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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 993, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increases the risk of psychological problems, especially for the infected population. Sleep disturbance and feelings of defeat and entrapment are well-documented risk factors of anxiety symptoms. Exploring the psychological mechanism of the development of anxiety symptoms is essential for effective prevention. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of entrapment and defeat in the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2022. Participants were 1,283 asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers enrolled from the Ruijin Jiahe Fangcang Shelter Hospital, Shanghai (59.6% male; mean age = 39.6 years). Questionnaire measures of sleep disturbance, entrapment, defeat, anxiety symptoms, and background characteristics were obtained. A mediation model was constructed to test the mediating effects of entrapment and defeat in the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms were 34.3% and 18.8%. Sleep disturbance was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR [95%CI] = 5.013 [3.721-6.753]). The relationship between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms (total effect: Std. Estimate = 0.509) was partially mediated by entrapment (indirect effect: Std. Estimate = 0.129) and defeat (indirect effect: Std. Estimate = 0.126). The mediating effect of entrapment and defeat accounted for 50.3% of the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms were prevalent among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers. Entrapment and defeat mediate the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. More attention is needed to monitoring sleep conditions and feelings of defeat and entrapment to reduce the risk of anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Special , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sleep , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1185076, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327282

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a huge threat to public health across the world. While vaccinations are essential for reducing virus transmission and attenuating disease severity, the nature of high mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 renders vaccines less effective, urging quick development of effective therapies for COVID-19 disease. However, developing novel drugs remains extremely challenging due to the lengthy process and high cost. Alternatively, repurposing of existing drugs on the market represents a rapid and safe strategy for combating COVID-19 pandemic. Bronchodilators are first line drugs for inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared to other anti-inflammatory drugs repurposed for COVID-19, bronchodilators are unique in that they have both anti-inflammatory and bronchodilating properties. Whether the dual properties of bronchodilators empower them greater potential to be repurposed for COVID-19 is worth exploring. In fact, clinical and preclinical studies have recently emerged to investigate the benefits of bronchodilators such assalbutamol, formoterol and theophylline in treating COVID-19, and many of them have shown encouraging efficacy on attenuating disease severity of pneumonia and other associated symptoms. To comprehensively understand the latest progress on COVID-19 intervention with bronchodilators, this review will summarize recent findings in this area and highlight the promising clinical benefits and possible adverse effects of bronchodilators as therapeutic options for COVID-19 with a focus on ß2 receptor agonists, anticholinergic drugs and theophylline.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the advent of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the coexistence between social stigma and depression symptoms (depression hereafter) in COVID-19 patients has been mentioned, but the mechanisms involved remains unclear. This study aimed to explore how the stigma affects depression during the mid-pandemic period. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using non-probability sampling was conducted among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers in Shanghai, China (April 2022). An online questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic characteristics and psychological traits. Logistic regression and path analysis were performed to analyze the depression risk factors and examine the mediation model, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1283 participants (59.6% men) were involved in this study, in which 44.7% of carriers reported having depression. Univariate analyses found that education level (OR 0.575; 95% CI 0.448-0.737) and doses of vaccine (OR 1.693; 95% CI 1.042-2.750), were significantly associated with depression among asymptomatic carriers. The association between social stigma and depression was fully mediated by their feelings of entrapment and decadence (indirect effect = 0.204, p < 0.001; direct effect = -0.059, p = 0.058). The mediating role of entrapment between stigma and depression was moderated by age group (estimate = 0.116, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Mental health issues resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic are increasingly apparent in China and require urgent attention and responses. These findings provide new perspectives for the early prevention of depression in asymptomatic carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(40): 61247-61264, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942645

