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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824548

ABSTRACT

Background The changing pattern of pathogen spectrum causing herpangina in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on the molecular epidemiology of herpangina children during 2019-2020 in Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. Method From January 2019 to December 2020, children diagnosed with herpangina were recruited by the staff from Tongzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Beijing. Viral RNA extraction from pharyngeal swabs was used for enterovirus (EV) detection and the complete VP1 gene was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on all VP1 sequences for EV genotypes. Result A total of 1,331 herpangina children were identified during 2019-2020 with 1,121 in 2019 and 210 in 2020, respectively. The predominant epidemic peak of herpangina children was in summer and autumn of 2019, but not observed in 2020. Compared to the number of herpangina children reported in 2019, it decreased sharply in 2020. Among 129 samples tested in 2019, 61 (47.3%) children were detected with EV, while 22.5% (20/89) were positive in 2020. The positive rate for EV increased since June 2019, peaked at August 2019, and decreased continuously until February 2020. No cases were observed from February to July in 2020, and the positive rate of EV rebounded to previous level since August 2020. Four genotypes, including coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6, 9.3%), CV-A4 (7.8%), CV-A10 (2.3%) and CV-A16 (10.1%), were identified in 2019, and only three genotypes, including CV-A6 (9.0%), CV-A10 (6.7%) and CV-A16 (1.1%), were identified in 2020. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all CV-A6 strains from Tongzhou located in Group C, and the predominant strains mainly located in C2-C4 subgroups during 2016-2018 and changed into C1 subgroup during 2018-2020. CV-A16 strains mainly located in Group B, which consisting of strains widely distributed around the world. Conclusions The predominant genotypes gradually shifted from CV-A16, CV-A4 and CV-A6 in 2019 to CV-A6 in 2020 under COVID-19 pandemic. Genotype-based surveillance will provide robust evidence and facilitate the development of public health measures.

2.
Mediators of Inflammation ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1807716

ABSTRACT

Risk factors, including dietary, environmental, and habitual factors, are considered to be involved in the cause and progress of some metabolic diseases [7, 8]. [...]for some certain metabolic disorders, other coexisting metabolic diseases are also risk factors. Wang et al. were also focused on M2 polarization and found a protective mechanism related to miR-6869-5p and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O in gestational diabetes mellitus. [...]in a study by Su et al. focused on therapy of obese complicated with polymicrobial sepsis by exploring a mouse model, macrophages were found to be involved in the mechanism by which administrated glutamine alleviated inflammation and attenuated acute kidney injury. [...]Lin et al. investigated the relationship between CMV infection and leukocyte telomere length and found a close relevance between previous CMV infection and shorter leukocyte TL.

3.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 7(2): 143-147, 2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the experience in the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) epidemic in non-isolated areas in a general hospital. METHODS: Based on refined management theory, we professionally developed the standards for prevention and control of COVID-19 in non-isolated areas, systematically implemented various prevention and control measures, performed gridding audits, effectively communicated among teams and between medical staff and patients assisted by information techniques, and reported results for quality improvement. RESULTS: There was no hospital-acquired COVID-19 infections among staff in the hospital. The rates of mask-wearing, epidemiological history screening, and the medical supplies disinfection were all 100% in the hospital. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing of patients and their families was 73.79% and the compliance rate of their hand hygiene was 40.78%. CONCLUSION: Refined management strategies for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection in non-isolated areas of the general hospital are effective. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing and hand hygiene compliance of patients and their families need to be further improved.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771101

