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1.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225879

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is emerging as a global health threat and shows a higher risk for men than women. Thus far, the studies on andrological consequences of COVID-19 are limited. To ascertain the consequences of COVID-19 on sperm parameters after recovery, we recruited 41 reproductive-aged male patients who had recovered from COVID-19, and analyzed their semen parameters and serum sex hormones at a median time of 56 days after hospital discharge. For longitudinal analysis, a second sampling was obtained from 22 of the 41 patients after a median time interval of 29 days from first sampling. Compared with controls who had not suffered from COVID-19, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa in the patients were significantly lower at first sampling, while sperm vitality and morphology were not affected. The total sperm count, sperm concentration, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate were significantly increased and the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm was reduced at the second sampling compared with those at first in the 22 patients examined. Though there were higher prolactin and lower progesterone levels in patients at first sampling than those in controls, no significant alterations were detected for any sex hormones examined over time following COVID-19 recovery in the 22 patients. Although it should be interpreted carefully, these findings indicate an adverse but potentially reversible consequence of COVID-19 on sperm quality.

2.
Geophysical Research Letters ; n/a(n/a):e2021GL092770, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1223062

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), China conducted a nationwide lockdown (LD) which significantly reduced anthropogenic emissions To analyze the different impacts of COVID-19 on black carbon (BC) in the two representative regions in China, one-year continuous online measurements of BC were conducted simultaneously in Beijing and Tibet The average concentration in the LD period was 20% higher than that in the pre-LD period in Beijing, which could be attributed to the increase of transport from southwestern neighboring areas and enhanced aged BC In contrast to megacity, the average concentration of BC in Tibet decreased over 70% in the LD period, suggesting high sensitivity of plateau background areas to the anthropogenic emission reduction in South Asia Our study clearly showed that BC responded very differently in megacity and background areas to the change of anthropogenic emission under the lockdown intervention

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 66, 2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing transmission of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and its expansion to other regions are raising concerns of a potential pandemic. An in-depth analysis about both population and molecular epidemiology of this pathogen is needed. METHODS: MERS cases reported globally as of June 2020 were collected mainly from World Health Organization official reports, supplemented by other reliable sources. Determinants for case fatality and spatial diffusion of MERS were assessed with Logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed to examine the evolution and migration history of MERS-CoV. RESULTS: A total of 2562 confirmed MERS cases with 150 case clusters were reported with a case fatality rate of 32.7% (95% CI: 30.9‒34.6%). Saudi Arabia accounted for 83.6% of the cases. Age of ≥ 65 years old, underlying conditions and ≥ 5 days delay in diagnosis were independent risk factors for death. However, a history of animal contact was associated with a higher risk (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.10-7.98) among female cases < 65 years but with a lower risk (adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.51) among male cases ≥ 65 years old. Diffusion of the disease was fastest from its origin in Saudi Arabia to the east, and was primarily driven by the transportation network. The most recent sub-clade C5.1 (since 2013) was associated with non-synonymous mutations and a higher mortality rate. Phylogeographic analyses pointed to Riyadh of Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi of the United Arab Emirates as the hubs for both local and international spread of MERS-CoV. CONCLUSIONS: MERS-CoV remains primarily locally transmitted in the Middle East, with opportunistic exportation to other continents and a potential of causing transmission clusters of human cases. Animal contact is associated with a higher risk of death, but the association differs by age and sex. Transportation network is the leading driver for the spatial diffusion of the disease. These findings how this pathogen spread are helpful for targeting public health surveillance and interventions to control endemics and to prevent a potential pandemic.

4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(6): 1507-1520, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206439

ABSTRACT

The severe cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently exhibit excessive inflammatory responses, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, and organ damage. The most striking immunopathology of advanced COVID-19 is cytokine release syndrome or "cytokine storm" that is attributable to the deficiencies in immune regulatory mechanisms. CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are central regulators of immune responses and play an indispensable role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Tregs are likely involved in the attenuation of antiviral defense at the early stage of infection and ameliorating inflammation-induced organ injury at the late stage of COVID-19. In this article, we review and summarize the current understanding of the change of Tregs in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and discuss the potential role of Tregs in the immunopathology of COVID-19. The emerging concept of Treg-targeted therapies, including both adoptive Treg transfer and low dose of IL-2 treatment, is introduced. Furthermore, the potential Treg-boosting effect of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of COVID-19, including dexamethasone, vitamin D, tocilizumab and sarilumab, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, adalimumab and tetrandrine, is discussed. The problems in the current study of Treg cells in COVID-19 and future perspectives are also addressed.