ABSTRACT

Achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality is an inherent requirement for countries to promote green recovery and transformation of the global economy after the COVID-19 pandemic. As "a smoke-free industry," producer services agglomeration (PSA) may have significant impacts on CO2 emission reduction. Therefore, based on the nightlight data to calculate the CO2 emissions of 268 cities in China from 2005 to 2017, this study deeply explores the impact and transmission mechanism of PSA on CO2 emissions by constructing dynamic spatial Durbin model and intermediary effect model. Furthermore, the dynamic threshold model is used to analyze the nonlinear characteristics between PSA and CO2 emissions under different degrees of government intervention. The results reveal that: (1) Generally, China's CO2 emissions are path-dependent in the time dimension, showing a "snowball effect." PSA significantly inhibits CO2 emissions, but heterogeneous influences exist in different regions, time nodes, and sub-industries; (2) PSA can indirectly curb CO2 emissions through economies of scale, technological innovation, and industrial structure upgrading. (3) The impact of PSA on China's CO2 emissions has an obvious double threshold effect under different degree of government intervention. Accordingly, the Chinese government should increase the support for producer services, dynamically adjust industrial policies, take a moderate intervention, and strengthen market-oriented reform to reduce CO2 emissions. This study opens up a new path for the low-carbon economic development and environmental sustainability, and also fills in the theoretical gaps on these issues. The findings and implications will offer instructive guideline for early achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China , Economic Development , Government , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847293

ABSTRACT

As a promising approach to stop the escalation of the pandemic, COVID-19 vaccine promotion is becoming a challenging task for authorities worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effective sources for disseminating information on the COVID-19 vaccine to promote individuals' behavioral intention to take the vaccine. Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), this study illustrated the mechanism of how COVID-19 information acquisition from different sources was transformed into vaccination intentions via health beliefs. Using an online survey in China, the structural equation model results revealed that perceived benefits and cues to action were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions, and perceived barriers were negatively related to the intentions. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity had no significant relationships with the intentions. Moreover, the findings unveiled differences in the effects of acquiring information via multiple sources among traditional media, new media, and interpersonal interactions. Notably, new media and interpersonal interactions were more salient in promoting vaccination intention via health beliefs, compared with traditional media. The findings from this study will benefit health officials in terms of utilizing different information sources in vaccine programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intention , Vaccination
6.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113297, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796872

ABSTRACT

Meteorological factors have been confirmed to affect the COVID-19 transmission, but current studied conclusions varied greatly. The underlying causes of the variance remain unclear. Here, we proposed two scientific questions: (1) whether meteorological factors have a consistent influence on virus transmission after combining all the data from the studies; (2) whether the impact of meteorological factors on the COVID-19 transmission can be influenced by season, geospatial scale and latitude. We employed a meta-analysis to address these two questions using results from 2813 published articles. Our results showed that, the influence of meteorological factors on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases varied greatly among existing studies, and no consistent conclusion can be drawn. After grouping outbreak time into cold and warm seasons, we found daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures have significant positive influences on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases in cold season, while significant negative influences in warm season. After dividing the scope of the outbreak into national and urban scales, relative humidity significantly inhibited the COVID-19 transmission at the national scale, but no effect on the urban scale. The negative impact of relative humidity, and the positive impacts of maximum temperatures and wind speed on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases increased with latitude. The relationship of maximum and minimum temperatures with the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases were more susceptible to season, while relative humidity's relationship was more affected by latitude and geospatial scale. Our results suggested that relationship between meteorological factors and the COVID-19 transmission can be affected by season, geospatial scale and latitude. A rise in temperature would promote virus transmission in cold seasons. We suggested that the formulation and implementation of epidemic prevention and control should mainly refer to studies at the urban scale. The control measures should be developed according to local meteorological properties for individual city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Temperature
7.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(7):3887, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762741

ABSTRACT

As a promising approach to stop the escalation of the pandemic, COVID-19 vaccine promotion is becoming a challenging task for authorities worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effective sources for disseminating information on the COVID-19 vaccine to promote individuals' behavioral intention to take the vaccine. Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), this study illustrated the mechanism of how COVID-19 information acquisition from different sources was transformed into vaccination intentions via health beliefs. Using an online survey in China, the structural equation model results revealed that perceived benefits and cues to action were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions, and perceived barriers were negatively related to the intentions. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity had no significant relationships with the intentions. Moreover, the findings unveiled differences in the effects of acquiring information via multiple sources among traditional media, new media, and interpersonal interactions. Notably, new media and interpersonal interactions were more salient in promoting vaccination intention via health beliefs, compared with traditional media. The findings from this study will benefit health officials in terms of utilizing different information sources in vaccine programs.

