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1.
The Journal of infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824578

ABSTRACT

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in patients with COVID-19 have led researchers to hypothesise that SARS-CoV-2 infects the human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells ex vivo and in vivo. However, existing research lacks experimental evidence indicating that SARS-CoV-2 can infect pancreatic tissue. Here, we found that cats infected with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited hyperglycaemia. We also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the pancreatic tissues of these cats, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in the islet cells. SARS-CoV-2 NP and Spike proteins were primarily detected in Glu+ cells, and most Glu+ cells expressed ACE2. Additionally, immune protection experiments conducted on cats showed that the blood glucose levels of immunised cats did not increase post-challenge. Our data indicate the cat pancreas as a SARS-CoV-2 target and suggest that the infection of Glu+ cells could contribute to the metabolic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cats.

2.
Transport Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796047

ABSTRACT

Maritime transport plays a key role in global trade. The safeguard of maritime transport is the Port State Control (PSC) inspection implemented all over the world. The outbreak of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2020 presents new and unprecedented impacts on global supply chains and the ports as well as the entire shipping industry. Various measures were adopted by the countries and regions to halt the spread of the pandemic, mainly by reducing face-to-face interactions. As PSC inspections involve getting onboard vessels and in-person communications between the inspectors and the crew, its procedure and results are highly likely to be influenced by the COVID-19. This study aims to explore whether, how, and why the global and regional PSC inspection statuses are influenced by the pandemic through analyzing real inspection data. Specifically, three general indicators, namely inspection number, average deficiency number per inspection, and detention rate, are considered. Moreover, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the inspection data at the Hong Kong port is conducted, including the number of inspections conducted, the average deficiency number and detention rate, the types of inspections conducted and ships inspected, the detailed deficiency and detention conditions, the relationship between the local pandemic situation and the PSC inspection status, and regression analysis on the influencing factors on inspection outcome. It is found that the COVID-19 pandemic indeed has an impact on PSC. Meanwhile, pragmatic and flexible measures are adopted by the port states, and the PSC has always been acting as a ‘safety net’ to guarantee maritime safety, promote the marine environment, and protect the seafarers' rights even under the difficult times during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Computational & Mathematical Methods in Medicine ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1789046

ABSTRACT

This research was aimed at exploring the construction and evaluation method of the comprehensive emergency response system for public health emergencies under the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) epidemic situation based on discrete stochastic mathematical model. The response of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) of Taiyuan city in the COVID-19 epidemic situation was taken as an example. A new discrete stochastic COVID-19 epidemic spread mathematical model which integrated public health intervention and input cases was proposed. The model was parameterized by multisource data, and the impact of different flow patterns on the risk of secondary outbreak was analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of its emergency system construction were analyzed. Additionally, the improvement measures and suggestions for the existing problems were proposed. Results suggested that there was only one specialized disease prevention and control institution in Taiyuan, and there were only 11 centers for disease prevention and control, accounting for 6.2% (11/177) of the total in Shanxi Province. Through the analysis, it was found that the current public health emergency response system in Taiyuan city had imperfect management coordination mechanism, incomplete plan type, serious shortage of public health personnel, poor information communication efficiency, insufficient early warning efficiency of the epidemic detection system, and weak logistics material security links. Therefore, it was proposed to establish a sound coordination system of emergency health management and vigorously promote the construction of emergency health management institutions. Thus, a public health emergency management system integrating management coordination system, plan system, emergency team building system, material reserve management, and other functions was formed. The application of discrete stochastic mathematical model suggests that intermittent population flow and effective isolation of infected people in transient population can effectively reduce the risk of secondary outbreak. The system analysis here also provides theoretical basis for improving the construction of public health emergency response system in Taiyuan. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Computational & Mathematical Methods in Medicine is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784700

