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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 796682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731771

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), natural killer T (NKT) cells act as primary initiators of immune responses. However, a decrease of circulating NKT cells has been observed in COVID-19 different stages, of which the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, by performing single-cell RNA sequencing analysis in three large cohorts of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased expression of Tim-3 promotes depletion of NKT cells during the progression stage of COVID-19, which is associated with disease severity and outcome of patients with COVID-19. Tim-3+ NKT cells also expressed high levels of CD147 and CD26, which are potential SARS-CoV-2 spike binding receptors. In the study, Tim-3+ NKT cells showed high enrichment of apoptosis, higher expression levels of mitochondrial genes and caspase genes, with a larger pseudo time value. In addition, Tim-3+ NKT cells in COVID-19 presented a stronger capacity to secrete IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 compared with healthy individuals, they also demonstrated high expression of co-inhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA-4, and LAG-3. Moreover, we found that IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) was positively correlated with up-regulated expression of Tim-3 in NKT cells in COVID-19 patients. Overall, this study describes a novel mechanism by which up-regulated Tim-3 expression induced the depletion and dysfunction of NKT cells in COVID-19 patients. These findings not only have possible implications for the prediction of severity and prognosis in COVID-19 but also provide a link between NKT cells and future new therapeutic strategies in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-4/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313435

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments and especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. Methods In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. Results Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cells subsets and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, outperforming previous risk models, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. Conclusions The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Med ; 16(1): 111-125, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356049

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally. Although mixed liver impairment has been reported in COVID-19 patients, the association of liver injury caused by specific subtype especially chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with COVID-19 has not been elucidated. In this multi-center, retrospective, and observational cohort study, 109 CHB and 327 non-CHB patients with COVID-19 were propensity score matched at an approximate ratio of 3:1 on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, disease severity, and clinical outcomes were compared. Furthermore, univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to explore the risk factors for disease severity and mortality, respectively. A higher proportion of CHB patients (30 of 109 (27.52%)) developed into severe status than non-CHB patients (17 of 327 (5.20%)). In addition to previously reported liver impairment markers, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, we identified several novel risk factors including elevated lactate dehydrogenase (⩾ 245 U/L, hazard ratio (HR) = 8.639, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.528-29.523; P < 0.001) and coagulation-related biomarker D-dimer (⩾ 0.5 µg/mL, HR = 4.321, 95% CI = 1.443-12.939; P = 0.009) and decreased albumin (< 35 g/L, HR = 0.131, 95% CI = 0.048-0.361; P < 0.001) and albumin/globulin ratio (< 1.5, HR = 0.123, 95% CI = 0.017-0.918; P = 0.041). In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with CHB were more likely to develop into severe illness and die. The risk factors that we identified may be helpful for early clinical surveillance of critical progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224097

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been recently considered a systemic disorder leading to the procoagulant state. Preliminary studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can infect endothelial cells, and extensive evidence of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction has been found in advanced COVID-19. Endothelial cells play a critical role in many physiological processes, such as controlling blood fluidity, leukocyte activation, adhesion, platelet adhesion and aggregation, and transmigration. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that endothelial dysfunction leads to vascular dysfunction, immune thrombosis, and inflammation associated with COVID-19. This article summarizes the association of endothelial dysfunction and SARS-CoV-2 infection and its therapeutic strategies.

7.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 618-624, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695581

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 is characterized by a remarkable variation in clinical severity ranging from a mild illness to a fatal multi-organ disease. Understanding the dysregulated human immune responses in the fatal subjects is critical for management of COVID-19 patients and the pandemic. In this study, we examined the immune cell compositions in the lung tissues and hilar lymph nodes using immunohistochemistry on 6 deceased COVID-19 patients and 4 focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) patients who underwent lung surgery and served as controls. We found a dominant presence of macrophages and a general deficiency of T cells and B cells in the lung tissues from deceased COVID-19 patients. In contrast to the FOP patients, Tfh cells and germinal center formation were largely absent in the draining hilar lymph nodes in the deceased COVID-19 patients. This was correlated with reduced IgM and IgG levels compared to convalescent COVID-19 patients. In summary, our data highlight a defect of germinal center structure in deceased COVID-19 patients leading to an impaired humoral immunity. Understanding the mechanisms of this deficiency will be one of the key points for the management of this epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Germinal Center/pathology , Humans , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/pathology
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 893-903, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has spread globally. Epidemiological susceptibility to COVID-19 has been reported in patients with cancer. We aimed to systematically characterise clinical features and determine risk factors of COVID-19 disease severity for patients with cancer and COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, we included all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with any type of malignant solid tumours and haematological malignancy who were admitted to nine hospitals in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020. Enrolled patients were statistically matched (2:1) with patients admitted with COVID-19 who did not have cancer with propensity score on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, illness severity, and clinical interventions were compared between patients with COVID-19 with or without cancer as well as between patients with cancer with non-severe or severe COVID-19. COVID-19 disease severity was defined on admission on the basis of the WHO guidelines. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, cancer type, tumour stage, and antitumour treatments, were used to explore risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity. This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR2000030807. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020, 13 077 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the nine hospitals in Wuhan and 232 patients with cancer and 519 statistically matched patients without cancer were enrolled. Median follow-up was 29 days (IQR 22-38) in patients with cancer and 27 days (20-35) in patients without cancer. Patients with cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 than patients without cancer (148 [64%] of 232 vs 166 [32%] of 519; odds ratio [OR] 3·61 [95% CI 2·59-5·04]; p<0·0001). Risk factors previously reported in patients without cancer, such as older age; elevated interleukin 6, procalcitonin, and D-dimer; and reduced lymphocytes were validated in patients with cancer. We also identified advanced tumour stage (OR 2·60, 95% CI 1·05-6·43; p=0·039), elevated tumour necrosis factor α (1·22, 1·01-1·47; p=0·037), elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (1·65, 1·03-2·78; p=0·032), reduced CD4+ T cells (0·84, 0·71-0·98; p=0·031), and reduced albumin-globulin ratio (0·12, 0·02-0·77; p=0·024) as risk factors of COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer. INTERPRETATION: Patients with cancer and COVID-19 were more likely to deteriorate into severe illness than those without cancer. The risk factors identified here could be helpful for early clinical surveillance of disease progression in patients with cancer who present with COVID-19. FUNDING: China National Natural Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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