8.
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences ; : 101275, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1712978

ABSTRACT

With the spread of “urban disease”, urban livability has aroused common concern in academic circles at home and abroad. High-speed railway opening is substantially affecting the development of cities. Based on the data of 271 cities in China from 2005 to 2018, this paper applies the entropy method to calculate urban livability level, and then the difference-in-differences (DID) model and mediatory effect model are constructed to test the impact and mechanism of high-speed railway (HSR) opening on urban livability. The findings show that: (1) Overall, HSR opening has significantly improved urban livability by 13.04%. After alleviating the endogenous problem and conducting a series of robustness tests, the conclusions are still valid. (2) Mechanism analysis indicates that HSR opening improves urban livability by promoting economic growth, talent agglomeration and industrial structure upgrading. Among them, the industrial structure upgrading effect is the strongest, followed by talent agglomeration and economic growth. (3) The heterogeneity analysis shows that the promotion effect of HSR opening on urban livability is more significant in the central and western regions and large-sized cities. Accordingly, the feasible path to improve urban livability through HSR opening is proposed. Finally, in the face of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world economy, more channels to enhance urban livability are expected to cope with the future “the global talent war”.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704976

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is dramatically changing the lives of humans and results in limitation of activities, especially physical activities, which lead to various health issues such as cardiovascular, diabetes, and gout. Physical activities are often viewed as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it offers enormous health benefits; on the other hand, it can cause irreparable damage to health. Falls during physical activities are a significant cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries. Therefore, continuous monitoring of physical activities is crucial during the quarantine period to detect falls. Even though wearable sensors can detect and recognize human physical activities, in a pandemic crisis, it is not a realistic approach. Smart sensing with the support of smartphones and other wireless devices in a non-contact manner is a promising solution for continuously monitoring physical activities and assisting patients suffering from serious health issues. In this research, a non-contact smart sensing through the walls (TTW) platform is developed to monitor human physical activities during the quarantine period using software-defined radio (SDR) technology. The developed platform is intelligent, flexible, portable, and has multi-functional capabilities. The received orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals with fine-grained 64-subcarriers wireless channel state information (WCSI) are exploited for classifying different activities by applying machine learning algorithms. The fall activity is classified separately from standing, walking, running, and bending with an accuracy of 99.7% by using a fine tree algorithm. This preliminary smart sensing opens new research directions to detect COVID-19 symptoms and monitor non-communicable and communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exercise , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , Technology
10.
Nature ; 602(7898): 657-663, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616990

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant contains 15 mutations of the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron evades RBD-targeted neutralizing antibodies requires immediate investigation. Here we use high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the profiles of RBD escaping mutations for 247 human anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies and show that the neutralizing antibodies can be classified by unsupervised clustering into six epitope groups (A-F)-a grouping that is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Various single mutations of Omicron can impair neutralizing antibodies of different epitope groups. Specifically, neutralizing antibodies in groups A-D, the epitopes of which overlap with the ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A and Q493R. Antibodies in group E (for example, S309)6 and group F (for example, CR3022)7, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but a subset of neutralizing antibodies are still escaped by G339D, N440K and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that neutralizing antibodies that sustained single mutations could also be escaped, owing to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested neutralizing antibodies were escaped by Omicron. With regard to neutralizing-antibody-based drugs, the neutralization potency of LY-CoV016, LY-CoV555, REGN10933, REGN10987, AZD1061, AZD8895 and BRII-196 was greatly undermined by Omicron, whereas VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still functioned at a reduced efficacy. Together, our data suggest that infection with Omicron would result in considerable humoral immune evasion, and that neutralizing antibodies targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region will remain most effective. Our results inform the development of antibody-based drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/classification , Antibodies, Viral/classification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Convalescence , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4759-4764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the result of infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has caused a global pandemic. To respond to this outbreak rapidly and properly, clinical pharmacists in Shanghai Children's Hospital carried out innovative measures based on previous artificial intelligence experiences, such as using service robots for contactless drug delivery between Fever Clinic and Pharmacy Storage, providing telemedicine counseling on specific platforms and offering multimedia health education. With good control of the pandemic in Shanghai, these contactless services have been retained and expanded at the patients' request. The aim of this article is to share our strategies and efforts with peers who are fighting against COVID-19 in other countries and regions.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463799

