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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 885: 163827, 2023 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309679

ABSTRACT

Natural ventilation is an energy-efficient design approach to reduce infection risk (IR), but its optimized design in a coach bus environment is less studied. Based on a COVID-19 outbreak in a bus in Hunan, China, the indoor-outdoor coupled CFD modeling approach is adopted to comprehensively explore how optimized bus natural ventilation (e.g., opening/closing status of front/middle/rear windows (FW/MW/RW)) and ceiling wind catcher (WCH) affect the dispersion of pathogen-laden droplets (tracer gas, 5 µm, 50 µm) and IR. Other key influential factors including bus speed, infector's location, and ambient temperature (Tref) are also considered. Buses have unique natural ventilation airflow patterns: from bus rear to front, and air change rate per hour (ACH) increases linearly with bus speed. When driving at 60 km/h, ACH is only 6.14 h-1 and intake fractions of tracer gas (IFg) and 5 µm droplets (IFd) are up to 3372 ppm and 1394 ppm with ventilation through leakages on skylights and no windows open. When FW and RW are both open, ACH increases by 43.5 times to 267.50 h-1, and IFg and IFd drop rapidly by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to when no windows are open. Utilizing a wind catcher and opening front windows significantly increases ACH (up to 8.8 times) and reduces IF (5-30 times) compared to only opening front windows. When the infector locates at the bus front with FW open, IFg and IFd of all passengers are <10 ppm. More droplets suspend and further spread in a higher Tref environment. It is recommended to open two pairs of windows or open front windows and utilize the wind catcher to reduce IR in coach buses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Wind , Respiration , China , Ventilation
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1015184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268877

ABSTRACT

Background: Inactivated vaccine is one of the primary technology types of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, which has wide application in many countries, including mainland China. However, systematic evaluation of the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 inactivated vaccines remains limited. And trust in the vaccine is the key to solving vaccine hesitancy. Methods: Various academic databases were searched comprehensively for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to COVID-19 inactivated vaccines. The deadline for retrieval was December 2021. Study screening and data extraction were according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan software 5.3 version and STATA software 16.0 version. Results: Eight studies with 79,334 subjects were included of which 48,123 had received two doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccines, and 31,211 had received two doses of placebo. The results of the meta-analysis showed that: in terms of effectiveness evaluation, two doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccines decreased the symptomatic infection [relative risk (RR) = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.18,0.30), P < 0.00001], asymptomatic infection [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.74), P = 0.0008], total infection [RR = 0.32, 95%CI (0.24, 0.41), P < 0.00001] and hospitalization [RR = 0.06, 95%CI (0.01, 0.27), P = 0.0002] for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) significantly. In terms of safety assessment, two doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccines also caused more adverse events. After two inoculations, total adverse events and systemic adverse events increased significantly [total adverse events RR = 1.14, 95%CI (1.08, 1.21), P < 0.00001; systemic adverse events RR = 1.22, 95%CI (1.09, 1.35), P = 0.0002]. The most common adverse event was pain at the injection site. Almost all local adverse reactions consisted of these events. The incidence of pain at the injection site was related to adjuvants. Using aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant increased local pain significantly [RR = 1.97, 95%CI (1.52, 2.55), P < 0.00001]. Two doses COVID-19 inactivated vaccines did not increase serious adverse events [RR = 0.71, 95%CI (0.57, 0.90), P = 0.004]. Conclusion: Two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in people over 18 years of age effectively prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated hospitalizations. Short-term, mild to moderate adverse reactions had occurred, but serious adverse events were rare. No placebo or vaccine-related deaths had been reported. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier: 42021291250.

3.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2706961.v1

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers remains unclear. Hence, an investigation into their prevalence and the changes before and during the pandemic is needed. Objective: To provide a comprehensive summary of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers internationally and to compare this before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data Sources: A literature search was conducted using Medline, PubMed databases, and Embase for observational studies from their establishment in January 1963, January 1963, and January 1989, respectively, to August 2022. Study Selection: A standardized search strategy was applied to the databases with keywords assembled into three categories, including “healthcare workers”, “anxiety symptoms”, and “miscellaneous”. The inclusion criteria were: (I) evaluation of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers employed in hospitals; (II) measured through validation tools or questionnaires; (III) published in English. The exclusion criteria were: (I) no overall prevalence of anxiety provided; (II) case series, case reports, intervention research, and commentaries. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The protocol was developed based on the PRISMA guidelines. The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a random effects model. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): The articles were analyzed according to subgroups divided based on the time of the studies conducted, participant occupations, locations, screening instruments, and publication years. Results: A total of 358 cross-sectional articles with 373 estimates from 65 countries were included. The overall prevalence of anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers was 41.4% (95% CI, 39.3-43.4). The prevalence of anxiety symptoms before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were 40.7% (95% CI: 34.1-47.3) and 41.2% (95% CI: 39.1-43.3), respectively. Compared with studies before the pandemic, a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was identified among nurses, residents, and physicians during the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: A considerable proportion of healthcare workers have experienced anxiety symptoms, with their global prevalence increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is needed to determine effective prevention and treatment strategies, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Systematic review registration: CRD42022370819.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 231: 123282, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237653