5.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205526

ABSTRACT

Studies have demonstrated that both mortality and severe illness rates exist significant difference in different gender COVID-19 patients, but the reasons are still very mysterious to date. Here, we firstly find that the survival outcome of female patients is better to male patients through analyzing the 3044 COVID-19 cases. Secondly, we identify many important master regulators [e.g. STAT1/STAT2 and zinc finger (ZNF) proteins], in particular female patients can express more ZNF proteins and stronger transcriptional activities than male patients in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thirdly, we discover that ZNF protein activity is significantly negative correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 load of COVID-19 patients, and ZNF proteins as transcription factors can also activate their target genes to participate in anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fourthly, we demonstrate that ZNF protein activity is positive correlation with the abundance of multiple immune cells of COVID-19 patients, implying that the highly ZNF protein activity might promote the abundance and the antiviral activity of multiple immune cells to effectively suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, our study proposes an underlying anti-SARS-COV-2 role of ZNF proteins, and differences in the amount and activity of ZNF proteins might be responsible for the distinct prognosis of different gender COVID-19 patients.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher than usual. Previous studies have shown that there are drug-to-drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and antidepressants. Therefore, an effective and safe treatment method was urgently needed. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is the first-line psychological therapy in clinical treatment. Computerized CBT (cCBT) was proven to be an effective alternative to CBT and does not require face-to-face therapy between a therapist and the patient, which suited the COVID-19 pandemic response. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the cCBT program we developed in improving depressive and anxiety symptoms among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We customized a cCBT program focused on improving depressive and anxiety symptoms among patients with COVID-19, and then we assessed its effectiveness. Screening was based on symptoms of depression and/or anxiety for patients who scored at or above 7 scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) and/or the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). A total of 252 patients with COVID-19 at 5 sites were randomized into 2 groups: cCBT+ treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 126) and cCBT without TAU (n =126); the cCBT+TAU group received the cCBT intervention program for 1 week. The primary efficacy measures were the HAMD17 and HAMA scores. The secondary outcome measures were the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Assessments were carried out at pre- and post-intervention. The patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression in one of the centers were assessed again within 1 month after the post-intervention assessment. RESULTS: The cCBT+TAU group displayed a significant decreased score on the HAMD17, HAMA, SDS, SAS, and AIS after the intervention, compared to that in the TAU group (all P < .001). A mixed-effects repeated-measures model revealed significant improvement in symptoms of depression (HAMD17 and SDS scores), anxiety (HAMA and SAS scores), and insomnia (AIS score) during the post-intervention and follow-up periods in the cCBT+TAU group (all P < .05, Bonferroni correction). Additionally, the improvement of insomia among the female and middle-school-educated populations in the CCBT+TAU group showed no significant differences when compared to the TAU group (both P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the cCBT program we developed was an effective nonpharmacological treatment for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among patients with COVID-19. Further research is warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cCBT for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia in patients with COVID-19. CLINICALTRIAL: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Number: ChiCTR2000030084.

9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1213-1223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181234

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging pathogen, which is similar to previous SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) occurrences. However, we only get few understandings about the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, which need to further be studied. The discovery of an agent that has a treatment efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is very urgent. In this review, we briefly discuss the virology of this pathogen and focus on the available understanding of the pathogenesis and treatments of this pathogen including the uses of nucleoside analogues, protease inhibitors, interferons, and other small-molecule drugs, on the basis previous comprehensions of SARS and MERS. These reviewed concepts may be beneficial in providing new insights and potential treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , /drug effects , /physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , /pathogenicity
10.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 52(11): 1289-1292, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893088
11.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(3): 100061, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164618

