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1.
Rheumatology & Autoimmunity ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863866

ABSTRACT

Background We examined attitudes toward the COVID‐19 vaccine, potential factors underlying these attitudes, and ways to increase vaccination willingness in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) patients. Methods A multicenter, web‐based, observational survey using an online questionnaire was conducted among AIIRD patients aged ≥18 years from May 24, 2021, to June 3, 2021. Participants were 3104 AIIRD patients (2921 unvaccinated and 183 vaccinated). Results Of the unvaccinated patients, 32.9% were willing to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine, 45.0% were uncertain, and 14.8% were unwilling. When vaccination was recommended by physicians, patients' willingness increased to 93.8%. Participants' main concerns were that the vaccine may aggravate AIIRD disease (63.0%) and may cause vaccine‐related adverse events (19.9%). Female patients were less likely to be vaccinated. However, patients who had children aged ≤18 years were more willing to be vaccinated. In addition, vaccination willingness was higher in patients with trust in the safety and efficacy of the COVID‐19 vaccine. Notably, 183 (5.9%) patients were vaccinated. The major vaccination side effects were injection reaction, myalgia, and fatigue. At a median follow‐up of 88 (38, 131) days, patients' disease activities were stable. Conclusions The findings show that AIIRD patients were unwilling to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine because of fears of potential disease exacerbation and additional adverse events. Sociodemographic characteristics and concerns about COVID‐19 disease and vaccines had a significant effect on vaccination willingness. Key points The percentage of patients willing to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine greatly increased when vaccination was recommended by a physician. Gender, marital status, age of the patients' children, smoking, trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and previous vaccinations had significant effects on the willingness of patients with AIIRDs to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine. The data from vaccinated patients indicated no aggravation of AIIRD or additional adverse events. The population characteristics of AIIRD patients with different attitudes towards COVID‐19 vaccine.

2.
Chem Phys Lett ; 800: 139663, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814291

ABSTRACT

In order to control COVID-19, rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an urgent task. The target spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected experimentally via Raman spectroscopy. However, there lacks high-accuracy theoretical Raman spectra of the spike proteins to as a standard reference for the clinic diagnostic purpose. In this paper, we propose a large fragment method to construct the high-precision Raman spectra for the spike proteins. The large fragment method not only reduces the calculation error but also improves the accuracy of the protein Raman spectra by completely calculating the interactions within the large fragment. The Pearson correlation coefficient of theoretical Raman spectra is greater than 0.929 or more. Compared with the experimental spectra, the characteristic patterns are easily visible. This work provides a detection standard for the spike proteins which shall bring a step closer to the fast recognition of SARS-CoV-2 via Raman spectroscopy method.

3.
Building and Environment ; : 109032, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1757176

ABSTRACT

Employee satisfaction significantly affects health, well-being and productivity, and office layout plays a dominant role in office psychological satisfaction. However, existing studies have not yet proposed a quantitative evaluation method for office layout satisfaction to assist design decisions. This study conducts a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) process of office layout satisfaction from 1,317 staff members at 3 universities in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The proposed office layout feature network supports the questionnaire design and environmental measurement. Based on the survey data, multiple resampling methods are considered to face the imbalanced dataset problem, and feature selection integrates statistical analysis methods and machine learning algorithms. Nine supervised learning algorithms are tested for office layout satisfaction prediction, and the final predictive model is established based on the random forest algorithm. The predictive model explanation is further integrated with original data analysis to extract the quantified impacts of various building characteristics. The workstation adjustment under the background of COVID-19 in an actual staff office is chosen to be an application scenario of the predictive model. The results show that the workstation distance, room depth and room width-depth ratio are dominant in the evaluation of office layout satisfaction. The proposed predictive model achieves 64.5% accuracy, and the prediction results are interpretable, which promotes its application in office design practice. The data processing methods in this study respond to the common data problems in the POE based opinion collection process. The extracted influence mechanisms of building characteristics can directly support user-centered office design.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309716