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. However, there are still no anti-PEDV drugs with accurate targets. G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical secondary structures formed within guanine-rich regions of DNA or RNA, and have attracted great attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we reported two putative G4-forming sequences (PQS) in S and Nsp5 genes of PEDV genome based on bioinformatic analysis, and identified that S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS were enabled to fold into G4 structure by using circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence turn-on assay. Furthermore, we verified that both S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS PQS could form G4 structure in live cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, G4-specific compounds, such as TMPyP4 and PDS, could significantly inhibit transcription, translation and proliferation of PEDV in vitro. Importantly, these compounds exert antiviral activity at the post-entry step of PEDV infection cycle, by inhibiting viral genome replication and protein expression. Lastly, we demonstrated that TMPyP4 can inhibit reporter gene expression by targeting G4 structure in Nsp5. Taken together, these findings not only reinforce the presence of viral G-quadruplex sequences in PEDV genome but also provide new insights into developing novel antiviral drugs targeting PEDV RNA G-quadruplexes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , G-Quadruplexes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Antiviral Agents , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
5.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0161422, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223572

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) indicates the disease of the acute and highly contagious intestinal infection due to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), with the characteristics of watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. One of the reasons for diarrhea and death of piglets is PEDV, which leads to 100% mortality in neonatal piglets. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the interaction between virus and host to prevent and control PEDV. This study indicated that the host protein, pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (PRPF19), could be controlled by the signal transducer as well as activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Thus, PEDV replication could be hindered through selective autophagy. Moreover, PRPF19 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. For the purpose of degradation, the ubiquitin N protein is acknowledged by the cargo receptor NDP52 and transported to autolysosomes, thus inhibiting virus proliferation. To conclude, a unique antiviral mechanism of PRPF19-mediated virus restriction was shown. Moreover, a view of the innate immune response and protein degradation against PEDV replication was provided in this study. IMPORTANCE The highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in 2010, and causes high mortality rates in newborn pigs. There are no effective and safe vaccines against the highly virulent PEDV. This virus has caused devastating economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. Studying the relationship between virus and host antiviral factors is important to develop the new antiviral strategies. This study identified the pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (PRPF19) as a novel antiviral protein in PEDV replication and revealed its viral restriction mechanisms for the first time. PRPF19 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to the PEDV N protein for ubiquitination, and the ubiquitin N protein was acknowledged by the cargo receptor NDP52 and transported to autolysosomes for degradation. Our findings provide new insights in host antiviral factors PRPF19 that regulate the selective autophagy protein degradation pathway to inhibit PEDV replication.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins , Virus Replication/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy
7.
Virol Sin ; 38(2): 296-308, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184345

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. However, there remain no effective drugs against PEDV infection. In this study, we utilized a recombinant PEDV expressing renilla luciferase (PEDV-Rluc) to screen potential anti-PEDV agents from an FDA-approved drug library in Vero cells. Four compounds were identified that significantly decreased luciferase activity of PEDV-Rluc. Among them, niclosamide was further characterized because it exhibited the most potent antiviral activity with the highest selectivity index. It can efficiently inhibit viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and viral progeny production of classical and variant PEDV strains in a dose-dependent manner. Time of addition assay showed that niclosamide exhibited potent anti-PEDV activity when added simultaneously with or after virus infection. Furthermore, niclosamide significantly inhibited the entry stage of PEDV infection by affecting viral internalization rather than viral attachment to cells. In addition, a combination with other small molecule inhibitors of endosomal acidification enhanced the anti-PEDV effect of niclosamide in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggested that niclosamide is a novel antiviral agent that might provide a basis for the development of novel drug therapies against PEDV and other related pathogenic coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization
8.
Food Bioscience ; : 102350, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165300