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. Rapid and accurate detection of the causative virus SARS-CoV-2 is vital for the treatment and control of COVID-19. In this study, the comparative sensitivity of different respiratory specimen types were retrospectively analyzed using 3,552 clinical samples from 410 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Guangdong CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Except for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the sputum possessed the highest positive rate (73.4%-87.5%), followed by nasal swabs (53.1%-85.3%) for both severe and mild cases during the first 14 days after illness onset (d.a.o.). Viral RNA could be detected in all BALF samples collected from the severe group within 14 d.a.o. and lasted up to 46 d.a.o. Moreover, although viral RNA was negative in the upper respiratory samples, it was also positive in BALF samples in most cases from the severe group during treatment. Notably, no viral RNA was detected in BALF samples from the mild group. Despite typical ground-glass opacity observed via computed tomographic scans, no viral RNA was detected in the first three or all upper respiratory tract specimens from some COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, sputum is most sensitive for routine laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, followed by nasal swabs. Detection of viral RNA in BALF improves diagnostic accuracy in severe COVID-19 patients.

12.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(3): e175-e194, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152740

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social media has rapidly become a crucial communication tool for information generation, dissemination, and consumption. In this scoping review, we selected and examined peer-reviewed empirical studies relating to COVID-19 and social media during the first outbreak from November, 2019, to November, 2020. From an analysis of 81 studies, we identified five overarching public health themes concerning the role of online social media platforms and COVID-19. These themes focused on: surveying public attitudes, identifying infodemics, assessing mental health, detecting or predicting COVID-19 cases, analysing government responses to the pandemic, and evaluating quality of health information in prevention education videos. Furthermore, our Review emphasises the paucity of studies on the application of machine learning on data from COVID-19-related social media and a scarcity of studies documenting real-time surveillance that was developed with data from social media on COVID-19. For COVID-19, social media can have a crucial role in disseminating health information and tackling infodemics and misinformation.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Social Media , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 598799, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145563

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive understanding of the dynamic changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels is essential for monitoring and treating patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). By analyzing the correlations between IL-6 levels and health conditions, underlying diseases, several key laboratory detection indices, and the prognosis of 1,473 patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the role of IL-6 during SARS-CoV-2 infection was demonstrated. Our results indicated that IL-6 levels were closely related to age, sex, body temperature, oxygen saturation (SpO2) of blood, and underlying diseases. As a stable indicator, the changes in IL-6 levels could indicate the inflammatory conditions during a viral infection. Two specific treatments, namely, tocilizumab and convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), decreased the level of IL-6 and relieved inflammation. CPT has an important role in the therapy for patients with critical COVID-19. We also found that patients with IL-6 levels, which were 30-fold higher than the normal level, had a poor prognosis compared to patients with lower levels of IL-6.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Up-Regulation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Am J Addict ; 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19-related quarantine and stress have likely escalated the crisis of Internet addiction. This study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Internet use and related risk factors among the general public in China. METHODS: A large-sample cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March 24 to April 30, 2020, in China, and 20,472 participants completed the survey. We investigated the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction based on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and explored the risk factors related to increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction, as well as severe Internet addiction. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Internet addiction was 36.7% among the general population during the pandemic, and that of severe Internet addiction was 2.8%, according to IAT scores. Time spent on recreational Internet use had significantly increased during the pandemic, and almost half of participants reported increases in the severity of Internet addiction. Risk factors for increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction and severe Internet addiction included having fewer social supporters, perceiving pressure and impact on mental health status due to COVID-19, and being over-engaged in playing videogames. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted Internet use and increased the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction among the general population in China, especially in vulnerable populations. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for policymakers to refine public health policies to control the pandemic and make efforts to provide population-specific prevention and interventions for people at risk of developing Internet addiction. (Am J Addict 2021;00:00-00).

15.
Tourism Management ; : 104316, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1129202

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought devastating impacts of an unprecedented scale to tourism-related businesses due to governments instituting mobility restrictions and business closures worldwide In this research note, we present the results of a survey involving 1,212 tourism-related businesses in Jiangxi province, China, in late February 2020 The survey covered various topics, including (1) self-evaluated effects of COVID-19, (2) business responses, (3) social responsibility behavior, and (4) anticipated government policies Findings from mixed-effects (ordered) logit models revealed that small-sized businesses appear particularly vulnerable to the pandemic Social responsibility behavior is determined by business size, local pandemic circumstances, and local tourism dependence Different businesses favor distinct government aid policies Based on estimation results from our econometric models, we plotted a policy positioning matrix to identify appropriate policy measures for diverse businesses

