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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147762

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The public’s safety has been significantly jeopardized by the pandemic of COVID-19, which is brought on by the highly virulent and contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus. Finding novel antiviral drugs is currently of utmost importance for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Main protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is involved in replication of virus, so it is considered as a promising target. Using small molecules to inhibit SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro activity may be an effective way to prevent viral replication to fight COVID-19. Despite the fact that some SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitors have been described, only few of them have high levels of inhibition at nanomolar concentrations. In this study, we aimed to screen out effective SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitors. Methods: To identify highly effective SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping and multiple-conformation docking were efficiently applied to find novel hit compounds from a database. Then, the stability of the 3CLpro-hit complexes was validated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, biological assay was used to assess the inhibition effects of hit compounds on SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro. Results: Four hit compounds were identified by using computer-assisted strategy. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that these hits bound stably to the 3CLpro-active pocket. Bioassay showed that all the hits had potent inhibition against SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro with IC50 values in the range of 0.017–0.83 μM. Particularly, hit one was the best 3CLpro inhibitor and its inhibition effect of SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro (IC50 = 0.017 ± 0.003 µM) was about 236 times stronger than that of ML300 (IC50 = 4.01 ± 0.66 µM). Conclusion: These data indicate that hit one could be regarded as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate worth exploring further for the treatment of COVID-19.

4.
Biosensors & bioelectronics ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126062

ABSTRACT

False detection of SARS-CoV-2 is detrimental to epidemic prevention and control. The scalar nature of the detected signal and the imperfect target recognition property of developed methods are the root causes of generating false signals. Here, we reported a collaborative system of CRISPR-Cas13a coupling with the stabilized graphene field-effect transistor, providing high-intensity vector signals for detecting SARS-CoV-2. In this collaborative system, SARS-CoV-2 RNA generates a “big subtraction” signal with a right-shifted feature, whereas any untargets cause the left-shifted characteristic signal. Thus, the false detection of SARS-CoV-2 is eliminated. High sensitivity with 0.15 copies/μL was obtained. In addition, the wide concerned instability of the graphene field-effect transistor for biosensing in solution environment was solved by the hydrophobic treatment to its substrate, which should be a milestone in advancing it's engineering application. This collaborative system characterized by the high-intensity vector signal and amazing stability significantly advances the accurate SARS-CoV-2 detection from the aspect of signal nature.

5.
Research in Transportation Economics ; : 101251, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122781

ABSTRACT

International freight transportation experienced significant disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic and related government restriction measures on international freight transportation is worth analysing for the development of transportation policies and practices in the post-pandemic period, but has received limited attention. To fill the gap, this study applies structural equation models to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the international transportation market and the relationships among the pandemic, government restriction measures, and international transportation market. The impact is also differentiated for different modes of transportation. Results confirm that both demand and supply of international transportation services have been negatively affected by the first wave of the pandemic, with sea transportation being more affected by the reduction of demand and air transportation more by the supply volatility. The government restriction measures are found to play a mediation role, in the way that the impact of the pandemic on the supply of transportation service is suppressed through the government restriction measures. Our findings provide important guidance for transportation industry players and governments in their decision-making process facing with global market shocks such as a pandemic.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1001567, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly changed society. We aimed to examine the systematic impact of the COVID-19 on injury burden in the United States. Methods: We extracted mortality and morbidity data from CDC WONDER and WISQARS. We estimated age-standardized injury mortality rate ratio and morbidity rate ratio (MtRR and MbRR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for all injuries, all unintentional injuries, homicide/assault by all methods, suicide/self-harm by all methods, as well as other 11 specific unintentional or intentional injury categories. Injury rate ratios were compared for 2020 vs. 2019 to those of 2019 vs. 2018 to demonstrate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on fatal and nonfatal injury burden. The ratio of MtRRs (RMtRR) and the ratio of MbRRs (RMbRR) with 95% CI between 2020 vs. 2019 and 2019 vs. 2018 were calculated separately. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in injury mortality (RMtRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.13) but injury morbidity decreased (RMbRR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.89) when the changes of these rates from 2019 to 2020 were compared to those from 2018 to 2019. Mortality disparities between the two time periods were primarily driven by greater mortality during the COVID-influenced 2020 vs. 2019 from road traffic crashes (particularly motorcyclist mortality), drug poisoning, and homicide by firearm. Similar patterns were not present from 2019 vs. 2018. There were morbidity reductions from road traffic crashes (particularly occupant and pedestrian morbidity from motor vehicle crashes), unintentional falls, and self-harm by suffocation from 2019 to 2020 compared to the previous period. Change patterns in sexes and age groups were generally similar, but exceptions were observed for some injury types. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly changed specific injury burden in the United States. Some discrepancies also existed across sex and age groups, meriting attention of injury researchers and policymakers to tailor injury prevention strategies to particular populations and the environmental contexts citizens face.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Morbidity , Accidents, Traffic
7.
Applied Economics ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121919