ABSTRACT

The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, has appeared as a global pandemic with a high mortality rate. The main complication of COVID-19 is rapid respirational deterioration, which may cause life-threatening pneumonia conditions. Global healthcare systems are currently facing a scarcity of resources to assist critical patients simultaneously. Indeed, non-critical patients are mostly advised to self-isolate or quarantine themselves at home. However, there are limited healthcare services available during self-isolation at home. According to research, nearly 20-30% of COVID patients require hospitalization, while almost 5-12% of patients may require intensive care due to severe health conditions. This pandemic requires global healthcare systems that are intelligent, secure, and reliable. Tremendous efforts have been made already to develop non-contact sensing technologies for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The most significant early indication of COVID-19 is rapid and abnormal breathing. In this research work, RF-based technology is used to collect real-time breathing abnormalities data. Subsequently, based on this data, a large dataset of simulated breathing abnormalities is generated using the curve fitting technique for developing a machine learning (ML) classification model. The advantages of generating simulated breathing abnormalities data are two-fold; it will help counter the daunting and time-consuming task of real-time data collection and improve the ML model accuracy. Several ML algorithms are exploited to classify eight breathing abnormalities: eupnea, bradypnea, tachypnea, Biot, sighing, Kussmaul, Cheyne-Stokes, and central sleep apnea (CSA). The performance of ML algorithms is evaluated based on accuracy, prediction speed, and training time for real-time breathing data and simulated breathing data. The results show that the proposed platform for real-time data classifies breathing patterns with a maximum accuracy of 97.5%, whereas by introducing simulated breathing data, the accuracy increases up to 99.3%. This work has a notable medical impact, as the introduced method mitigates the challenge of data collection to build a realistic model of a large dataset during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acad Radiol ; 28(11): 1507-1523, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415154

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of deep learning (DL) in detecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to investigate how network architecture and type of datasets affect DL performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Inspec from January 1, 2020, to December 3, 2020, for retrospective and prospective studies on deep learning detection with at least reported sensitivity and specificity. Pooled DTA was obtained using random-effect models. Sub-group analysis between studies was also carried out for data source and network architectures. RESULTS: The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88%, 93%; I2 = 69%) and 92% (95% CI: 88%, 94%; I2 = 88%), respectively for 19 studies. The pooled AUC and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.92) and 112.5 (95% CI: 57.7, 219.3; I2 = 90%) respectively. The overall accuracy, recall, F1-score, LR+ and LR- are 89.5%, 89.5%, 89.7%, 23.13 and 0.13. Sub-group analysis shows that the sensitivity and DOR significantly vary with the type of network architectures and sources of data with low heterogeneity are (I2 = 0%) and (I2 = 18%) for ResNet architecture and single-source datasets, respectively. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of COVID-19 via deep learning has achieved incredible performance, and the source of datasets, as well as network architectures, strongly affect DL performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327982

