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2.
Resour Policy ; 83: 103731, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327215

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of covid-19 affected human lives and the global environment. Further, literature on the nexus of natural resources and economic growth, initiating the pandemic in the 21st century has confronted policymakers with uncertainty. This requires revisiting the link between natural resources and the economic performance of the South Asian economies. For this purpose, the present study has tried to investigate the role of natural resources in the economic growth of the aggregate South Asian economies during the Covid-19 challenge. The analysis has been completed by a novel approach of MMQR taking data from 1980 to 2021. The oil rents have negatively affected the economic growth may be due to its lower demand during the pandemic caused by lockdown activity. The trade and electricity produced from renewable improve the economic performance of the designated sample economies. The results provide evidence of the irreversible investment theory. The analysis implies that efficient policies for natural resources, specifically oil prices, are required to encourage the South Asian economies' role. Further, the positivity of electricity production from renewable gives rise to the growth hypothesis, which depicts that using renewable energy enhances the economic growth of South Asian economies.

3.
Antiviral Res ; 212: 105556, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269779

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has mutated quickly and caused significant global damage. This study characterizes two mRNA vaccines ZSVG-02 (Delta) and ZSVG-02-O (Omicron BA.1), and associating heterologous prime-boost strategy following the prime of a most widely administrated inactivated whole-virus vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). The ZSVG-02-O induces neutralizing antibodies that effectively cross-react with Omicron subvariants. In naïve animals, ZSVG-02 or ZSVG-02-O induce humoral responses skewed to the vaccine's targeting strains, but cellular immune responses cross-react to all variants of concern (VOCs) tested. Following heterologous prime-boost regimes, animals present comparable neutralizing antibody levels and superior protection against Delta and Omicron BA.1variants. Single-boost only generated ancestral and omicron dual-responsive antibodies, probably by "recall" and "reshape" the prime immunity. New Omicron-specific antibody populations, however, appeared only following the second boost with ZSVG-02-O. Overall, our results support a heterologous boost with ZSVG-02-O, providing the best protection against current VOCs in inactivated virus vaccine-primed populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world, caused millions of deaths and a severe illness which poses a serious threat to human health. OBJECTIVE: To develop an antigen detection kit that can identify Omicron novel coronavirus mutants. METHODS: BALB/c mice were immunized with the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron mutant treated with ß-propiolactone. After fusion of myeloma cells with immune cells, Elisa was used to screen the cell lines capable of producing monoclonal antibodies. The detection kit was prepared by colloidal gold immunochromatography. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity and anti-interference of the kit were evaluated by simulating positive samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection kit can reach 62.5 TCID50/mL, and it has good inclusiveness for different SARS-CoV-2 strains. The kit had no cross-reaction with common respiratory pathogens, and its sensitivity was still not affected under the action of different concentrations of interferences, indicating that it had good specificity and stability. CONCLUSION: In this study, monoclonal antibodies with high specificity to the N protein of the Omicron mutant strain were obtained by monoclonal antibody screening technology. Colloidal gold immunochromatography technology was used to prepare an antigen detection kit with high sensitivity to detect and identify the mutant Omicron strain.

5.
COVID ; 3(1):51-64, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2246780

ABSTRACT

Due to a large number of mutations in the spike protein and immune escape, the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has become a predominant variant of concern (VOC) strain. To prevent the disease, we developed a candidate inactivated vaccine (Omicron COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated). To evaluate the safety of the vaccine, we tested the repeat-dose toxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The doses were administered randomly to three groups: physiological saline solution (control), aluminum adjuvant in PBS solution adjuvant (adjuvant group), and low-dose and high-dose omicron vaccines (vaccine group) for 6 weeks. The SD rats were allowed to recover for 4 weeks after withdrawal. We evaluated the physiological condition of the rats, including their ophthalmological condition, body weight, food intake, body temperature, blood biochemistry, urine, neutralizing antibody, inflammation at the injection site, and organs weight. In summary, no dose-dependent adverse toxicological changes were observed, and a recovery trend was obvious, which proved the preclinical safety of the candidate omicron vaccine and provided evidence for clinical trials in humans. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of COVID is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217123