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiac injury occurs in 7-22% of patient hospitalized with COVID-19 and an elevation in troponin is associated with a 4.2-fold increase in the risk of mortality. Preliminary data showed ACEi/ARB usage might not increase mortaily in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unknown if cardiac injury in patients with severe COVID-19 can be modulated by ACEi/ARB usage during evolution of the cardiac injury. Methods: : In 154 COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury, the effect of ACEi/ARB treatment (17 patients) was compared with 137 patients without ACEi/ARB treatment. Cardiac injury was indicated by cTnI level. Results: : In ACEi/ARB treatment group and no ACEi/ARB treatment group, peak cTnI level did not show significant difference (150.5 pg/ml [31.75-1179], vs 207 pg/ml [54.65-989.4], respectively, P = 0.21). Evolution of Cardiac injury (temporal change of cTnI at day 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and 33) showed no statistical difference. Mortality (ACEi/ARB group vs no ACEi/ARB group;52.9% vs 69.9%, P = 0.17), atrial arrhythmias (11.7% vs 24.4%, P = 0.36), requirement for invasive ventilatory support (29.4% vs 48.2%, P = 0.14) also showed no significant difference in two groups. Conclusions: : ACEi/ARB usage during the COVID-19 was not associated with exacerbation of cardiac injury. These data should be interpreted as essentially hypothesis-generating due to small sample size. Clinical Trial Registration: This retrospective study was registered in Chinese clinical trial registry (ChiCTR 2000031301).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323885

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of current studies that examined sex differences in severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19, and identify potential mechanisms underpinning these differences. Methods: We performed a systematic review to collate data from observational studies examining associations of sex differences with clinical outcomes of COVID-19. PubMed, Web of Science and four preprint servers were searched for relevant studies. Data were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis where possible, with summary data presented otherwise. Publicly available bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data were analyzed to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the observed association. Results: 39 studies met inclusion criteria, representing 77932 patients, of which 41510 (53.3%) were males. Men were at a markedly increased risk of developing severe cases compared with women. Furthermore, the pooled odds ratio (OR) of mortality for male group compared with the female group indicated significant higher mortality rate for male. Data from scRNA-seq suggest that men have a higher amount of ACE2-expressing pulmonary alveolar type II cells than women. Sex-based immunological differences exist. The expression of androgen receptor (AR) is positively correlated with ACE2, and there is evidence that AR may directly regulate the expression of ACE2. Conclusions: This meta-analysis detected an increased severity and mortality rate in the male populations with COVID-19, which might be attributable to the sex-based differences in cellular compositions and immunological microenvironments of the lung. The host cell receptor ACE2 is likely regulated by AR signaling pathway, which is identified as a potential target for prevention and treatment of SARS-Cov-2 infections in men.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322084

ABSTRACT

Structure-based Deep Fusion models were recently shown to outperform several physics- and machine learning-based protein-ligand binding affinity prediction methods. As part of a multi-institutional COVID-19 pandemic response, over 500 million small molecules were computationally screened against four protein structures from the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. Three enhancements to Deep Fusion were made in order to evaluate more than 5 billion docked poses on SARS-CoV-2 protein targets. First, the Deep Fusion concept was refined by formulating the architecture as one, coherently backpropagated model (Coherent Fusion) to improve binding-affinity prediction accuracy. Secondly, the model was trained using a distributed, genetic hyper-parameter optimization. Finally, a scalable, high-throughput screening capability was developed to maximize the number of ligands evaluated and expedite the path to experimental evaluation. In this work, we present both the methods developed for machine learning-based high-throughput screening and results from using our computational pipeline to find SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

7.
Rheumatol Autoimmun ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680540

ABSTRACT

Background: We examined attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine, potential factors underlying these attitudes, and ways to increase vaccination willingness in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) patients. Methods: A multicenter, web-based, observational survey using an online questionnaire was conducted among AIIRD patients aged ≥18 years from May 24, 2021, to June 3, 2021. Participants were 3104 AIIRD patients (2921 unvaccinated and 183 vaccinated). Results: Of the unvaccinated patients, 32.9% were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, 45.0% were uncertain, and 14.8% were unwilling. When vaccination was recommended by physicians, patients' willingness increased to 93.8%. Participants' main concerns were that the vaccine may aggravate AIIRD disease (63.0%) and may cause vaccine-related adverse events (19.9%). Female patients were less likely to be vaccinated. However, patients who had children aged ≤18 years were more willing to be vaccinated. In addition, vaccination willingness was higher in patients with trust in the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine. Notably, 183 (5.9%) patients were vaccinated. The major vaccination side effects were injection reaction, myalgia, and fatigue. At a median follow-up of 88 (38, 131) days, patients' disease activities were stable. Conclusions: The findings show that AIIRD patients were unwilling to receive the COVID-19 vaccine because of fears of potential disease exacerbation and additional adverse events. Sociodemographic characteristics and concerns about COVID-19 disease and vaccines had a significant effect on vaccination willingness.