ABSTRACT

Background: The implementation of evidence-based approaches by general practitioners (GPs) is new in the primary care setting, and few quantitative studies have evaluated the impact of contextual factors on the attendance of these approaches. Methods: In total, 892 GPs from 75 community healthcare centers (CHCs) in Shanghai completed our survey. We used logistic regression to analyze factors affecting the number of evidence-based chronic disease programs attended by GPs and whether they had held the lead position in such a program. Results: A total of 346 (38.8%) of the practitioners had never participated in any evidence-based chronic disease prevention (EBCDP) program. The EBCDP interventions in which the GPs had participated were predominantly related to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, the proportion of GPs in the lead role was relatively low, between 0.8% (programs involving prevention and control of asthma) and 5.0% (diabetes). Organizational factors and areas were significantly associated with evidence-based practices (EBPs) of the GP, while monthly income and department were the most significantly related to GPs who have the lead role in a program. The results indicated that GPs who had taken the lead position had higher scores for policy and economic impeding factors. GPs who were men, had a higher income, and worked in prevention and healthcare departments and urban areas were more likely to take the lead position. Conclusion: Evidence-based programs for chronic diseases should be extended to different types of diseases. Personal, organizational, political, and economic factors and the factors of female sex, lower income, department type, and suburban area environment should be considered to facilitate the translation of evidence to practice.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , China , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Primary Health Care
5.
Nat Prod Commun ; 17(2): 1934578X221075075, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691173

ABSTRACT

Objective: To predict the mechanism of Shengmai Injection (SMI) in the acute treatment of COVID-19 by network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods: Search the compounds in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), and screen them by Drug-like properties (DL) and Oral bioavailability (OB); Using PharmMapper database and GeneCards database to collect compounds targets and COVID-19 targets, and using UniProt database to standardize the names of target genes; Using DAVID database for KEGG pathway annotation and GO bioinformatics analysis; Using Cytoscape 3.8.2 software and STRING 10.5 database to construct "Component-Target-Pathway" network and Protein-Protein Interaction network (PPI); Using molecular docking to predict the binding ability of key compounds and key proteins. Results: A total of 34 active components, 38 core targets and 180 signaling pathways were screened out. The results of molecular docking showed that Schisantherin A and Moupinamide have strong binding with EGFR and MAPK1. Conclusion: The key active compounds of SMI in the treatment of COVID-19 may be Schisantherin A and Moupinamide, and the molecular mechanism may be related to key targets such as EGFR and MAPK1, and may be involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324996

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic since early 2020 and remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Four structural genes, envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S), play a key role in controlling entry into human cells and virion assembly of SARS-CoV-2. The evolution of these genes may determine infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, but thus far, little is known about them. Methods: We analyzed 3090 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the GenBank database to determine the evolutionary patterns of the four structural genes by employing various molecular evolution algorithms. Results: Phylogenetic analyses showed that global SARS-CoV-2 isolates can be clustered into three to four major clades based upon protein sequence. Although intragenic recombination was not detected among different alleles, purifying selection has affected the evolution of these genes. By analyzing full genomic sequences of these alleles, our result revealed that codon 614 of the S glycoprotein has been subjected to a strong positive selection pressure, and a consistent D614G mutation was identified. Additionally, another potentially positive selection site at codon 5 in the signal sequence of the S protein was also identified with a consistent L5F mutation. The allele containing the D614G mutation has undergone significant expansion during SARS-CoV-2 transmission, implying a better adaptability of isolates with the mutation. Nevertheless, L5F allele expansion was found to be relatively restricted. The D614G mutation is located at subdomain 2 (SD2) of the C-terminal portion (CTP) of the S1 subunit. Protein structural modeling showed that the D614G mutation may cause the disruption of a salt bridge between S protein monomers and increase their flexibility, consequently promoting receptor binding domain (RBD) opening, virus attachment, and ultimately entry into host cells. Located at the signal sequence of S protein, the L5F mutation may facilitate protein folding, assembly, and secretion of the virus. Conclusions: This is the first reported evidence of positive Darwinian selection in the spike gene of SARS-CoV-2. This finding contributes to a broader understanding of the adaptive mechanisms of this virus, and provide insight for the development of novel therapeutic approaches, as well as the creation of effective vaccines, through targeting mutation sites.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321462