ABSTRACT

While the economy slid into a recession since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the house prices in many markets have reached historical highs. This research aims to examine how much the recent large increases in the prices can be explained by bubbles and whether the overvaluation is due to momentum or intrinsic bubbles. A present value model is constructed to estimate real estate bubbles with one dynamic and three assumed net rental yields. The empirical focus is on Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, the three largest residential property markets in Australia, that have experienced a rapid growth in house prices since the outbreak of coronavirus. The finding demonstrates the evidence of bubbles in all three markets during the study period but the degree of overvaluation varies. We also discover that momentum bubbles exist in these markets but the overvaluation is mainly explained by intrinsic bubbles.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(46): 21295-21303, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118107

ABSTRACT

Multivalent display of SARS-CoV-2 RBDs (receptor-binding domains, prime proteins for viral infection and as vaccine immunogens) affects infectivity and as immunogens on a virus-like particle (VLP) can enhance immune response. However, the viral attachment and immune response initiated by the copy number and distribution pattern of SARS-CoV-2 RBDs remain poorly understood. Here, we organize SARS-CoV-2 RBDs on DNA nanoballs of ∼74 nm diameter by an aptamer-guided assembly for a systematic interrogation. We find that both the affinity and the rate of the DNA-based VLP binding to the host cell increase with the RBD number (10-90). In addition, a concentrated RBD distribution promotes faster and stronger interaction to the host cell than an even RBD distribution. Moreover, it is interesting to learn that the immunity activation does not increase linearly with RBD numbers on the VLP. As few as 20 evenly distributed RBDs per VLP can elicit up to 86% immunity of macrophage cells. Overall, the work provides a new tool to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and VLP-based immunity activation, which should deepen our understanding of viral infection and facilitate the development of highly effective antiviral vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , DNA
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 999534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099150

ABSTRACT

Up to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still affecting worldwide due to its highly infectious nature anrapid spread. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and they have a certain correlation in some aspects. Particularly, the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulation state play an important role in the underlying mechanism linking COVID-19 to DKD. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor is considered a potential therapy for COVID-19 and has similarly shown organ protection in DKD. In addition, neuropilin-1 as an alternative pathway for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 also contributes to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entering the host cells, and its decreased expression can affect podocyte migration and adhesion. Here, we review the pathogenesis and current evidence of the interaction of DKD and COVID-19, as well as focus on elevated blood glucose following vaccination and its possible mechanism. Grasping the pathophysiology of DKD patients with COVID-19 is of great clinical significance for the formulation of therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Vaccines , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mol Biomed ; 3(1): 31, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079575

ABSTRACT

The discovery and development of the CRISPR/Cas system is a milestone in precise medicine. CRISPR/Cas nucleases, base-editing (BE) and prime-editing (PE) are three genome editing technologies derived from CRISPR/Cas. In recent years, CRISPR-based genome editing technologies have created immense therapeutic potential with safe and efficient viral or non-viral delivery systems. Significant progress has been made in applying genome editing strategies to modify T cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ex vivo and to treat a wide variety of diseases and disorders in vivo. Nevertheless, the clinical translation of this unique technology still faces many challenges, especially targeting, safety and delivery issues, which require further improvement and optimization. In addition, with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), CRISPR-based molecular diagnosis has attracted extensive attention. Growing from the specific set of molecular biological discoveries to several active clinical trials, CRISPR/Cas systems offer the opportunity to create a cost-effective, portable and point-of-care diagnosis through nucleic acid screening of diseases. In this review, we describe the development, mechanisms and delivery systems of CRISPR-based genome editing and focus on clinical and preclinical studies of therapeutic CRISPR genome editing in disease treatment as well as its application prospects in therapeutics and molecular detection.