8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 410-418, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The dynamic adaptive immune responses elicited by the inactivated virus vaccine CoronaVac remain elusive. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 100 healthcare professionals naïve for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who received two doses of CoronaVac, we analysed SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses at four different timepoints, including before vaccination (T1), 2 weeks after the first dose (T2), 2 weeks after the booster dose (T3), and 8-10 weeks after the booster dose (T4). SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, serum neutralizing activities, peripheral B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and their memory subsets were simultaneously measured in this cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG responses reached a peak (geometric mean titre (GMT) 54827, 30969-97065) after two doses and rapidly declined (GMT 502, 212-1190) at T4, whereas suboptimal IgA responses were detected (GMT 5, 2-9). Spike-specific circulating B cells (0.60%, 0.46-0.73% of total B cells) and memory B cells (1.18%, 0.92-1.44% of total memory B cells) were effectively induced at T3 and sustained over time (0.33%, 0.23-0.43%; 0.87%, 0.05-1.67%, respectively). SARS-CoV-2-specific circulating CD4+ T cells (0.57%, 0.47-0.66%) and CD8+ T cells (1.29%, 1.04-1.54%) were detected at T3. At T4, 0.78% (0.43-1.20%) of memory CD4+ T cells and 0.68% (0.29-1.30%) of memory CD8+ T cells were identified as SARS-CoV-2-specific, while 0.62% (0.51-0.75%) of CD4+ T cells and 0.47% (0.38-0.58%) of CD8+ T cells were SARS-CoV-2-specific terminally differentiated effector memory cells. Furthermore, age and interval between doses affected the magnitude of CoronaVac-induced immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 memory CD4+ T cells were strongly associated with both receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells (r 0.87, p <0.0001) and SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells (r 0.48, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CoronaVac induced robust circulating and memory B cell and T cell responses. Our study offers new insight into the underlying immunobiology of inactivated virus vaccines in humans and may have implications for vaccine strategies in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 678701, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334942

ABSTRACT

A rapid response is necessary to contain emergent biological outbreaks before they can become pandemics. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 was first reported in December of 2019 in Wuhan, China and reached most corners of the globe in less than two months. In just over a year since the initial infections, COVID-19 infected almost 100 million people worldwide. Although similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has resisted treatments that are effective against other coronaviruses. Crystal structures of two SARS-CoV-2 proteins, spike protein and main protease, have been reported and can serve as targets for studies in neutralizing this threat. We have employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and machine learning to identify from a library of 26 million molecules possible candidate compounds that may attenuate or neutralize the effects of this virus. The viability of selected candidate compounds against SARS-CoV-2 was determined experimentally by biolayer interferometry and FRET-based activity protein assays along with virus-based assays. In the pseudovirus assay, imatinib and lapatinib had IC50 values below 10 µM, while candesartan cilexetil had an IC50 value of approximately 67 µM against Mpro in a FRET-based activity assay. Comparatively, candesartan cilexetil had the highest selectivity index of all compounds tested as its half-maximal cytotoxicity concentration 50 (CC50) value was the only one greater than the limit of the assay (>100 µM).

12.
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer ; 8(Suppl 3):A485-A486, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1318081

