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1.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294331

ABSTRACT

Many host pathogen interactions such as human viruses (including non-SARS-coronaviruses) rely on attachment to host cell-surface glycans. There are conflicting reports about whether the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to sialic acid commonly found on host cell-surface N-linked glycans. In the absence of a biochemical assay, the ability to analyze the binding of glycans to heavily- modified proteins and resolve this issue is limited. Classical Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR can be confounded by overlapping sugar resonances that compound with known experimental constraints. Here we present ‘universal saturation transfer analysis’ (uSTA), an NMR method that builds on existing approaches to provide a general and automated workflow for studying protein-ligand interactions. uSTA reveals that B-origin-lineage-SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer binds sialoside sugars in an ‘end on’ manner and modelling guided by uSTA localises binding to the spike N-terminal domain (NTD). The sialylated-polylactosamine motif is found on tetraantennary human N-linked-glycoproteins in deeper lung and may have played a role in zoonosis. Provocatively, sialic acid binding is abolished by mutations in some subsequent SARS- CoV-2 variants-of-concern. A very high resolution cryo-EM structure confirms the NTD location and ‘end on’ mode;it rationalises the effect of NTD mutations and the structure-activity relationship of sialic acid analogues. uSTA is demonstrated to be a robust, rapid and quantitative tool for analysis of binding, even in the most demanding systems. Extended Abstract The surface proteins found on both pathogens and host cells mediate entry (and exit) and influence disease progression and transmission. Both types can bear host-generated post- translational modifications such as glycosylation that are essential for function but can confound biophysical methods used for dissecting key interactions. Several human viruses (including non- SARS-coronaviruses) attach to host cell-surface N -linked glycans that include forms of sialic acid (sialosides). There remains, however, conflicting evidence as to if or how SARS-associated coronaviruses might use such a mechanism. Here, we demonstrate quantitative extension of ‘saturation transfer’ protein NMR methods to a complete mathematical model of the magnetization transfer caused by interactions between protein and ligand. The method couples objective resonance-identification via a deconvolution algorithm with Bloch-McConnell analysis to enable a structural, kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ligand binding beyond previously-perceived limits of exchange rates, concentration or system. Using an automated and openly available workflow this ‘universal saturation transfer’ analysis (uSTA) can be readily-applied in a range of even heavily-modified systems in a general manner to now obtain quantitative binding interaction parameters (K D , k Ex ). uSTA proved critical in mapping direct interactions between natural sialoside sugar ligands and relevant virus-surface attachment glycoproteins – SARS-CoV-2-spike and influenza-H1N1-haemagglutinin variants – by quantitating ligand signal in spectral regions otherwise occluded by resonances from mobile protein glycans (that also include sialosides). In B- origin-lineage-SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer ‘end on’-binding to sialoside sugars was revealed contrasting with ‘extended surface’-binding for heparin sugar ligands;uSTA-derived constraints used in structural modelling suggested sialoside-glycan binding sites in a beta-sheet-rich region of spike N-terminal domain (NTD). Consistent with this, uSTA-glycan binding was minimally- perturbed by antibodies that neutralize the ACE2-binding domain (RBD) but strongly disrupted in spike from the B1.1.7/alpha and B1.351/beta variants-of-concern, which possess hotspot mutations in the NTD. Sialoside binding in B-origin-lineage-NTD was unequivocally pinpointed by cryo-EM to a site that is created from residues that are notably deleted in variants (e.g. H69,V70,Y145 in alpha). An analysis of beneficial genetic variances in cohorts of patients from early 2020 suggests a model in which this site in the NTD of B-origin-lineage-SARS-CoV-2 (but not in alpha/beta-variants) may have exploited a specific sialylated-polylactosamine motif found on tetraantennary human N -linked-glycoproteins in deeper lung. Together these confirm a novel binding mode mediated by the unusual NTD of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest how it may drive virulence and/or zoonosis via modulation of glycan attachment. Since cell-surface glycans are widely relevant to biology and pathology, uSTA can now provide ready, quantitative, widespread analysis of complex, host-derived and post-translationally modified proteins with putative ligands relevant to disease even in previously confounding complex systems.