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate professional quality of life (ProQOL) in nurses who were fighting against COVID-19 in Wuhan, and its related factors. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 epidemic is a major threat to public health. Frontline nurses have engaged in infection prevention and control, isolation, containment, and public health. However, available data on ProQOL in these nurses are limited. METHODS: From March 15 to March 21, 2020, the Chinese version of ProQOL was utilized to survey a total of 102 nurses through an electronic questionnaire. The stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine which factors (e.g., demographic and work-related factors) were related to ProQOL. RESULTS: The scores of compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout (BO) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) were 38.09±5.22, 21.77±4.92 and 20.75±6.27, respectively. The STS and CS scores were higher than the critical value. None of the nurses reported a low level of CS or a high level of BO and STS. Nurses' ProQOL was related to working hours, workload, job satisfaction, and salary satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses who were fighting against COVID-19 had better CS and BO, while STS was relatively worse. Nurses who worked for long hours had more severe STS. BO of nurses with heavy workload and dissatisfaction with their salary was more severe. Nurses who were unsatisfied with their job had poor CS. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It is believed that these results may help nurse managers to improve ProQOL of nurses who were fighting against COVID-19 by minimizing working hours, reducing workload, and improving job satisfaction and rewards.

6.
Protein Cell ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773029

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinical manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various examined tissues/organs, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Based on our findings, neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, was significantly elevated in cerebral cortex post infection, accompanied by active immune response releasing inflammatory factors and signal transmission among tissues, which enhanced infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in a positive feedback way, leading to viral encephalitis. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330174

ABSTRACT

Severe injuries following viral infection cause lung epithelial destruction with the presence of ectopic basal progenitor cells (EBCs), although the exact function of EBCs remains controversial. We and others previously showed the presence of ectopic tuft cells in the disrupted alveolar region following severe influenza infection. Here, we further revealed that the ectopic tuft cells are derived from EBCs. This process is amplified by Wnt signaling inhibition but suppressed by Notch inhibition. Further analysis revealed that p63-CreER labeled population de novo arising during regeneration includes alveolar epithelial cells when Tamoxifen was administrated after viral infection. The generation of the p63-CreER labeled alveolar cells is independent of tuft cells, demonstrating segregated differentiation paths of EBCs in lung repair. EBCs and ectopic tuft cells can also be found in the lung parenchyma post SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting a similar response to severe injuries in humans.

8.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 813213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725418

ABSTRACT

Background: The overuse of antibiotics is a serious public health problem and a major challenge in China, and China lacks up-to-date evidence on the nationwide antibiotic use in different healthcare settings. The changes of China's antibiotic use under the COVID-19 pandemic are still unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the use of antibiotics in China's public medical institutions based on a three-year nationwide surveillance and to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on China's antibiotic consumption. Methods: This study used nationwide drug procurement data from the China Drug Supply Information Platform (CDSIP). We retrospectively analyzed antibiotic procurement data of 9,176 hospitals and 39,029 primary healthcare centers (PHCs) from 31 provinces in mainland China from January 2018 to December 2020. Antibiotic utilization was measured by defined daily doses (DDDs) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID). Generalized linear regression models were established to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic use. Results: The total antibiotic consumption among all healthcare settings increased from 12.94 DID in 2018 to 14.45 DID in 2019, and then dropped to 10.51 DID in 2020. More than half of antibiotics were consumed in PHCs, especially in central regions (59%-68%). The use of penicillins (J01C) and cephalosporins (J01D) accounted for 32.02% and 28.86% of total antibiotic consumption in 2020. During 2018-2020, parenteral antibiotics accounted for 31%-36% of total antibiotic consumption; the proportion is more prominent in central and western regions and the setting of hospitals. Access category antibiotics comprised 40%-42% of the total utilization. Affected by COVID-19, the antibiotic consumption was significantly dropped both in hospitals (ß = -.11, p < .001) and PHCs (ß = -.17, p < .001), as well as in total (ß = -.14, p < .001). Significant increments were observed in the proportion of total antibiotics (ß = .02, p = .024) consumed in hospitals (against the consumption in all healthcare settings), as well as parenteral antibiotics (ß = 1.73, p = .001). Conclusion: The consistent preferred use of penicillin and cephalosporin, as well as injections, among China's public healthcare institutions should draw concern. China's antibiotic consumption significantly declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, which brings opportunities for antibiotic use management in China.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324537