ABSTRACT

This study is to assess the influences of climate, socio-economic determinants, and spatial distance on the confirmed cases and deaths in the raise phase of COVID-19 in China. The positive confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 over the population size of 100,000 over every 5 consecutive days (the CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT for short, respectively) covered from 25th January to 29th February, 2020 in five city types (i.e., small-, medium-, large-, very large- and super large-sized cities), along with the data of climate, socio-economic determinants, spatial distance of the target city to Wuhan city (DW, for short), and spatial distance between the target city and their local province capital city (DLPC, for short) were collected from the official websites of China. Then the above-mentioned influencing factors on CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT were analyzed separately in Hubei and other provinces. The results showed that CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT were significantly different among five city types outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), but not obviously different in Hubei province (p > 0.05). The CCOPSPTT had significant correlation with socio-economic determinants (GDP and population), DW, climate and time after the outbreak of COVID-19 outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), while was only significantly related with GDP in Hubei province (p < 0.05). The DOPSPTT showed significant correlation with socio-economic determinants, DW, time and CCOPSPTT outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), while was significantly correlated with GDP and CCOPSPTT in Hubei province (p < 0.05). Compared with other factors, socio-economic determinants have the largest relative contribution to variance of CCOPSPTT in all studied cities (> 78%). The difference of DOPSPTT among cities was mainly affected by CCOPSPTT. Our results showed that influences of city types on the confirmed cases and death differed between Hubei and other provinces. Socio-economic determinants, especially GDP, have higher impact on the change of COVID-19 transmission compared with other factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Spatial Analysis
16.
Electronics ; 10(13):1558, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1288835

ABSTRACT

The unpredictable situation from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) globally and the severity of the third wave has resulted in the entire world being quarantined from one another again. Self-quarantine is the only existing solution to stop the spread of the virus when vaccination is under trials. Due to COVID-19, individuals may have difficulties in breathing and may experience cognitive impairment, which results in physical and psychological health issues. Healthcare professionals are doing their best to treat the patients at risk to their health. It is important to develop innovative solutions to provide non-contact and remote assistance to reduce the spread of the virus and to provide better care to patients. In addition, such assistance is important for elderly and those that are already sick in order to provide timely medical assistance and to reduce false alarm/visits to the hospitals. This research aims to provide an innovative solution by remotely monitoring vital signs such as breathing and other connected health during the quarantine. We develop an innovative solution for connected health using software-defined radio (SDR) technology and artificial intelligence (AI). The channel frequency response (CFR) is used to extract the fine-grained wireless channel state information (WCSI) by using the multi-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique. The design was validated by simulated channels by analyzing CFR for ideal, additive white gaussian noise (AWGN), fading, and dispersive channels. Finally, various breathing experiments are conducted and the results are illustrated as having classification accuracy of 99.3% for four different breathing patterns using machine learning algorithms. This platform allows medical professionals and caretakers to remotely monitor individuals in a non-contact manner. The developed platform is suitable for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 scenarios.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259574

ABSTRACT

Non-contact detection of the breathing patterns in a remote and unobtrusive manner has significant value to healthcare applications and disease diagnosis, such as in COVID-19 infection prediction. During the epidemic prevention and control period of COVID-19, non-contact approaches have great significance because they minimize the physical burden on the patient and have the least requirement of active cooperation of the infected individual. During the pandemic, these non-contact approaches also reduce environmental constraints and remove the need for extra preparations. According to the latest medical research, the breathing pattern of a person infected with COVID-19 is unlike the breathing associated with flu and the common cold. One noteworthy symptom that occurs in COVID-19 is an abnormal breathing rate; individuals infected with COVID-19 have more rapid breathing. This requires continuous real-time detection of breathing patterns, which can be helpful in the prediction, diagnosis, and screening for people infected with COVID-19. In this research work, software-defined radio (SDR)-based radio frequency (RF) sensing techniques and machine learning (ML) algorithms are exploited to develop a platform for the detection and classification of different abnormal breathing patterns. ML algorithms are used for classification purposes, and their performance is evaluated on the basis of accuracy, prediction speed, and training time. The results show that this platform can detect and classify breathing patterns with a maximum accuracy of 99.4% through a complex tree algorithm. This research has a significant clinical impact because this platform can also be deployed for practical use in pandemic and non-pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
18.
IEEE Sens J ; 21(15): 17180-17188, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238341

