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2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 373-380, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and umbilical cord blood anti-spike immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels at delivery with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination before and during pregnancy and to assess the association of prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a vaccine booster dose with anti-spike maternal and umbilical cord IgG levels. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with self-reported COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen), including a booster dose, during or before pregnancy, who delivered at 34 weeks of gestation or more. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples at delivery were analyzed for semi-quantitative anti-spike IgG. We examined the association between timing of maternal vaccination and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels using a rank sum test. The relationships between a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike IgG levels, and between a booster dose and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels, were also evaluated using a rank sum test. RESULTS: We included data from 1,359 vaccinated pregnant women, including 20 women who received a booster dose, and 1,362 umbilical cord samples. Maternal anti-spike IgG levels were detectable at delivery regardless of timing of vaccination throughout pregnancy among fully vaccinated women; however, early third-trimester vaccination was associated with the highest anti-spike IgG levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Among women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal and cord blood antibody response achieved with vaccination in early pregnancy was comparable with third-trimester vaccination in pregnant women without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A booster dose in the third trimester was associated with maternal anti-spike IgG levels greater than third-trimester vaccination in women with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Vaccination against COVID-19 before and throughout pregnancy was associated with detectable maternal anti-spike IgG levels at delivery. A complete vaccination course, prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a third-trimester booster dose were associated with the highest maternal and umbilical cord antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Cytokine ; 154: 155894, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study how severity and progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affect cytokine profiles in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 third-trimester, pregnant women were tested for COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG antibodies. Patients were stratified according to SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) status and serology (IgM and IgG) status. Cytokines G-CSF, HGF, IL-18, IL-1Ra, IL-2Ra, IL-8, and IP-10 were measured via ELISA. Retrospective chart review for COVID-19 symptoms and patient vitals was conducted, and cytokine levels were compared between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative cohorts, by seronegative and seropositive infection, by time course since onset of infection, and according to NIH defined clinical severity. RESULTS: IL-18, IL-1Ra, and IP-10 increased in the 44 RT-PCR positive pregnant women compared to the 25 RT-PCR negative pregnant controls. Elevated cytokine levels were found in early infections, defined by positive RT-PCR and seronegative status, and higher cytokine levels were also associated with more severe disease. By IgM seroconversion, IL-8 and IP-10 returned to levels seen in uninfected patients, while IL-18 levels remained significantly elevated. CONCLUSION: Cytokine profiles of third-trimester pregnant women vary with the time course of infection and are correlated with clinical severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Chemokine CXCL10 , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-8 , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies
4.
iScience ; 25(5): 104223, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783436

ABSTRACT

The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placental function is not well understood. Analysis of placentas from women who tested positive at delivery showed SARS-CoV-2 genomic and subgenomic RNA in 22 out of 52 placentas. Placentas from two mothers with symptomatic COVID-19 whose pregnancies resulted in adverse outcomes for the fetuses contained high levels of viral Alpha variant RNA. The RNA was localized to the trophoblasts that cover the fetal chorionic villi in direct contact with maternal blood. The intervillous spaces and villi were infiltrated with maternal macrophages and T cells. Transcriptome analysis showed an increased expression of chemokines and pathways associated with viral infection and inflammation. Infection of placental cultures with live SARS-CoV-2 and spike protein-pseudotyped lentivirus showed infection of syncytiotrophoblast and, in rare cases, endothelial cells mediated by ACE2 and Neuropilin-1. Viruses with Alpha, Beta, and Delta variant spikes infected the placental cultures at significantly greater levels.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114237, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778012

ABSTRACT

Kinetics measurements of antigen-antibody binding interactions are critical to understanding the functional efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Previously reported chaotrope-based avidity assays that rely on artificial disruption of binding do not reflect the natural binding kinetics. This study developed a chaotrope- and label-free biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay for the real-time monitoring of receptor binding domain (RBD) binding kinetics with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in convalescent COVID-19 patients. An improved conjugation biosensor probe coated with streptavidin-polysaccharide (SA-PS) led to a six-fold increase of signal intensities and two-fold reduction of non-specific binding (NSB) compared to streptavidin only probe. Furthermore, by utilizing a separate reference probe and biotin-human serum albumin (B-HSA) blocking process to subtracted NSB signal in serum, this BLI biosensor can measure a wide range of the dissociation rate constant (koff), which can be measured without knowledge of the specific antibody concentrations. The clinical utility of this improved BLI kinetics assay was demonstrated by analyzing the koff values in sera of 24 pediatric (≤18 years old) and 63 adult (>18 years old) COVID-19 convalescent patients. Lower koff values for SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies binding to RBD were measured in samples from children. This rapid, easy to operate and chaotrope-free BLI assay is suitable for clinical use and can be readily adapted to characterize SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed by COVID-19 patients and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunologic Techniques , Interferometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Streptavidin
7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 46(1): 51-57, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324832