ABSTRACT

The present research investigated whether the outbreak of COVID-19 would increase Chinese participants’ tendency of seeing meaning in negative experiences (MINE). A longitudinal study (Study 1, N = 2535) showed that Chinese college students reported higher tendency of MINE during the outbreak of COVID-19 than three months before the outbreak. A cross-sectional study (Study 2) investigated a large student sample (N = 16096) and a large non-student sample (N = 11446) during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China and consistently showed that participants who were encountering high disease threat reported stronger perceived threat as well as greater tendency of MINE than those who were encountering low disease theat. Furthermore, the heightened perception of threat accounted for the heightened tendency of MINE. These results suggest that the COVID-19 outbreak makes Chinese more likely to see meaning in negative experiences, which may provide benefits for coping.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324533

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinic manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various tissues/organs examined, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Neuronal receptor NRP1 expression showed a significant induction by SARS-CoV-2 in cerebral cortex, which might be responsible for a higher infectivity and consequent inflammatory response. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312713

ABSTRACT

Background: An ideal animal model to study SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and evaluate therapies and vaccines should reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate lung disease like those seen in humans. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, but mice are resistant to the infection because their ACE2 is incompatible with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Methods: We generated a mouse-adapted strain SARS-CoV-2 by serial passages in the lung of BALB/c mice. Complete genome deep sequencing of different generations of viruses was performed to characterize the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis and Biolayer interferometry experiments demonstrated that two mutations in RBD significantly increased its binding affinity towards mouse ACE2. Significantly, TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod block SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo. Findings: We adapted a wild-type SARS-CoV-2 by serial passages in the lung of BALB/c mice. The mouse-adapted strain WBP-1 showed increased infectivity in BALB/c mice and led to severe interstitial pneumonia. We characterized the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrated that Q493K and Q498H in RBD significantly increased its binding affinity towards mouse ACE2. Additionally, The TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod was able to protect mice against WBP-1 challenge, demonstrating this mouse-adapted strain is a useful tool to investigate COVID-19 and develop new therapies. Interpretation: We found for the first time that the Q493K and Q498H mutations in the RBD of WBP-1 enhanced its interactive affinities with mACE2. The mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of novel antiviral and vaccine strategies, especially in determining the immunopathological consequences of any intervention. This study also verified the antiviral activity of TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo.Funding Statement: This research was funded by Emergency Science and Technology Project of Hubei Province(2020FCA046)and Independent Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Huazhong Agricultural University in 2020 (2662020PY002).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The animal experiments were approved by the Research Ethics Committee, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, China (HZAUMO-2020-0007). All the animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals from the Research Ethics Committee, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, China.

13.
Nanomedicine ; 41: 102527, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654961

ABSTRACT

New SARS-COV-2 vaccine strategies are still urgently needed, especially for emerging virus mutations and variants. In this study, we focused on analyzing the antigenicity and vaccine potency of linear peptide epitopes located in receptor binding motif (RBM) of spike (S) protein. Nine 12 to 16-mer overlapping peptides (P1-P9) were synthesized chemically and coupled to carrier protein KLH for the immunization in mice. Four of identified peptides were further engineered to present on the surface of recombinant Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) virus-like particles (VLPs) respectively. Antisera obtained from VLPs -immunized mice demonstrated strong reactivity and affinity to S1 protein or inactivated virus and neutralizing activity against virus infection in vitro. This study indicates that recombinant VLPs empower peptides which display underprivileged antigenicity in native protein to elicit high levels of neutralizing antibody, providing potential epitope candidates and an effective delivery strategy for the development of a multi-epitope vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Peptides/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 250-259, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585240