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The protective efficacy of COVID-19 vaccinations has declined over time such that booster doses are required. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of booster doses of two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. DESIGN: This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial aiming to evaluate the protective efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cells) after inoculation with booster doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. SETTING: Healthy volunteers were recruited in an earlier phase 3 trial of two doses of inactivated vaccine. The participants in Abu Dhabi maintained the blind state of the trial and received a booster dose of vaccine or placebo at least six months after the primary immunization. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 and older with no history of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, or Middle East respiratory syndrome infection (via onsite inquiry) were screened for eligibility. INTERVENTIONS: A total of 9370 volunteers were screened and randomly allocated, of which 61 voluntarily withdrew from the screening stage without booster inoculation; 9309 received the booster vaccination, with 3083 in the WIV04 group, 3150 in the HB02 group, and 3076 in the alum-only group. Further, 5µg and 4µg of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virion was adsorbed into aluminum hydroxide in a 0.5 mL aqueous suspension for WIV04 and HB02 vaccines. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary efficacy outcome was the prevention of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 from 14 days after the booster vaccine in the per-protocol population. A safety analysis was performed in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Symptomatic COVID-19 was identified in 36 participants in the WIV04 group (9.9 [95% CI, 7.2-13.8] per 1000 person-years), 28 in the HB02 group (7.6 [95% CI, 5.2-11.0] per 1000 person-years), and 193 in the alum-only group (55.2 [95% CI, 47.9-63.5] per 1000 person-years), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 82.0% (95% CI, 74.2-87.8%) for WIV04 and 86.3% (95% CI, 79.6-91.1%) for HB02. One severe case of COVID-19 occurred in the alum-only group, and none occurred in the vaccine groups. Adverse reactions within seven days after vaccination occurred in 29.4% to 34.3% of participants in the three groups. Serious adverse events were rare and not related to vaccines (WIV04: 17 [0.5%]; HB02: 11 [0.4%]; alum only: 40 [1.3%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study evaluated the safety of the booster dose, which was well tolerated by participants. Booster doses given over six months after the completion of primary immunization can help to provide more-effective protection against COVID-19 in healthy people 18 years of age or older. At the same time, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies produced by the two groups of experimental vaccines exhibited extensive cross-neutralization against representative SARS-CoV-2 variants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04510207).

7.
Innovation (Camb) ; 4(1): 100359, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184481

ABSTRACT

The BBIBP-CorV severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivated vaccine has been authorized for emergency use and widely distributed. We used single-cell transcriptome sequencing to characterize the dynamics of immune responses to the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine. In addition to the expected induction of humoral immunity, we found that the inactivated vaccine induced multiple, comprehensive immune responses, including significantly increased proportions of CD16+ monocytes and activation of monocyte antigen presentation pathways; T cell activation pathway upregulation in CD8+ T cells, along with increased activation of CD4+ T cells; significant enhancement of cell-cell communications between innate and adaptive immunity; and the induction of regulatory CD4+ T cells and co-inhibitory interactions to maintain immune homeostasis after vaccination. Additionally, comparative analysis revealed higher neutralizing antibody levels, distinct expansion of naive T cells, a shared increased proportion of regulatory CD4+ T cells, and upregulated expression of functional genes in booster dose recipients with a longer interval after the second vaccination. Our research will support a comprehensive understanding of the systemic immune responses elicited by the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine, which will facilitate the formulation of better vaccination strategies and the design of new vaccines.

8.
COVID ; 3(1):51-64, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166290

ABSTRACT

Due to a large number of mutations in the spike protein and immune escape, the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has become a predominant variant of concern (VOC) strain. To prevent the disease, we developed a candidate inactivated vaccine (Omicron COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated). To evaluate the safety of the vaccine, we tested the repeat-dose toxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The doses were administered randomly to three groups: physiological saline solution (control), aluminum adjuvant in PBS solution adjuvant (adjuvant group), and low-dose and high-dose omicron vaccines (vaccine group) for 6 weeks. The SD rats were allowed to recover for 4 weeks after withdrawal. We evaluated the physiological condition of the rats, including their ophthalmological condition, body weight, food intake, body temperature, blood biochemistry, urine, neutralizing antibody, inflammation at the injection site, and organs weight. In summary, no dose-dependent adverse toxicological changes were observed, and a recovery trend was obvious, which proved the preclinical safety of the candidate omicron vaccine and provided evidence for clinical trials in humans.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127261