2.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(3): e376, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441987

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Over the past decade, we have witnessed the initiation and implementation of precision medicine (PM), a discipline that promises to individualize and personalize medical management and treatment, rendering them ultimately more precise and effective. Despite of the continuing advances and numerous clinical applications, the potential of PM remains highly controversial, sparking heated debates about its future. Method: The present article reviews the philosophical issues and practical challenges that are critical to the feasibility and implementation of PM. Outcome: The explanation and argument about the relations between PM and computability, uncertainty as well as complexity, show that key foundational assumptions of PM might not be fully validated. Conclusion: The present analysis suggests that our current understanding of PM is probably oversimplified and too superficial. More efforts are needed to realize the hope that PM has elicited, rather than make the term just as a hype.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273439

ABSTRACT

The mental health of nurses participating in patient care is under threat amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify the mental health status (depression, anxiety, and stress) and its influencing factors on nurses who provided patient care at a specialized hospital for COVID-19 in South Korea. Of the 180 nurses who participated in this study, 30.6% had moderate or higher levels of depression, 41% had moderate or higher anxiety levels, and 19.4% had moderate or higher stress levels. In this study, stigma influenced nurses' mental health, such that the higher the stigma, the higher the nurses' depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression was higher in female nurses than in male nurses, and stress was higher in charge nurses than nurses in other job positions. Therefore, a management program should be designed to improve the mental health of nurses during the current pandemic. In particular, a solution to reduce stigma is required, and the mental health of female nurses and nurses in leadership roles requires special attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 647508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207702

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an unprecedented threat to the human health. A close association of the digestive tract is implied by the high frequency of gastrointestinal syndromes among COVID-19 patients. A better understanding of the role of intestinal microenvironment in COVID-19 immunopathology will be helpful to improve the control of COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the immune responses associated with the severity of COVID-19, the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 intestinal tropism, and the potential involvement of gut microenvironment in COVID-19 severity. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of probiotics as an alternative medicine to prevent or alleviate severe COVID-19 outcome.

9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 169, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199270

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. In rhesus monkey, SARS-CoV-2 invades the CNS primarily via the olfactory bulb. Thereafter, viruses rapidly spread to functional areas of the central nervous system, such as hippocampus, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 induces the inflammation possibly by targeting neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the CNS. Consistently, SARS-CoV-2 infects neuro-derived SK-N-SH, glial-derived U251, and brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in the NHP model, which provides important insights into the CNS-related pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology
10.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 21, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective model of predicting fatal outcomes in the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: Between February 20, 2020 and April 4, 2020, consecutive confirmed 2541 COVID-19 patients from three designated hospitals were enrolled in this study. All patients received chest computed tomography (CT) and serological examinations at admission. Laboratory tests included routine blood tests, liver function, renal function, coagulation profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and arterial blood gas. The SaO2 was measured using pulse oxygen saturation in room air at resting status. Independent high-risk factors associated with death were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model. A prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the survival of severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: There were 124 severe patients in the training cohort, and there were 71 and 76 severe patients in the two independent validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that age ≥ 70 years (HR = 1.184, 95% CI 1.061-1.321), panting (breathing rate ≥ 30/min) (HR = 3.300, 95% CI 2.509-6.286), lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L (HR = 2.283, 95% CI 1.779-3.267), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) >  10 pg/ml (HR = 3.029, 95% CI 1.567-7.116) were independent high-risk factors associated with fatal outcome. We developed the nomogram for identifying survival of severe COVID-19 patients in the training cohort (AUC = 0.900, 95% CI 0.841-0.960, sensitivity 95.5%, specificity 77.5%); in validation cohort 1 (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI 0.763-0.961, sensitivity 77.3%, specificity 73.5%); in validation cohort 2 (AUC = 0.862, 95% CI 0.698-0.924, sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 64.5%). The calibration curve for probability of death indicated a good consistence between prediction by the nomogram and the actual observation. The prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients with high levels of IL-6 receiving tocilizumab were better than that of those patients without tocilizumab both in the training and validation cohorts, but without difference (P = 0.105 for training cohort, P = 0.133 for validation cohort 1, and P = 0.210 for validation cohort 2). CONCLUSIONS: This nomogram could help clinicians to identify severe patients who have high risk of death, and to develop more appropriate treatment strategies to reduce the mortality of severe patients. Tocilizumab may improve the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients with high levels of IL-6.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Nomograms , Acute Disease , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
11.
J Biomed Inform ; 117: 103736, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131456

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has infected millions of people around the world, which is leading to the global emergency. In the event of the virus outbreak, it is crucial to get the carriers of the virus timely and precisely, then the animal origins can be isolated for further infection. Traditional identifications rely on fields and laboratory researches that lag the responses to emerging epidemic prevention. With the development of machine learning, the efficiency of predicting the viral hosts has been demonstrated by recent researchers. However, the problems of the limited annotated virus data and imbalanced hosts information restrict these approaches to obtain a better result. To assure the high reliability of predicting the animal origins on COVID-19, we extend transfer learning and ensemble learning to present a hybrid transfer learning model. When predicting the hosts of newly discovered virus, our model provides a novel solution to utilize the related virus domain as auxiliary to help building a robust model for target virus domain. The simulation results on several UCI benchmarks and viral genome datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms the general classical methods under the condition of limited target training sets and class-imbalance problems. By setting the coronavirus as target domain and other related virus as source domain, the feasibility of our approach is evaluated. Finally, we show the animal reservoirs prediction of the COVID-19 for further analysing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Reservoirs , Machine Learning , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Med ; 15(3): 486-494, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122810

