy and safety of current therapeutic options in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The findings of this study may inform subsequent antiviral interventions for patients with COVID-19. STUDY REGISTRATION: The protocol of this study has been submitted to the PROSPERO platform (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/), and the registration number is CRD42020168639.

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