ABSTRACT

Influenza prevention and control has been one of the biggest challenges encountered in the public health domain. The vaccination against influenza plays a pivotal role in the prevention of influenza, particularly for the elderly and small children. According to the epidemiology of influenza in China, the nation is under a heavy burden of this disease. Therefore, as a contribution to the prevention and control of influenza in China through the provision of relevant information, the present report discusses the production and batch issuance of the influenza vaccine, analysis of the vaccination status and vaccination rate of the influenza vaccine, and the development trend of the influenza vaccine in China.

10.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 131, 2022 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160195

ABSTRACT

The immunity of patients who recover from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be long lasting but persist at a lower level. Thus, recovered patients still need to be vaccinated to prevent reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or its mutated variants. Here, we report that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine can stimulate immunity in recovered patients to maintain high levels of anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibody titers within 9 months, and high neutralizing activity against the prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains was observed. Nevertheless, the antibody response decreased over time, and the Omicron variant exhibited more pronounced resistance to neutralization than the prototype and Delta strains. Moreover, the intensity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell response was also increased in recovered patients who received COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, the repeated antigen exposure provided by inactivated COVID-19 vaccination greatly boosted both the potency and breadth of the humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, effectively protecting recovered individuals from reinfection by circulating SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

11.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(10)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093924

ABSTRACT

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and several other pathogenic microorganisms usually infect the host via the surface cells of respiratory mucosa. Nasal vaccination could provide a strong mucosal and systemic immunity to combat these infections. The intranasal route of vaccination offers the advantage of easy accessibility over the injection administration. Therefore, nasal immunization is considered a promising strategy for disease prevention, particularly in the case of infectious diseases of the respiratory system. The development of a nasal vaccine, particularly the strategies of adjuvant and antigens design and optimization, enabling rapid induction of protective mucosal and systemic responses against the disease. In recent times, the development of efficacious nasal vaccines with an adequate safety profile has progressed rapidly, with effective handling and overcoming of the challenges encountered during the process. In this context, the present report summarizes the most recent findings regarding the strategies used for developing nasal vaccines as an efficient alternative to conventional vaccines.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032987

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019, the virus has been mutating continuously, resulting in the continuous emergence of variants and creating challenges for epidemic prevention and control. Here, we immunized mice with different vaccine candidates, revealing the immune, protein, and metabolomic changes that take place in vaccines composed of different variants. We found that the prototype strain and Delta- and Omicron-variant inactivated vaccine candidates could all induce a high level of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity responses in mice. Next, we found that the metabolic and protein profiles were changed, showing a positive association with immune responses, and the level of the change was distinct in different inactivated vaccines, indicating that amino acid variations could affect metabolomics and proteomics. Our findings reveal differences between vaccines at the metabolomic and proteomic levels. These insights provide a novel direction for the immune evaluation of vaccines and could be used to guide novel strategies for vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
13.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 87, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008266

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs), especially the latest Omicron, have exhibited severe antibody evasion. Broadly neutralizing antibodies with high potency against Omicron are urgently needed for understanding the working mechanisms and developing therapeutic agents. In this study, we characterized the previously reported F61, which was isolated from convalescent patients infected with prototype SARS-CoV-2, as a broadly neutralizing antibody against all VOCs including Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.3 and BA.4 sublineages by utilizing antigen binding and cell infection assays. We also identified and characterized another broadly neutralizing antibody D2 with epitope distinct from that of F61. More importantly, we showed that a combination of F61 with D2 exhibited synergy in neutralization and protecting mice from SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM) structures of the spike-F61 and spike-D2 binary complexes revealed the distinct epitopes of F61 and D2 at atomic level and the structural basis for neutralization. Cryo-EM structure of the Omicron-spike-F61-D2 ternary complex provides further structural insights into the synergy between F61 and D2. These results collectively indicated F61 and F61-D2 cocktail as promising therapeutic antibodies for combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including diverse Omicron sublineages.