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease. No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for treating severe COVID-19. Objectives: To determine whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion may be effective and safe for the treatment of severe COVID-19. Methods: Patients with severe COVID-19 were randomly divided into 2 groups: the standard treatment group and the standard treatment plus hUC-MSC infusion group. The incidence of progression from severe to critical illness, 28-day mortality, clinical symptom improvement, time to clinical symptom improvement, hematologic indicators including C-reactive protein, lymphocyte number, and interleukin 6, and imaging changes were observed and compared between the two groups. Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of progression from severe to critical illness and the 28-day mortality rate were 0 in the hUC-MSC treatment group, while 4 patients in the control group deteriorated to critical condition and received invasive ventilation;3 of them died, and the 28-day mortality rate was 10.34% . In the hUC-MSC treatment group, the time to clinical improvement was shorter than that in the control group. Clinical symptoms of weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and low oxygen saturation obviously improved beginning on the third day of stem cell infusion and reached a significant difference on day 7. CRP and IL-6 levels were significantly lower from day 3 of infusion, the time for the lymphocyte count to return to the normal range was significantly faster, and lung inflammation absorption was significantly shorter on CT imaging in the hUC-MSC group than in the control group. Conclusions: Intravenous transplantation of hUC-MSCs is a safe and effective method that can be considered a salvage and priority treatment option for severe COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307615

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global research with the aim of predicting which people are at greatest risk of developing severe disease and dying. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between obesity and the severity of and mortality due to COVID-19. Methods: : We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies evaluating the associations of obesity with COVID-19 . Odd risks (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Results: : Thirty-eight studies involving 621502 patients were included. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients had a significantly increased risk of infection (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.45-7.03;I 2 = 98.3%), hospitalization (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.61-1.95;I 2 = 43.8%), clinically severe disease (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.99-4.16;I 2 = 49.9%), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.66, 95% CI1.42-1.94;I 2 = 41.3%), intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 2.06, 95% CI1.49-2.85;I 2 = 71.4%), and mortality (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18-1.85;I 2 = 80.8%). Conclusion: Patients with obesity may have a greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 and dying. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of these associations with obesity in COVID-19 patients.

9.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114392, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654864

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the test accuracy of reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We comprehensively searched PUBMED, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System until September 1, 2021. We included clinical studies assessing the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR and RT-LAMP using respiratory samples. Thirty-three studies were included with 9360 suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The RT-PCR or other comprehensive diagnostic method was defined as the reference method. The results showed that the overall pooled sensitivity of RT-PCR and RT-LAMP was 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.93-0.98) and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.85-0.96), respectively. RT-PCR and RT-LAMP had a 0.06 (95 % CI, 0.04-0.08) and 0.12 (95 % CI, 0.06-0.16) false-negative rates (FNR), respectively. Moreover, subgroup analysis showed mixed sampling and multiple target gene diagnosis methods had better diagnostic value than single-site sampling and a single target gene. The sensitivity and FNR were also significantly affected by the reference method. Comparing RT-LAMP with established suboptimal RT-PCR may exaggerate the performance of RT-LAMP. RT-PCR and RT-LAMP showed high values in the diagnosis of COVID-19, but there was still a FNR of about 6%-12%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295986

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the cointegration between possible determinants of crude oil futures prices during the COVID-19 pandemic period. We perform comparative analysis of WTI and newly-launched Shanghai crude oil futures (SC) via the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (QARDL) model. The empirical results confirm that economic policy uncertainty, stock markets, interest rates and coronavirus panic are important drivers of WTI futures prices. Our findings also suggest that the US and China's stock markets play vital roles in movements of SC futures prices. Meanwhile, CSI300 stock index has a significant positive short-run impact on SC futures prices while S\&P500 prices possess a positive nexus with SC futures prices both in long-run and short-run. Overall, these empirical evidences provide practical implications for investors and policymakers.