16.
Geophysical Research Letters ; n/a(n/a):e2020GL091883, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1124655

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many nations responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by restricting travel and other activities during 2020, resulting in temporarily reduced emissions of CO2, other greenhouse gases and ozone and aerosol precursors We present the initial results from a coordinated Intercomparison, CovidMIP, of Earth system model simulations which assess the impact on climate of these emissions reductions Twelve models performed multiple initial-condition ensembles to produce over 300 simulations spanning both initial condition and model structural uncertainty We find model consensus on reduced aerosol amounts (particularly over southern and eastern Asia) and associated increases in surface shortwave radiation levels However, any impact on near-surface temperature or rainfall during 2020-2024 is extremely small and is not detectable in this initial analysis Regional analyses on a finer scale, and closer attention to extremes (especially linked to changes in atmospheric composition and air quality) are required to test the impact of COVID-19-related emission reductions on near-term climate

17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 113, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123128

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immunity that protects patients from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is not well characterized. In particular, the asymptomatic patients have been found to induce weak and transient SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown; meanwhile, the protective immunity that guide the recovery of these asymptomatic patients is elusive. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific B-cell and T-cell responses in 10 asymptomatic patients and 64 patients with other disease severity (mild, n = 10, moderate, n = 32, severe, n = 12) and found that asymptomatic or mild symptomatic patients failed to mount virus-specific germinal center (GC) B cell responses that result in robust and prolonged humoral immunity, assessed by GC response indicators including follicular helper T (TFH) cell and memory B cell responses as well as serum CXCL13 levels. Alternatively, these patients mounted potent virus-specific TH1 and CD8+ T cell responses. In sharp contrast, patients of moderate or severe disease induced vigorous virus-specific GC B cell responses and associated TFH responses; however, the virus-specific TH1 and CD8+ T cells were minimally induced in these patients. These results, therefore, uncovered the protective immunity in asymptomatic patients and also revealed the strikingly dichotomous and incomplete humoral and cellular immune responses in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity, providing important insights into rational design of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , /immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Th1 Cells/pathology
18.
Computers, Materials, & Continua ; 67(3):3311-3327, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1112964

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 continuing to rage around the world, there is a spread of epidemic-related information on social networking platforms This phenomenon may inhibit or promote the scale of epidemic transmission This study constructed a double-layer epidemic spreading–information dissemination network based on the movements of individuals across regions to analyze the dynamic evolution and coupling mechanism of information dissemination and epidemic transmission We also proposed measures to control the spread of the epidemic by analyzing the factors affecting dynamic transmission We constructed a state probability equation based on Markov chain theory and performed Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate the interaction between information dissemination and epidemic transmission The simulation results showed that the higher the information dissemination rate, the larger the scale of information dissemination and the smaller the scale of epidemic transmission In addition, the higher the recovery rate of the epidemic or the lower the infection rate of the epidemic, the smaller the scale of information dissemination and the smaller the scale of epidemic transmission Moreover, the greater the probability of individuals moving across regions, the larger the spread of the epidemic and information Finally, the higher the probability of an individual taking preventive behavior, the smaller the spread of the epidemic and information Therefore, it is possible to suppress epidemic spread by increasing the information dissemination rate, epidemic recovery rate, and probability of individuals taking preventive behavior, while also reducing the infection rate of the epidemic and appropriately implementing regional blockades

20.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-432418

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of RNA viruses that typically cause respiratory, enteric and hepatic diseases in animals and humans. Here, we used porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) as a model of coronaviruses (CoVs) to illustrate the reciprocal regulation between CoVs infection and pyroptosis. For the first time, we clarified the molecular mechanism of porcine Gasdermin D (pGSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis and demonstrated that amino acids T239 and F240 within pGSDMD-p30 are critical for pyroptosis. Furthermore, 3C-like protease Nsp5 from SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, PDCoV and PEDV can cleave human/porcine GSDMD at the Q193-G194 junction upstream of the caspase-1 cleavage site to produce two fragments which fail to trigger pyroptosis or inhibit viral replication. Thus, we provide clear evidence that coronoviruses may utilize viral Nsp5-GSDMD pathway to help their host cells escaping from pyroptosis, protecting the replication of the virus during the initial period, which suggest an important strategy for coronoviruses infection and sustain.

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