ABSTRACT

As a non-thermal food processing technology, Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation has been used to enhance microbial safety by deactivating unwanted spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in food industry. This study evaluated the effects of E-beam irradiation at doses killing SARS-COV-2 on qualities and sensory attributes. The results showed that irradiation caused little effect on the proximate composition, amino acid content, texture, and sensory attributes (P > 0.05). However, E-beam increased TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and lowered vitamin E content in dose-dependently. Irradiation up to 10 kGy significantly decreased unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content and inhibited the increase in TVB-N (The total volatile basic nitrogen) while reducing cohesiveness and chewiness (P < 0.05). E-beam irradiation with 7–10 kGy caused greater ΔE values (ΔE > 5) via the significant increase of b*, accompanied by big visual difference in shrimp (P < 0.05). A dose of 4 kGy E-beam irradiation was recommended without altering its physicochemical properties and sensory attributes.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 869832, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952258

ABSTRACT

As of April 1, 2022, over 468 million COVID-19 cases and over 6 million deaths have been confirmed globally. Unlike the common coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has highly contagious and attracted a high level of concern worldwide. Through the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 structural, non-structural, and accessory proteins, we can gain a deeper understanding of structure-function relationships, viral infection mechanisms, and viable strategies for antiviral therapy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the first widely acknowledged SARS-CoV-2 receptor, but researches have shown that there are additional co-receptors that can facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 to infect humans. We have performed an in-depth review of published papers, searching for co-receptors or other auxiliary membrane proteins that enhance viral infection, and analyzing pertinent pathogenic mechanisms. The genome, and especially the spike gene, undergoes mutations at an abnormally high frequency during virus replication and/or when it is transmitted from one individual to another. We summarized the main mutant strains currently circulating global, and elaborated the structural feature for increased infectivity and immune evasion of variants. Meanwhile, the principal purpose of the review is to update information on the COVID-19 outbreak. Many countries have novel findings on the early stage of the epidemic, and accruing evidence has rewritten the timeline of the outbreak, triggering new thinking about the origin and spread of COVID-19. It is anticipated that this can provide further insights for future research and global epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
10.
Build Environ ; 220: 109160, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850735

ABSTRACT

The influencing mechanism of droplet transmissions inside crowded and poorly ventilated buses on infection risks of respiratory diseases is still unclear. Based on experiments of one-infecting-seven COVID-19 outbreak with an index patient at bus rear, we conducted CFD simulations to investigate integrated effects of initial droplet diameters(tracer gas, 5 µm, 50 µm and 100 µm), natural air change rates per hour(ACH = 0.62, 2.27 and 5.66 h-1 related to bus speeds) and relative humidity(RH = 35% and 95%) on pathogen-laden droplet dispersion and infection risks. Outdoor pressure difference around bus surfaces introduces natural ventilation airflow entering from bus-rear skylight and leaving from the front one. When ACH = 0.62 h-1(idling state), the 30-min-exposure infection risk(TIR) of tracer gas is 15.3%(bus rear) - 11.1%(bus front), and decreases to 3.1%(bus rear)-1.3%(bus front) under ACH = 5.66 h-1(high bus speed).The TIR of large droplets(i.e., 100 µm/50 µm) is almost independent of ACH, with a peak value(∼3.1%) near the index patient, because over 99.5%/97.0% of droplets deposit locally due to gravity. Moreover, 5 µm droplets can disperse further with the increasing ventilation. However, TIR for 5 µm droplets at ACH = 5.66 h-1 stays relatively small for rear passengers(maximum 0.4%), and is even smaller in the bus middle and front(<0.1%). This study verifies that differing from general rooms, most 5 µm droplets deposit on the route through the long-and-narrow bus space with large-area surfaces(L∼11.4 m). Therefore, tracer gas can only simulate fine droplet with little deposition but cannot replace 5-100 µm droplet dispersion in coach buses.