11.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479486

ABSTRACT

The optimal timing of glucocorticoid treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is uncertain. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of methylprednisolone therapy (MPT) for patients with a high-risk common type (HRCT) COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study in Northeast China. A comparison was performed between the standard treatment (SDT) group and the SDT + MPT group to determine the efficacy of methylprednisolone in treating HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia. We collected the medical records of 403 patients with HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia (127 in the SDT + MPT group and 276 in the SDT group). None of the patients had received mechanical ventilation or died. Furthermore, there were no side effects associated with MPT. Patients in the SDT + MPT group treated with methylprednisolone received an intravenous injection for a median interval of five days (interquartile range of 3 to 7 days). The trends in lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, lactic acid dehydrogenase, respiratory rate, SpO2, PaO2, D-dimer and body temperature were similar between the SDT + MPT and SDT groups. The results for the SDT + MPT group seemed to improve faster than those for the SDT group; however, the results were not statistically significant. Clinical outcomes revealed that the average hospitalized days and the rate of progression to severe type COVID-19 pneumonia in both the SDT + MPT group and the SDT group were 14.56 ± 0.57 days versus 16.55 ± 0.3 days (p = 0.0009) and 21.26% (27/127) versus 32.4% (89/276) (p = 0.0247), respectively. The 16-day nucleic acid negative rate was higher in the SDT + MPT group than in the SDT group, 81.73% (104/127) versus 65.27% (180/276) (p = 0.0006). MPT effectively prevents patients with HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia from progressing to the severe stage.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1505, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global research to predict those who are at greatest risk of developing severe disease and mortality. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between obesity and the severity of and mortality due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies evaluating the associations of obesity with COVID-19. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate regression coefficients. RESULTS: Forty-six studies involving 625,153 patients were included. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients had a significantly increased risk of infection. (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.53-4.87; I2 = 96.8%), hospitalization (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.55-1.92; I2 = 47.4%), clinically severe disease (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.97-7.35; I2 = 57.4%), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.42-1.94; I2 = 41.3%), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.55-3.27; I2 = 71.5%), and mortality (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29-2.01; I2 = 83.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity may have a greater risk of infection, hospitalization, clinically severe disease, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and mortality due to COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of these associations with obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
ACS Omega ; 6(36): 23432-23441, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404874

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses a spike protein (S-protein) to recognize the receptor protein ACE2 of human cells and initiate infection, during which the conformational transition of the S-protein from inactive (down) state to active (up) state is one of the key molecular events determining the infectivity but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the activation pathways and free energy landscape of the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and compared with those of the closely related counterpart SARS-CoV using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results revealed a large difference between the activation pathways of the two S-proteins. The transition from inactive to an active state for the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 is more cooperative, involving simultaneous disruptions of several key interfacial hydrogen bonds, and the transition encounters a much higher free energy barrier. In addition, the conformational equilibrium of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein is more biased to the inactive state compared to that of the SARS-CoV S-protein, suggesting the transient feature of the active state before binding to the receptor protein of the host cell. The key interactions contributing to the difference of the activation pathways and free energy landscapes were discussed. The results provide insights into the molecular mechanism involved in the initial stage of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 696087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348473

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Recently, insulin treatment has been found to be associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes, but the results remain unclear and controversial, therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis. Methods: Four databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were used to identify all studies concerning insulin treatment and the adverse effects of COVID-19, including mortality, incidence of severe/critical complications, in-hospital admission and hospitalization time. To assess publication bias, funnel plots, Begg's tests and Egger's tests were used. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to access the effect of insulin therapy on mortality, severe/critical complications and in-hospital admission. The association between insulin treatment and hospitalization time was calculated by the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. Results: Eighteen articles, involving a total of 12277 patients with COVID-19 and diabetes were included. Insulin treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR=2.10; 95% CI, 1.51-2.93) and incidence of severe/critical COVID-19 complications (OR=2.56; 95% CI, 1.18-5.55). Moreover, insulin therapy may increase in-hospital admission in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes (OR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61). However, there was no significant difference in the hospitalization time according to insulin treatment (SMD=0.21 95% CI, -0.02-0.45). Conclusions: Insulin treatment may increase mortality and severe/critical complications in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes, but more large-scale studies are needed to confirm and explore the exact mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Treatment Outcome
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 328-331, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315667