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHER2 potently inhibits innate immunity through cGAS–STING signaling,1 Meanwhile HER2 antibody induced ADCP will also lead to macrophage mediated immune suppression. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested a coordination of engagement of innate and adaptive immunity with the combination of an anti-HER2 antibody and an immune checkpoint blockade. KN026 is a novel bispecific antibody that simultaneously binds to two distinct HER2 epitopes. KN046 is a novel bispecific antibody that blocks both PD-L1 interaction with PD-1/CD80 and CTLA-4 interaction with CD80/CD86. Here we reported the interim results from an ongoing phase Ib dose escalation and expansion study assessing the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy for KN026 in combination with KN046 in Patients with HER2 aberrated solid tumors.MethodsThis study enrolled pts with solid tumors who failed available standard of care, HER2 aberration status confirmed locally (HER2 mutation, HER2 amplification and/or HER2 overexpression). Eligible pts received combination of KN026 and KN046 at three dose levels until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal of informed consent (DL1: KN026 20 mg/kg Q2W + KN046 3 mg/kg Q2W;DL2: KN026 20 mg/kg Q2W with loading on Days 1, 8 of Cycle 1 + KN046 5 mg/kg Q3W;DL3: KN026 30 mg/kg Q3W with loading on Days 1, 8 of Cycle 1 + KN046 5 mg/kg Q3W). Tumor response was evaluated Q8W per RECIST 1.1. Primary endpoint was DLT and key secondary endpoints were efficacy parameters (ORR, DOR, PFS).ResultsAs of the Sep. 08, 2020, 25 pts were enrolled into DL1 (n = 20, 3 for dose escalation), DL2 (n = 3) and DL3 (n = 2) (mGC/GEJ 15 pts;mCRC 8 pts;other solid tumors 2 pts). 15 pts remained on the study treatment and 10 pts discontinued treatment due to disease progression (n=5), death (n=2) and other reasons (n=3). 18 pts had HER2-positive status (12 of 18 failed previous trastuzumab therapy), 2 pts had HER2 mutation and 5 pts had HER2 low expression (without FISH amplification). No DLTs were observed. No pts experienced LVEF decreased or other clinically meaningful cardiac AEs. Treatment-related TEAEs occurred in 23 (92%) pts, of which 6 (24%) pts experienced grade 3 or above treatment-related TEAEs. 11 (44%) pts experienced irAEs, majority were of grade 1 or 2 except that 1 patient experienced grade 3 immune-mediated endocrinopathy. The most common (frequency ≥ 15%) KN026 or KN046 related TEAEs were infusion related reaction (n=11, 44.0%), anaemia (n=9, 36.0%), white blood cell count decreased (n=6, 24.0%), diarrhea (n=5, 20.0%), AST increased (n=5, 20.0%), platelet count decreased (n=5, 20.0%), rash (n=5, 20.0%) and ALT increased (n=4, 16.0%). The objective response rate in pts with HER2-positive tumors (n = 14 efficacy evaluable pts) was 9/14 (64.3%, 95% CI 35.1~87.2%) and disease control rate 13/14 (92.9%, 95% CI 66.1~99.8%). 4 out of 5 pts with HER2 mutation or low expression achieved SD including one patient with SD for more than 24 weeks. 2 death cases due to disease progression were reported, both only received one cycle of KN026 plus KN046 due to COVID-19 restriction.ConclusionsKN026 combined with KN046 is well tolerated and has demonstrated preliminary albeit profound anti-tumor activity in HER2-positive solid tumors.Trial RegistrationClinical trial information: NCT04040699ReferenceShiying Wu, Qian Zhang, Fei Zhang, et al. HER2 recruits AKT1 to disrupt STING signalling and suppress antiviral defence and antitumour immunity. Nature Cell Biology 2019;21:1027–1040.

13.
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer ; 8(Suppl 3):A207, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1318067