11.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1190553.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition leading to severe pulmonary injuries, and proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) might elucidate potential biomarkers for diagnosis and targets for treatment of ARDS. Methods: Through iTRAQ analysis, we investigated paired BALF samples from three ARDS patients in the acute and recovery phases. The proteins sharing the same expression patterns between the two ARDS phases among different patients were determined as co-upregulated and co-downregulated proteins (CUDPs), and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), whose fold change > 1.2 and P value < 0.05, were selected from CUDPs. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were applied to determine the enriched functions and pathways of the CUDPs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was generated at STRING database, and hub genes were identified by the Cytoscape software. A549 cells were treated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate alveolar epithelial cells in ARDS. Results: We identified 374 CUDPs and 53 DEPs. The GO analysis indicated that the most significantly enriched function was neutrophil mediated immunity response, and the KEGG analysis revealed that the 374 CUDPs were most significantly enriched in Coronavirus disease COVID-19 interaction. RPSA was discovered as the most top hub gene among DEPs, and was downregulated at protein levels during ARDS recovery. Moreover, we further confirmed that both RNA and protein level of RPSA increased upon inflammatory stimulation in vitro. Conclusion: Our results proposed RPSA as a candidate for biomarker and therapeutic target of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Lung Injury , COVID-19
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25479, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) seriously affects humans' health worldwide physically and mentally. Studies revealed that the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increased under this condition. PTSD can change the structure of patients' central nervous system, and increase the risk of anxiety or depression, thus greatly affecting the quality of patients' life and their families. PTSD is preventable, and the effects of early prevention are better. Non-drug intervention can prevent or reduce the psychological sequelae after hospitalization, help patients understand the experience during hospitalization, and be beneficial to their psychological rehabilitation. Whether smartphone app based intervention can be an alternative therapy for PTSD in terms of COVID-19 convalescent patients is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the effects of smartphone app based intervention on PTSD in COVID-19 convalescent patients, so as to provide some guidance for clinical application. METHODS: The literatures that are related to the smartphone app based intervention and PTSD in COVID-19 convalescent patients from inception to February 2021 will be searched. The following databases are our focused areas: ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials repositories, PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science databases. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 2 investigators would independently screen the literature extract data and evaluate the risk of bias in the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study could provide evidence for the judgment of whether smartphone app based intervention is an effective intervention on PTSD in COVID-19 convalescent patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021240340.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mobile Applications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145537, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061972

ABSTRACT

Virus-laden droplets dispersion may induce transmissions of respiratory infectious diseases. Existing research mainly focuses on indoor droplet dispersion, but the mechanism of its dispersion and exposure in outdoor environment is unclear. By conducting CFD simulations, this paper investigates the evaporation and transport of solid-liquid droplets in an open outdoor environment. Droplet initial sizes (dp = 10 µm, 50 µm, 100 µm), background relative humidity (RH = 35%, 95%), background wind speed (Uref = 3 m/s, 0.2 m/s) and social distances between two people (D = 0.5 m, 1 m, 1.5 m, 3 m, 5 m) are investigated. Results show that thermal body plume is destroyed when the background wind speed is 3 m/s (Froude number Fr ~ 10). The inhalation fraction (IF) of susceptible person decreases exponentially when the social distance (D) increases from 0.5 m to 5 m. The exponential decay rate of inhalation fraction (b) ranges between 0.93 and 1.06 (IF=IF0e-b(D-0.5)) determined by the droplet initial diameter and relative humidity. Under weak background wind (Uref = 0.2 m/s, Fr ~ 0.01), the upward thermal body plume significantly influences droplet dispersion, which is similar with that in indoor space. Droplets in the initial sizes of 10 µm and 50 µm disperse upwards while most of 100 µm droplets fall down to the ground due to larger gravity force. Interestingly, the deposition fraction on susceptible person is ten times higher at Uref = 3 m/s than that at Uref = 0.2 m/s. Thus, a high outdoor wind speed does not necessarily lead to a smaller exposure risk if the susceptible person locating at the downwind region of the infected person, and people in outdoors are suggested to not only keep distance of greater than 1.5 m from each other but also stand with considerable angles from the prevailing wind direction.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Exhalation , Humans
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(12): 2554-2565, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China. The characteristics of COVID-19 patients treated in local hospitals in Wuhan are not fully representative of patients outside Wuhan. Therefore, it is highly essential to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in areas outside Wuhan or Hubei Province. To date, a limited number of studies have concentrated on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different genders, clinical classification, and with or without basic diseases. AIM: To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Hengyang (China) and provide a reliable reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. METHODS: From January 16 to March 2, 2020, a total of 48 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported in Hengyang, and those cases were included in this study. The diagnostic criteria, clinical classification, and discharge standard related to COVID-19 were in line with the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (Trial Version 7) released by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swab specimens was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. All the data were imported into the excel worksheet and statistically analyzed by using SPSS 25.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 48 cases of COVID-19 were collected, of which 1 was mild, 38 were moderate, and 9 were severe. It was unveiled that there were 31 (64.6%) male patients and 17 (35.4%) female patients, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.82:1. The range of age of patients with COVID-19 was dominantly 30-49 years old [25 (52.1%) of 48], followed by those aged over 60 years old [11 (22.9%)]. Besides, 29.2% (14 of 48) of patients had basic diseases, and 57.2% (8 of 14) of patients with basic diseases were aged over 60 years old. The occupations of 48 COVID-19 patients were mainly farmers working in agricultural production [15 (31.5%) of 48], rural migrant workers from Hengyang to Wuhan [15 (31.5%)], and service workers operating in the service sector [8 (16.7%)]. The mean latent period was 6.86 ± 3.57 d, and the median was 7 [interquartile range (IQR): 4-9] d. The mean time from onset of symptoms to the first physician visit was 3.38 ± 2.98 (95%CI: 2.58-9.18) d, with a median of 2 (IQR: 1-5) d, and the mean time from hospital admission to confirmed diagnosis was 2.29 ± 2.11 (95%CI: 1.18-6.42) d, with a median of 2 (IQR: 1-3) d. The main symptoms were fever [43 (89.6%) of 48], cough and expectoration [41 (85.4%)], fatigue [22 (45.8%)], and chills [22 (45.8%)]. Other symptoms included poor appetite [13 (27.1%)], sore throat [9 (18.8%)], dyspnea [9 (18.8%)], diarrhea [7 (14.6%)], dizziness [5 (10.4%)], headache [5 (10.4%)], muscle pain [5 (10.4%)], nausea and vomiting [4 (8.3%)], hemoptysis [4 (8.3%)], and runny nose [1 (2.1%)]. The numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils were significantly reduced in the majority of the patients. The levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, blood glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), myoglobin (MB), and creatine kinase (CK) were increased in 64.6%, 44.7%, 43.2%, 37.0%, 29.5%, 22.9%,20.8%, 21.6%, 13.6%, and 12.8% of patients, respectively. The incidence of ALT elevation in male patients was remarkably higher than that in females (P < 0.01), while the incidences of AST, CK, and blood glucose elevations in severe patients were remarkably higher than those in moderate patients (P < 0.05, respectively). Except for the mild patients, chest computed tomography showed characteristic pulmonary lesions. All the patients received antiviral drugs, 38 (79.2%) accepted traditional Chinese medicine, and 2 (4.2%) received treatment of human umbilical-cord mesenchymal stem cells. On March 2, 2020, 48 patients with COVID-19 were all cured and discharged. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, patients with COVID-19 often have multiple organ dysfunction or damage. The incidences of ALT elevation in males, and AST, CK, and blood glucose elevations in severe patients are remarkably higher.