ABSTRACT

Testing and vaccination have been major components of the strategy for combating the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we have developed a quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) IgG antibody assay using a fingerstick dried blood sample. We evaluated the feasibility of using this high-throughput and quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) IgG antibody testing assay in vaccinated individuals. Fingerstick blood samples were collected and analyzed from 137 volunteers before and after receiving the Moderna or Pfizer mRNA vaccine. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibody could not be detected within the first 7 days after receiving the first vaccine dose, however, the assay reliably detected antibodies from day 14 onwards. In addition, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG antibody was detected in any of the vaccinated or healthy participants, indicating that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG assay is specific for the mRNA vaccine-induced antibodies. The S1 IgG levels detected in fingerstick samples correlated with the levels found in venous blood plasma samples and with the efficacy of venous blood plasma samples in the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The assay displayed a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.59 µg/mL and was found to be linear in the range of 0.51-1000 µg/mL. Finally, its clinical performance displayed a Positive Percent Agreement (PPA) of 100% (95% CI: 0.89-1.00) and a Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) of 100% (95% CI: 0.93-1.00). In summary, the assay described here represents a sensitive, precise, accurate, and simple method for the quantitative detection and monitoring of post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Specimen Handling/methods , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To avoid the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical clerkship, supplemental teachings such as digital materials in the scenario-based distal simulations were implemented. This study utilized the OSCE (objective-structured clinical examination) to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the learning outcome of medical students from the regular group (class of 2020) and pandemic-impacted group (class of 2021). METHODS: All medical students serially took, firstly, the mock-OSCE, secondly, the mock-OSCE, and the national OSCE. Then, the serial OSCE scores were compared between groups. RESULTS: Although with similar scores in the first mock OSCE, the regular group (n = 78) had a higher average score in the national OSCE than the pandemic-impacted group (n = 80) (872.18 vs. 834.96, p = 0.003). In terms of improvement, the performances of the regular group were also better than the pandemic-impacted group between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (79.10 vs. 38.14, p = 0.014), and between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (125.11 vs. 77.52, p = 0.003). While separating distinct genres, the regular group had more of a score increment in standardized patient-based stations between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (regular vs. pandemic-impacted: 57.03 vs. 18.95, p = 0.003), as well as between the first mock OSCE and the national OSCE (75.97 vs. 26.36, p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference among the skill-based stations. In particular, the scores of the emergency medicine associated station in the national OSCE of the pandemic-impacted group was lower. CONCLUSIONS: Our study implies that the pandemic significantly hampered the learning outcomes of final year medical students in their clinical participation. Especially facing the COVID-19 pandemic, more supplemental teachings are needed to compensate the decreasing emergency medicine exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4543, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328844

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health emergency. Various omics results have been reported for COVID-19, but the molecular hallmarks of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. Here we collect blood samples from 231 COVID-19 patients, prefiltered to exclude those with selected comorbidities, yet with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill. Using integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles, we report a trans-omics landscape for COVID-19. Our analyses find neutrophils heterogeneity between asymptomatic and critically ill patients. Meanwhile, neutrophils over-activation, arginine depletion and tryptophan metabolites accumulation correlate with T cell dysfunction in critical patients. Our multi-omics data and characterization of peripheral blood from COVID-19 patients may thus help provide clues regarding pathophysiology of and potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Illness , Genomics/methods , Humans , Lipidomics/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Neutrophils/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics
19.
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment ; 97:102941, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1272761

ABSTRACT

Individuals have experienced various degrees of accessibility loss during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may consequently influence transport equity. However, conventional measurements of accessibility cannot capture individual experiences and perceptions of accessibility. Moreover, since many daily necessities and services can only be acquired online during the pandemic, the ease of using smartphone-based services play an essential role in people’s everyday lives. Therefore, this paper investigates the relationship between the ease of using smartphone-based services, perceived accessibility, and perceived transport equity during the pandemic. Based on 186 family interviews, a panel survey with 569 respondents was conducted monthly from February to October 2020 in Kunming, China, and a three-wave cross-lagged panel model was developed to understand the causal relationship between the three constructs. The results indicate that the ease of using smartphone-based services dominantly influence transport equity in the early phase of the pandemic, but its effect faded after the lifting of travel restrictions. Perceived accessibility to services appears a sound indicator for transport equity in the new normal, but perceived accessibility and transport equity are not strongly associated when staying at home is perceived as desirable. Moreover, we found that contemporary practices of smartphone-based new mobility services only favour those who already have convenient access to services and have further excluded and marginalised disadvantaged populations, which urgently require policy interventions.

20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e241, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263436

ABSTRACT

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05-2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81-1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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