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHER2 potently inhibits innate immunity through cGAS–STING signalling,1 meanwhile HER2 antibody induced ADCP will also lead to macrophage mediated immune suppression. Preclinical and clinical studies suggested a coordination of engagement of innate and adaptive immunity with the combination of an anti-HER2 antibody and an immune checkpoint blockade. KN026 is a novel bispecific antibody that simultaneously binds to two distinct HER2 epitopes. KN046 is a novel bispecific antibody that blocks both PD-L1 interaction with PD-1 and CTLA-4 interaction with CD80/CD86. Here we reported the interim results from an ongoing phase Ib dose escalation and expansion study assessing the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy for KN026 in combination with KN046.MethodsThis study enrolled pts with solid tumors who failed available standard of care, HER2 aberration status confirmed locally (HER2 mutation, HER2 amplification and/or HER2 overexpression). Eligible pts received combination of KN026 and KN046 at two dose levels until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal of informed consent (DL1: KN026 20 mg/kg Q2W + KN046 3 mg/kg Q2W;DL2: KN026 20 mg/kg Q2W with loading on Days 1, 8 of Cycle 1 + KN046 5 mg/kg Q3W). Tumor response was evaluated Q8W per RECIST 1.1. Primary endpoint was DLT and key secondary endpoints were efficacy parameters (ORR, DOR, PFS).ResultsAs of the Jul. 13, 2020, 21 pts were enrolled into DL1 (n = 18, 3 for dose escalation) and DL2 (n = 3) (mGC/GEJ 12 pts;mCRC 7 pts;other solid tumors 2 pts). 11 pts remained on the study treatment and 10 pts discontinued treatment due to disease progression (n=5), death (n=2) and other reasons (n=3). 15 pts had HER2-positive status (11 of 15 failed previous trastuzumab therapy), 1 pts had HER2 mutation and 5 pts had HER2 low expression (without FISH amplification). No DLTs were observed. No pts experienced LVEF decreased or other clinically meaningful cardiac AEs. Treatment-related TEAEs occurred in 13 pts, of which 1 pts experienced grade 3 or above treatment-related TEAEs. 7 pts experienced irAEs, all of which were grade 1 or 2. The most common (≥ 10%) KN026 or KN046 related TEAEs were anaemia (n=5, 23.8%), AST increased (n=4, 19.0%), rash (n=4, 19.0%), diarrhea (n=4, 19.0%), blood bilirubin increased (n=3, 14.3%) and infusion related reaction (n=3, 14.3%). The objective response rate in pts with HER2-positive tumors (n = 7 efficacy evaluable pts) was 4/7 (57.1%, 95% CI 18.4~90.1%) and disease control rate 6/7 (85.7%, 95% CI 42.1~99.6%). 3 pts with HER2 mutation or low expression achieved SD including one patient with SD for more than 24 weeks. 2 death cases only received one cycle of KN026 plus KN046 due to COVID-19 restriction before died from clinical deterioration from underlying tumors.ConclusionsKN026 combined with KN046 is well tolerated and has demonstrated profound anti-tumor activity in HER2-positive solid tumors.Trial RegistrationNCT04040699Ethics ApprovalThe study was approved by Beijing Cancer Hospital Institution’s Ethics Board, approval number 2019YJZ37.ConsentWritten informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this abstract and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.ReferenceShiying Wu, Qian Zhang, Fei Zhang, et al. HER2 recruits AKT1 to disrupt STING signalling and suppress antiviral defence and antitumour immunity. Nature Cell Biology 2019;21: 1027–1040.

14.
Hum Cell ; 34(6): 1585-1600, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316345

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a kind of multipotent stem cells with self-renewal ability and multi-differentiation ability, have become the "practical stem cells" for the treatment of diseases. MSCs have immunomodulatory properties and can be used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Crohn's disease. MSCs also can be used in cancer and aging. At present, many clinical experiments are using MSCs. MSCs can reduce the occurrence of inflammation and apoptosis of tissue cells, and promote the proliferation of endogenous tissue and organ cells, so as to achieve the effect of repairing tissue and organs. MSCs presumably also play an important role in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Animals , Apoptosis , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Cell Proliferation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mice , Neoplasms/therapy
15.
Global Media and China ; : 20594364211021316, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1259164

ABSTRACT

Amid the eruption of the COVID-19 outbreak in February 2020, the Chinese Communist Party Youth League promoted VTubers on Weibo to diffuse positive energy. However, the female VTuber Jiangshanjiao was appropriated immediately as political satire by netizens to air public grievances. While political satire is widely considered as political resistance in authoritarian states, little research has addressed its combination with feminist narratives and online activism. This article builds on previous literature on the propagandistic nature of positive energy and the Chinese feminist movement to consider how positive energy lying under Jiangshanjiao was deconstructed and how femininity was invoked to serve for broader political purposes in a repressive online environment. Drawing on the framework of online connective action and political satire as a networked practice, this research sheds light on the hashtag #JiangshanjiaoDoYouGetYourPeriod#. This research explores how the satirical hashtag was collectively produced in an Internet trolling culture and contributed to building a collective identity through personalized narratives. Through the feminist hashtag, netizens expressed their multilayered grievances against misogyny, state propaganda, and censorship. However, this article also offers evidence that the satirical hashtag and ambiguity associated with it limited the influence in catalyzing online and offline changes.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 157: 60-65, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly spreads through the respiratory system and is associated with severe pulmonary complications, lung cancer patients may have worse outcomes than those with other tumors. There is no confirmed evidence about the mortality comparison between COVID-19 patients with lung cancer and other tumors. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis to provide precise estimates of the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with lung cancer and other tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study systemically included and reviewed 13 studies on the characteristics of COVID-19 patients with lung cancer published up to November 1, 2020. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We also compared the all-cause mortality rates in China and other regions as a secondary endpoint. The mortality rate was assessed with a fixed-effects model, which was used to derive the pooled mortality and 95 % confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Thirteen studies from different countries, involving 1,229 patients with both COVID-19 and cancer, were selected for the pooled analysis. A total of 343 deaths were recorded in this population: 86 for lung cancers and 257 for other tumors. The mortality rate varies from 18 % to 60 % for patients with lung cancer and COVID-19 and 10%-41% for other tumor patients with COVID-19. The overall meta-analysis did not show a significant mortality difference for the lung cancer and other tumor subgroups (OR = 1.47, 95 %CI = 0.98-2.20, p = 0.06, I2 = 23 %). Nevertheless, in regions other than China, the pooled mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19 was 42 %, which was significantly higher than that of other tumors (24 %) (OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.54-4.86, p = 0.0006, I2 = 16 %). CONCLUSION: Appropriate and aggressive preventive measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in patients with cancer and optimally manage those who contract the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Saf Sci ; 139: 105160, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207074