16.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-31647.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: In China, mental health of frontline medical staff might be influenced by clinicians’ ability to handle the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Few studies to-date have addressed the association between clinicians’ competencies and mental health in this context. This cross-sectional study has examined the prevalence of mental health symptoms among frontline medical staff handling the COVID-19 outbreak, and explored the associations between their competencies, and separate and concurrent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods: A total of 623 frontline medical staff were included in this study, which took place from January 20, 2020 to February 20, 2020. Competencies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the short form of the Chinese clinical physicians’ competency model, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between one standard deviation increase in competency scores and the prevalence of mental health problems. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.Results: Among 623 staff members, the prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms was 40.93%, 31.78%, and 26.00%, respectively. Among the medical staff with higher total competency scores, the prevalence of depressive (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.55-0.81), anxiety (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.83), and comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.55-0.83) was lower than among their lower-scoring counterparts. Subgroup analyses stratified by core competency scores revealed similar associations as the main analyses.Conclusions: The present findings highlight the association between high core competency scores and lower prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms. Improving medical staff’s core competencies might help prevent mental health problems among frontline medical staff responding to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders , Depressive Disorder
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 397: 122609, 2020 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45880

ABSTRACT

Droplet dispersion carrying viruses/bacteria in enclosed/crowded buses may induce transmissions of respiratory infectious diseases, but the influencing mechanisms have been rarely investigated. By conducting high-resolution CFD simulations, this paper investigates the evaporation and transport of solid-liquid mixed droplets (initial diameter 10 µm and 50 µm, solid to liquid ratio is 1:9) exhaled in a coach bus with 14 thermal manikins. Five air-conditioning supply directions and ambient relative humidity (RH = 35 % and 95 %) are considered. Results show that ventilation effectiveness, RH and initial droplet size significantly influence droplet transmissions in coach bus. 50 µm droplets tend to evaporate completely within 1.8 s and 7 s as RH = 35 % and 95 % respectively, while 0.2 s or less for 10 µm droplets. Thus 10 µm droplets diffuse farther with wider range than 50 µm droplets which tend to deposit more on surfaces. Droplet dispersion pattern differs due to various interactions of gravity, ventilation flows and the upward thermal body plume. The fractions of droplets suspended in air, deposited on wall surfaces are quantified. This study implies high RH, backward supply direction and passengers sitting at nonadjacent seats can effectively reduce infection risk of droplet transmission in buses. Besides taking masks, regular cleaning is also recommended since 85 %-100 % of droplets deposit on object surfaces.


Subject(s)
Exhalation , Ventilation , Motor Vehicles
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