11.
Ann Tour Res ; 90: 103120, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075911
12.
Radiol Artif Intell ; 4(5): e210315, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053381

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To demonstrate the value of pretraining with millions of radiologic images compared with ImageNet photographic images on downstream medical applications when using transfer learning. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent a radiologic study between 2005 and 2020 at an outpatient imaging facility. Key images and associated labels from the studies were retrospectively extracted from the original study interpretation. These images were used for RadImageNet model training with random weight initiation. The RadImageNet models were compared with ImageNet models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for eight classification tasks and using Dice scores for two segmentation problems. Results: The RadImageNet database consists of 1.35 million annotated medical images in 131 872 patients who underwent CT, MRI, and US for musculoskeletal, neurologic, oncologic, gastrointestinal, endocrine, abdominal, and pulmonary pathologic conditions. For transfer learning tasks on small datasets-thyroid nodules (US), breast masses (US), anterior cruciate ligament injuries (MRI), and meniscal tears (MRI)-the RadImageNet models demonstrated a significant advantage (P < .001) to ImageNet models (9.4%, 4.0%, 4.8%, and 4.5% AUC improvements, respectively). For larger datasets-pneumonia (chest radiography), COVID-19 (CT), SARS-CoV-2 (CT), and intracranial hemorrhage (CT)-the RadImageNet models also illustrated improved AUC (P < .001) by 1.9%, 6.1%, 1.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Additionally, lesion localizations of the RadImageNet models were improved by 64.6% and 16.4% on thyroid and breast US datasets, respectively. Conclusion: RadImageNet pretrained models demonstrated better interpretability compared with ImageNet models, especially for smaller radiologic datasets.Keywords: CT, MR Imaging, US, Head/Neck, Thorax, Brain/Brain Stem, Evidence-based Medicine, Computer Applications-General (Informatics) Supplemental material is available for this article. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.See also the commentary by Cadrin-Chênevert in this issue.

13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2122-e2131, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053007

ABSTRACT

The ongoing enzootic circulation of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and North Africa is increasingly raising the concern about the possibility of its recombination with other human-adapted coronaviruses, particularly the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We aim to provide an updated picture about ecological niches of MERS-CoV and associated socio-environmental drivers. Based on 356 confirmed MERS cases with animal contact reported to the WHO and 63 records of animal infections collected from the literature as of 30 May 2020, we assessed ecological niches of MERS-CoV using an ensemble model integrating three machine learning algorithms. With a high predictive accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 91.66% in test data), the ensemble model estimated that ecologically suitable areas span over the Middle East, South Asia and the whole North Africa, much wider than the range of reported locally infected MERS cases and test-positive animal samples. Ecological suitability for MERS-CoV was significantly associated with high levels of bareland coverage (relative contribution = 30.06%), population density (7.28%), average temperature (6.48%) and camel density (6.20%). Future surveillance and intervention programs should target the high-risk populations and regions informed by updated quantitative analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Camelus , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
14.
European journal of internal medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047076
15.
Nano research ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the importance of rapid and reliable diagnostic assays for the management of virus transmission. Here, we developed a one-pot hydrothermal method to prepare Si-FITC nanoparticles (NPs) for the fluorescent immunoassay of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein (N protein). The synthesis of Si-FITC NPs did not need post-modification, which addressed the issue of quantum yield reduction during the coupling reaction. Si-FITC NPs showed two distinct peaks, Si fluorescence at λem = 385 nm and FITC fluorescence at λem = 490 nm. In the presence of KMnO4, Si fluorescence was decreased and FITC fluorescence was enhanced. Briefly, in the presence of N protein, catalase (CAT)-linked secondary antibody/reporter antibody/N protein/capture antibody immunocomplexes were formed on microplates. Subsequently, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Si-FITC NPs/KMnO4 were injected into the microplate together. The decomposition of H2O2 by CAT resulted in remaining of KMnO4, which changed the fluorescence intensity ratio of Si-FITC NPs. The fluorescence intensity ratio correlated significantly with the N protein concentration ranging from 0.02 to 50.00 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 0.003 ng/mL, which was more sensitive than the commercial ELISA kit with a detection limit of 0.057 ng/mL. The N protein concentration can be accurately determined in human serum. Furthermore, the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were distinguishable by this method. Therefore, the ratiometric fluorescent immunoassay can be used for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis with a high sensitivity and selectivity. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material (characterization of Si-FITC NPs (FTIR, HRXPS);stability investigation of Si-FITC NPs (photostability, pH stability, anti-interference ability);stability investigation of free FITC (pH value, KMnO4);quenching mechanism of KMnO4 (UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence lifetime decay curves);reaction condition optimization of biotin-CAT with H2O2 (pH value, temperature, time);detection of N protein using commercial ELISA Kit;selectivity investigation of assays for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection;determination results of SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human serum) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-5005-z.