ABSTRACT

The exponential growth of the novel coronavirus disease (N-COVID-19) has affected millions of people already and it is obvious that this crisis is global. This situation has enforced scientific researchers to gather their efforts to contain the virus. In this pandemic situation, health monitoring and human movements are getting significant consideration in the field of healthcare and as a result, it has emerged as a key area of interest in recent times. This requires a contactless sensing platform for detection of COVID-19 symptoms along with containment of virus spread by limiting and monitoring human movements. In this paper, a platform is proposed for the detection of COVID-19 symptoms like irregular breathing and coughing in addition to monitoring human movements using Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology. This platform uses Channel Frequency Response (CFR) to record the minute changes in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) subcarriers due to any human motion over the wireless channel. In this initial research, the capabilities of the platform are analyzed by detecting hand movement, coughing, and breathing. This platform faithfully captures normal, slow, and fast breathing at a rate of 20, 10, and 28 breaths per minute respectively using different methods such as zero-cross detection, peak detection, and Fourier transformation. The results show that all three methods successfully record breathing rate. The proposed platform is portable, flexible, and has multifunctional capabilities. This platform can be exploited for other human body movements and health abnormalities by further classification using artificial intelligence.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016178

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the relationship between meteorological factors (i.e., daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, temperature range, relative humidity, average wind speed and total precipitation) and COVID-19 transmission is affected by season and geographical location during the period of community-based pandemic prevention and control. COVID-19 infected case records and meteorological data in four cities (Wuhan, Beijing, Urumqi and Dalian) in China were collected. Then, the best-fitting model of COVID-19 infected cases was selected from four statistic models (Gaussian, logistic, lognormal distribution and allometric models), and the relationship between meteorological factors and COVID-19 infected cases was analyzed using multiple stepwise regression and Pearson correlation. The results showed that the lognormal distribution model was well adapted to describing the change of COVID-19 infected cases compared with other models (R2 > 0.78; p-values < 0.001). Under the condition of implementing community-based pandemic prevention and control, relationship between COVID-19 infected cases and meteorological factors differed among the four cities. Temperature and relative humidity were mainly the driving factors on COVID-19 transmission, but their relations obviously varied with season and geographical location. In summer, the increase in relative humidity and the decrease in maximum temperature facilitate COVID-19 transmission in arid inland cities, while at this point the decrease in relative humidity is good for the spread of COVID-19 in coastal cities. For the humid cities, the reduction of relative humidity and the lowest temperature in the winter promote COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Meteorological Concepts , Seasons , Beijing , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Humidity , Temperature , Wind
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pooled prevalence of chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities and other detailed analysis related to patients' biodata like gender and different age groups have not been previously described for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), thus necessitating this study. Objectives: To perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of chest CT, common CT morphological abnormalities, disease prevalence, biodata information, and gender prevalence of patients. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed and Science Direct libraries from 1 January 2020 to 30 April 2020. Pooled CT positive rate of COVID-19 and RT-PCR, CT-imaging features, history of exposure, and biodata information were estimated using the quality effect (QE) model. RESULTS: Out of 36 studies included, the sensitivity was 89% (95% CI: 80-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 90-100%) for chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The pooled prevalence across lesion distribution were 72% (95% CI: 62-80%), 92% (95% CI: 84-97%) for lung lobe, 88% (95% CI: 81-93%) for patients with history of exposure, and 91% (95% CI: 85-96%) for patients with all categories of symptoms. Seventy-six percent (95% CI: 67-83%) had age distribution across four age groups, while the pooled prevalence was higher in the male with 54% (95% CI: 50-57%) and 46% (95% CI: 43-50%) in the female. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of RT-PCR was higher than chest CT, and disease prevalence appears relatively higher in the elderly and males than children and females, respectively.

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