14.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006233

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused huge social and economic distress. Given its rapid spread and the lack of specific treatment options, SARS-CoV-2 needs to be inactivated according to strict biosafety measures during laboratory diagnostics and vaccine development. The inactivation method for SARS-CoV-2 affects research related to the natural virus and its immune activity as an antigen in vaccines. In this study, we used size exclusion chromatography, western blotting, ELISA, an electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, and surface plasmon resonance to evaluate the effects of four different chemical inactivation methods on the physical and biochemical characterization of SARS-CoV-2. Formaldehyde and ß-propiolactone (BPL) treatment can completely inactivate the virus and have no significant effects on the morphology of the virus. None of the four tested inactivation methods affected the secondary structure of the virus, including the α-helix, antiparallel ß-sheet, parallel ß-sheet, ß-turn, and random coil. However, formaldehyde and long-term BPL treatment (48 h) resulted in decreased viral S protein content and increased viral particle aggregation, respectively. The BPL treatment for 24 h can completely inactivate SARS-CoV-2 with the maximum retention of the morphology, physical properties, and the biochemical properties of the potential antigens of the virus. In summary, we have established a characterization system for the comprehensive evaluation of virus inactivation technology, which has important guiding significance for the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants and research on natural SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Formaldehyde , Humans , Propiolactone/pharmacology , Vaccines, Inactivated
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1584, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Morocco approved BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use on 22 January 2021 in a two-dose, three-to-four-week interval schedule. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine real-world BBIBP-CorV vaccine effectiveness (VE) against serious or critical hospitalization of individuals RT-PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the first five months of BBIBP-CorV use in Morocco. METHODS: The study was conducted among adults 18-99 years old who were tested by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 February and 30 June 2021. RT-PCR results were individually linked with outcomes from the COVID-19 severe or critical hospitalization dataset and with vaccination histories from the national vaccination registration system. Individuals with partial vaccination (< 2 weeks after dose two) or in receipt of any other COVID-19 vaccine were excluded. Unadjusted and adjusted VE estimates against hospitalization for serious or critical illness were made by comparing two-dose vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals in logistic regression models, calculated as (1-odds ratio) * 100%. RESULTS: There were 348,190 individuals able to be matched across the three databases. Among these, 140,892 were fully vaccinated, 206,149 were unvaccinated, and 1,149 received homologous BBIBP-CorV booster doses. Unadjusted, full-series, unboosted BBIBP-CorV VE against hospitalization for serious or critical illness was 90.2% (95%CI: 87.8-92.0%). Full-series, unboosted VE, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar day of RT-PCR test, was 88.5% (95%CI: 85.8-90.7%). Calendar day- and sex-adjusted VE was 96.4% (95%CI: 94.6-97.6%) for individuals < 60 years, and was 53.3% (95%CI: 39.6-63.9%) for individuals 60 years and older. There were no serious or critical illnesses among BBIBP-CorV-boosted individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Effectiveness of Sinopharm's BBIBP-CorV was consistent with phase III clinical trial results. Two doses of BBIBP-CorV was highly protective against COVID-19-associated serious or critical hospitalization in working-age adults under real-world conditions and moderately effective in older adults. Booster dose vaccination was associated with complete protection, regardless of age, although only a small proportion of subjects received booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , Humans , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969529

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged, including five variants of concern (VOC) strains listed by the WHO: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. Extensive studies have shown that most of these VOC strains, especially the currently dominant variant Omicron, can escape the host immune response induced by existing COVID-19 vaccines to different extents, which poses considerable risk to the health of human beings around the world. In the present study, we developed a vaccine based on inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and an adjuvant consisting of aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine were investigated in rats. The candidate vaccine elicited high titers of SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody in immunized rats, which not only neutralize the original SARS-CoV-2, but also showed great cross-neutralization activity against the Beta, Delta and Omicron variants.