16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 405, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Septic heart failure accounts for high mortality rates globally. With a strong reducing capacity, zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nanoFe) have been applied in many fields. However, the precise roles and mechanisms of nanoFe in septic cardiomyopathy remain unknown. RESULTS: NanoFe was prepared via the liquid-phase reduction method and functionalized with the biocompatible polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). We then successfully constructed a mouse model of septic myocardial injury by challenging with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Our findings demonstrated that nanoFe has a significant protective effect on CLP-induced septic myocardial injury. This may be achieved by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress, improving mitochondrial function, regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activating the AMPK pathway. The RNA-seq results supported the role of nanoFe treatment in regulating a transcriptional profile consistent with its role in response to sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a theoretical basis for the application strategy and combination of nanoFe in sepsis and septic myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Heart Injuries , Nanoparticles , Sepsis , Animals , Heart Failure/metabolism , Iron , Mice , Myocardium/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism
17.
Zoonoses ; 1(4), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025748

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, CT findings have been widely reported to be associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19. However, few studies have reported the correlation between CT findings and long-term outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Case presentation: Herein, we conducted a 167 day long-term follow-up of CT examination on 11 patients with COVID-19 to evaluate their long-term prognosis, particularly in severe cases. We found that the course of COVID-19 can be divided into four stages according to the characteristics of CT images: (1) early stage (1-4 days), with chest CT showing quasi-circular ground-glass shadows and fine mesh shadows;(2) progressive stage (5-10 days), showing lesion spread through the axial interstitium along the bronchi and gradual diffusion to the whole lung;(3) recovery stage (11-74 days), showing gradual absorption of the fibre cord, ground-glass, and consolidation shadows;and (4) normal stage (74 days later), indicating no serious permanent lung injuries. Conclusions: Our data indicate that chest CT can enable early detection of COVID-19 and determination of the different stages of COVID-19. Furthermore, mild cases tended to have better prognosis, whereas severe cases still showed cord-like fibrosis in the lungs in follow-up at the 167th day after symptom onset.

18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 981307, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023007

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction among the elderly is a novel issue in many countries. However, extant research about excessive use of the Internet is focusing on adolescents and younger adults. There are few studies to explore the topic of the elderly's Internet addiction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between real-life social support and Internet addiction among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article adopted a self-reported questionnaire via internet links to collect data. A total of 303 valid samples about Internet addiction for the elderly were obtained in China. The results suggested that real-life social support is significantly and negatively related to Internet addiction among the aged. Moreover, the findings revealed that real-life social support could mitigate Internet addiction by increasing the levels of hopefulness and decreasing the feeling of loneliness. We expect that this study can enrich the understanding of the problematic Internet usage within older populations. Finally, the contributions, practical significance, and limitations of this study were discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , Social Support
19.
Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal ; 50(9):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2022447

ABSTRACT

Increasing preventive behaviors is critical to mitigating the rapid spread of COVID-19, but this can be challenging as some people are reluctant to practice these behaviors. We explored the mediating role of threat appraisal in the link between perception of COVID-19 risk exposure and preventive behavior, and the moderating effect of COVID-19 information consumption through social media. We recruited 577 people in China to complete a survey. The results show that perception of COVID-19 risk exposure was positively associated with preventive behaviors and that threat appraisal partially mediated this relationship. Moreover, COVID-19 information consumption on social media moderated the mediating effect. These results provide theoretical and practical implications to increase individuals' preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal is the property of Society for Personality Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017867

ABSTRACT

We screened 65 longitudinally-collected nasal swab samples from 31 children aged 0-16 years who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 omicron BA.1. By day 7 after onset of symptoms 48% of children remained positive by rapid antigen test. In a sample subset we found 100% correlation between antigen test results and virus culture.

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