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus (COVID-19) is a newly emerging and highly infectious form of typical pneumonia with a high rate of transmission. The COVID-19 pneumonia has spread to 147 countries and areas as of Mar.16th 2020, which has tremendous impact on the global public health. It is well known that, in China, the pandemic has been contained effectively with a series of emergency measures. It is necessary to share the existing experience of China in the fight against the pandemic to the world. Especially, during the process of prevention and containment of the pandemic, ambulances play an important role in transporting infectious patients. In this paper, focusing on the safety and quantity of negative pressure ambulances, the influence of ambulance on newly confirmed cases is given. Analysis of negative pressure ambulance on the containment of COVID-19 is shown. The potential development of ambulance is discussed. While the pandemic still continues spreading across the world, we hope to share our experience in the implementation of these strategies by China to save more life.

18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI37-SI50, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterized 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalization with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. METHODS: A multinational network cohort study was conducted using electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center [USA, Optum (USA), Department of Veterans Affairs (USA), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalization Linked Data (Spain) and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (USA) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (South Korea). All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalized between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalized with influenza in 2017-18 were included. Outcomes were death and complications within 30 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: We studied 133 589 patients diagnosed and 48 418 hospitalized with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. Most patients were female, aged ≥50 years with previous comorbidities. The prevalence of hypertension (45.5-93.2%), chronic kidney disease (14.0-52.7%) and heart disease (29.0-83.8%) was higher in hospitalized vs diagnosed patients with COVID-19. Compared with 70 660 hospitalized with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2-4.3% vs 6.32-24.6%). CONCLUSION: Compared with influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/mortality , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087033

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic represents a global threat, and the interaction between the virus and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the primary entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is a key determinant of the range of hosts that can be infected by the virus. However, the mechanisms underpinning ACE2-mediated viral entry across species remains unclear. Using infection assay, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 entry mediated by ACE2 of 11 different animal species. We discovered that ACE2 of Rhinolophus sinicus (Chinese rufous horseshoe bat), Felis catus (domestic cat), Canis lupus familiaris (dog), Sus scrofa (wild pig), Capra hircus (goat), and Manis javanica (Malayan pangolin) facilitated SARS-CoV-2 entry into nonsusceptible cells. Moreover, ACE2 of the pangolin also mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry, adding credence to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated from pangolins. However, the ACE2 proteins of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (greater horseshoe bat), Gallus gallus (red junglefowl), Notechis scutatus (mainland tiger snake), or Mus musculus (house mouse) did not facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry. In addition, a natural isoform of the ACE2 protein of Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) with the Y217N mutation was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the possible impact of this ACE2 mutation on SARS-CoV-2 studies in rhesus monkeys. We further demonstrated that the Y217 residue of ACE2 is a critical determinant for the ability of ACE2 to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. Overall, these results clarify that SARS-CoV-2 can use the ACE2 receptors of multiple animal species and show that tracking the natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 is complex.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cats , Chickens/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs , Elapidae/virology , Eutheria/virology , Gene Expression , Goats/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Swine/virology , Virus Internalization
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