ABSTRACT

The extent to which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection at different points in the pregnancy timeline may affect maternal and fetal outcomes remains unknown. We sought to characterize the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection proximate and remote from delivery on placental pathology. We performed a secondary analysis of placental pathology from a prospective cohort of universally tested SARS-CoV-2 positive women >20 weeks gestation at 1 institution. Subjects were categorized as having acute or nonacute SARS-CoV-2 based on infection <14 or ≥14 days from delivery admission, respectively, determined by nasopharyngeal swab, symptom history, and serologies, when available. A subset of SARS-CoV-2 negative women represented negative controls. Placental pathology was available for 90/97 (92.8%) of SARS-CoV-2 positive women, of which 26 were from women with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 64 were from women with nonacute SARS-CoV-2. Fetal vascular malperfusion lesions were significantly more frequent among the acute SARS-CoV-2 group compared with the nonacute SARS-CoV-2 group (53.8% vs. 18.8%; P=0.002), while frequency of maternal vascular malperfusion lesions did not differ by timing of infection (30.8% vs. 29.7%; P>0.99). When including 188 SARS-CoV-2 negative placentas, significant differences in frequency of fetal vascular malperfusion lesions remained between acute, nonacute and control cases (53.8% vs. 18.8% vs. 13.2%, respectively; P<0.001). No differences were noted in obstetric or neonatal outcomes between acutely and nonacutely infected women. Our findings indicate timing of infection in relation to delivery may alter placental pathology, with potential clinical implications for risk of thromboembolic events and impact on fetal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/blood supply , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/virology , Patient Acuity , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(1): 73.e1-73.e7, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their neonates represent 2 vulnerable populations with an interdependent immune system that are highly susceptible to viral infections. The immune response of pregnant women to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the interplay of how the maternal immune response affects the neonatal passive immunity have not been studied systematically. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the serologic response in pregnant women and studied how this serologic response correlates with the maternal clinical presentation and with the rate and level of passive immunity that the neonate received from the mother. STUDY DESIGN: Women who gave birth and who tested positive for immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using semiquantitative detection in a New York City hospital between March 22, 2020, and May 31, 2020, were included in this study. A retrospective chart review of the cases that met the inclusion criteria was conducted to determine the presence of coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms and the use of oxygen support. Serology levels were compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients using a Welch 2 sample t test. Further chart review of the same patient cohort was conducted to identify the dates of self-reported onset of coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms and the timing of the peak immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody levels after symptom onset was visualized using local polynomial regression smoothing on log2-scaled serologic values. To study the neonatal serology response, umbilical cord blood samples of the neonates born to the subset of serology positive pregnant women were tested for serologic antibody responses. The maternal antibody levels of serology positive vs the maternal antibody levels of serology negative neonates were compared using the Welch 2 sample t test. The relationship between the quantitative maternal and quantitative neonatal serologic data was studied using a Pearson correlation and linear regression. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using maternal symptoms, maternal serology levels, and maternal use of oxygen support to determine the predictors of neonatal immunoglobulin G levels. RESULTS: A total of 88 serology positive pregnant women were included in this study. The antibody levels were higher in symptomatic pregnant women than in asymptomatic pregnant women. Serology studies in 34 women with symptom onset data revealed that the maternal immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G levels peak around 15 and 30 days after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, studies of 50 neonates born to this subset of serology positive women showed that passive immunity in the form of immunoglobulin G is conferred in 78% of all neonates. The presence of passive immunity is dependent on the maternal antibody levels, and the levels of neonatal immunoglobulin G correlate with maternal immunoglobulin G levels. The maternal immunoglobulin G levels and maternal use of oxygen support were predictive of the neonatal immunoglobulin G levels. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that maternal serologies correlate with symptomatic maternal infection, and higher levels of maternal antibodies are associated with passive neonatal immunity. The maternal immunoglobulin G levels and maternal use of oxygen support, a marker of disease severity, predicted the neonatal immunoglobulin G levels. These data will further guide the screening for this uniquely linked population of mothers and their neonates and can aid in developing maternal vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084742

ABSTRACT

As strict measures were taken, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been gradually brought under control. As a port city, Shanghai's main problem has shifted from treating local cases to preventing foreign imports. To prevent the re-outbreak of COVID-19 caused by imported cases, the Shanghai government has set up central isolation sites for all people entering the country from abroad to be placed under medical observation. This report describes how to set up central isolation sites and run them effectively. We put isolation sites in transformed hotels, arranged personnel according to a huge data network, and set up specific procedures to manage guests. The epidemic situation in Shanghai has confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods that other jurisdictions can adapt for their use.

10.
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