17.
Vaccine ; 40(36): 5322-5332, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity of the coadministration of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV), quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults in China is unknown. METHODS: In this open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, participants aged ≥ 18 years were recruited from the community. Individuals were eligible if they had no history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or any pneumonia vaccine and had not received an influenza vaccine during the 2020-21 influenza season. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using block randomization stratified, to either: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and IIV4 followed by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and PPV23 (SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group); two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group); or IIV4 followed by PPV23 (IIV4/PPV23 group). Vaccines were administered 28 days apart, with blood samples taken on day 0 and day 28 before vaccination, and on day 56. RESULTS: Between March 10 and March 15, 2021, 1152 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups (384 per group). 1132 participants were included in the per-protocol population (375 in the SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group, 380 in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group, and 377 in the IIV4/PPV23 group). The seroconversion rate (100 % vs 100 %) and GMT (159.13 vs 173.20; GMT ratio of 0.92 [95 % CI 0.83 to 1.02]) of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies in the SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to those in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group. The SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to the IIV4/PPV23 group in terms of seroconversion rates and GMT of influenza virus antibodies for all strains except for the seroconversion rate for the B/Yamagata strain. The SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to the IIV4/PPV23 group regarding seroconversion rates and GMC of Streptococcus pneumoniae IgG antibodies specific to all serotypes. All vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The coadministration of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and IIV4/PPV23 is safe with satisfactory immunogenicity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04790851.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Double-Blind Method , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Vaccines, Inactivated , Virion
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939065

ABSTRACT

In response to the fast-waning immune response and the great threat of the Omicron variant of concern (VOC) to the public, we report the pilot-scale production of an inactivated Omicron vaccine candidate that induces high levels of neutralizing antibody titers to protect against the Omicron virus. Here, we demonstrate that the inactivated Omicron vaccine is safe and effective in recalling immune responses to the HB02, Omicron, and Delta viruses after one or two doses of BBIBP-CorV. In addition, the efficient productivity and good genetic stability of the manufactured inactivated vaccine is proved. These results support the further evaluation of the Omicron vaccine in a clinical trial.

19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 898151, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933687

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 for children are urgently needed. Here we aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine candidate, WIBP-CorV, in participants aged 3-17 years. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial was conducted in Henan Province, China, in healthy children aged 3-17 years. 240 participants in phase 1 trial and 576 participants in phase 2 trial were randomly assigned to vaccine or control with an age de-escalation in three cohorts (3-5, 6-12 and 13-17 years) and dose-escalation in three groups (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0µg/dose), and received 3 intramuscular injections at day 0, 28, and 56. WIBP-CorV showed a promising safety profile with approximately 17% adverse reactions within 30 days after injection and no grade 3 or worse adverse events. The most common adverse reaction was injection site pain, followed by fever, which were mild and self-limiting. The geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibody ranged from 102.2 to 1065.5 in vaccinated participants at 28 days after the third vaccination, and maintained at a range of 14.3 to 218.2 at day 180 after the third vaccination. WIBP-CorV elicited significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibody in the cohort aged 3-5 years than the other two cohorts. There were no detectable antibody responses in all alum-only groups. Taken together, our data demonstrate that WIBP-CorV is safe and well tolerated at all tested doses in participants aged 3-17 years, and elicited robust humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 lasted for at least 6 months after the third vaccination. This study is ongoing and is registered with www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000031809.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated, in a population aged ≥60 years with hypertension or(/and) diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 1440 participants were enrolled and divided into four groups, 330 in the hypertension group, 330 in the diabetes group, 300 in the hypertensive combined with diabetes group (combined disease group), and 480 in the healthy population group. Two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated, were administered at a 21-day interval and blood samples were collected before vaccination and 28 days after the second dose to evaluate the immunogenicity. The adverse events and changes in blood pressure and blood glucose levels after vaccination were recorded. RESULTS: The seroconversion rate of the COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies was 100% for all participants. The post-inoculation geometric mean titer (GMT) in the four groups of the hypertension, diabetes, combined disease, and healthy populations were 73.41, 69.93, 73.84, and 74.86, respectively. The seroconversion rates and post-vaccination GMT in the hypertension, diabetes, and combined disease groups were non-inferior to the healthy population group. The rates of vaccine-related adverse reactions were 11.93%, 14.29%, 12.50%, and 9.38%, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. No apparent abnormal fluctuations in blood pressure and blood glucose values were observed after vaccination in participants with hypertension or(/and) diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated, showed good immunogenicity and safety in patients aged ≥60 years suffering from hypertension or(/and) diabetes mellitus.

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