ABSTRACT

To explore any relationship between the ABO blood group and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility, we compared ABO blood group distributions in 2173 COVID-19 patients with local control populations, and found that blood group A was associated with an increased risk of infection, whereas group O was associated with a decreased risk.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236590

ABSTRACT

AIMS: DPP-4 inhibitors are predicted to exert a protective effect on the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate this hypothesis. METHODS: Four databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were used to identify studies on DPP-4 and COVID-19. The outcome indicators were the mortality of COVID-19. Funnel plots, Begg's tests and Egger's tests were used to assess publication bias. RESULTS: Four articles were included with a total of 1933 patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes. The use of DPP-4 inhibitors was negatively associated with the risk of mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.58 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: DPP-4 inhibitors may improve the mortality of patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes. As few relevant studies are available, more large-scale studies need to be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Survival Rate
18.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(12): 2816-2822, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the globe. On February 28, 2020, the World Health Organization adjusted the risk of spread and impact of COVID-19 to "very high" at the global level. Studies have mainly focused on the etiology, epidemiology, and treatment of COVID-19 to limit further spread and the negative impact of the disease, while less attention has been devoted to the follow-up and reexamination of patients who recovered from COVID-19 or were released from quarantine. CASE SUMMARY: This study reports two cases where patients who had negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results and met the criteria for discharge subsequently had positive RT-PCR test results. The clinical manifestations and computed tomography (CT) findings of these patients were examined. The conversion of RT-PCR test results in these two patients may be related to false-negative and false-positive outcomes of the test. CT images helped track improvement of pulmonary lesions. CONCLUSION: The timing of discharge of COVID-19 patients should be determined by comprehensive analysis of CT images and RT-PCR test results.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250869, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207640

ABSTRACT

With the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 globally, more than 40,000 healthcare staff rushed to Wuhan, Hubei Province to fight against this threatening disease. All staff had to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) for several hours when caring for patients, which resulted in adverse skin reactions and injuries. In this study, we used an online questionnaire to collect the self-reported skin damages among the first-line medical staff in the epidemic. The questionnaire was designed by four front-line wound care nurses and then revised through Delphi consultants. Items mainly focused on the adverse skin reactions and preventive strategies. The survey was distributed through phone application from March 15th to March 20th and received 275 responses in total. The prevalence of skin reactions (212, 77.09%) was high in both head and hands. The common clinical symptoms of skin reactions were redness, device-like mark, and burning pain in face; and dryness, dermatitis, and itch/irritation in hands. Three risk factors included gender, level of protection, and daily wearing time of PPE were identified that caused skin reactions among medical staff. 150 of 275 (54.55%) participants took preventive strategies like prophylactic dressings, however, more than 75% users had little knowledge about dressings. We suggest the frontline staff strengthened the protection of skin integrity and reduced the prevalence of adverse skin reactions after professional education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Skin Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(2): 333-342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193666

ABSTRACT

Fangcang hospitals, as tentative hospitals built to treat a huge turnover of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, have played a pivotal role to slow down the pandemic spread in China in 2020. However, anxiety and sleep disorders remain tough to address during the treatments. In this study, group psychological intervention in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation exercises were conducted in the trial group for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in a Fangcang Hospital to mitigate the patients' anxiety and sleep disorders, while conventional nursing methods were done in the control group, with 70 randomly picked patients in each group. Effects were assessed through questionnaire method using state anxiety questionnaire (SAI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PQSI) rating investigation. Results showed that both SAI and PSQI scores of the trial group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The SAI scores of the trial group and the control group were 38.5 ± 13.2 and 45.8 ± 10.4 points (t = 3.600, P < 0.001), respectively, and the PSQI scores were 5.6 ± 3.0 and 7.1 ± 3.0 points (t = 2.982, P < 0.01), respectively. Our methods have significant advantages over conventional nursing methods to mitigate anxiety and sleep disorders for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in the Fangcang Hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , China/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
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