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab has been reported to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We attempted to verify the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab therapy in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to benefit from this treatment. We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial among COVID-19 patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care or standard care alone. The cure rate, changes of oxygen saturation and interference, and inflammation biomarkers were observed. Thirty-three patients were randomized to the tocilizumab group, and 32 patients to the control group. The cure rate in the tocilizumab group was higher than that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (94.12% vs. 87.10%, rate difference 95% CI-7.19%-21.23%, P = 0.4133). The improvement in hypoxia for the tocilizumab group was higher from day 4 onward and statistically significant from day 12 (P = 0.0359). In moderate disease patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions, the hypoxia ameliorated earlier after tocilizumab treatment, and less patients (1/12, 8.33%) needed an increase of inhaled oxygen concentration compared with the controls (4/6, 66.67%; rate difference 95% CI-99.17% to-17.50%, P = 0.0217). No severe adverse events occurred. More mild temporary adverse events were recorded in tocilizumab recipients (20/34, 58.82%) than the controls (4/31, 12.90%). Tocilizumab can improve hypoxia without unacceptable side effect profile and significant influences on the time virus load becomes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab could be recommended to improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 641088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106021

ABSTRACT

Background: RVEF (right ventricular ejection fraction) measured by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has been used in evaluating right ventricular (RV) function and can provide useful prognostic information in other various cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognostic value of 3D-RVEF in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate whether 3D-RVEF can predict the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A cohort of 128 COVID-19-confirmed patients who had undergone echocardiography were studied. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were also enrolled as controls. COVID-19 patients were divided into three subgroups (general, severe, and critical) according to COVID-19 severity-of-illness. Conventional RV structure and function parameters, RV free wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) and 3D-RVEF were acquired. RVFWLS was measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. RVEF was acquired by 3DE. Results: Compared with controls, 2D-RVFWLS and 3D-RVEF were both significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients (-27.2 ± 4.4% vs. -22.9 ± 4.8%, P < 0.001; 53.7 ± 4.5% vs. 48.5 ± 5.8%, P < 0.001). Critical patients were more likely to have a higher incidence of acute cardiac injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and worse prognosis than general and severe patients. The critical patients exhibited larger right-heart chambers, worse RV fractional area change (RVFAC), 2D-RVFWLS, and 3D-RVEF and higher proportion of pulmonary hypertension than general and severe patients. Eighteen patients died during a median follow-up of 91 days. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed the acute cardiac injury, ARDS, RVFAC, RVFWLS, and 3D-RVEF were independent predictors of death. 3D-RVEF (chi-square to improve 18.3; P < 0.001), RVFAC (chi-square to improve 4.5; P = 0.034) and 2D-RVFWLS (chi-square to improve 5.1; P = 0.024) all provided additional prognostic value of higher mortality over clinical risk factors. Moreover, the incremental predictive value of 3D-RVEF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than RVFAC and RVFWLS. Conclusion: 3D-RVEF was the most robust independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19 patients and provided a higher predictive value over conventional RV function parameters and RVFWLS, which may be helpful to identify COVID-19 patients at a higher risk of death.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3110, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065952

ABSTRACT

For controlling recent COVID-19 outbreaks around the world, many countries have implemented suppression and mitigation interventions. This work aims to conduct a feasibility study for accessing the effect of multiple interventions to control the COVID-19 breakouts in the UK and other European countries, accounting for balance of healthcare demand. The model is to infer the impact of mitigation, suppression and multiple rolling interventions for controlling COVID-19 outbreaks in the UK, with two features considered: direct link between exposed and recovered population, and practical healthcare demand by separation of infections. We combined the calibrated model with COVID-19 data in London and non-London regions in the UK during February and April 2020. Our finding suggests that rolling intervention is an optimal strategy to effectively control COVID-19 outbreaks in the UK for balancing healthcare demand and morality ratio. It is better to implement regional based interventions with varied intensities and maintenance periods. We suggest an intervention strategy named as "Besieged and rolling interventions" to the UK that take a consistent suppression in London for 100 days and 3 weeks rolling intervention in other regions. This strategy would reduce the overall infections and deaths of COVID-19 outbreaks, and balance healthcare demand in the UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Services Needs and Demand , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Theoretical , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5138

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab is reported to be able to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We tried to ascertain the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to be benefit from the treatment. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial at 6 hospitals in Anhui and Hubei. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The first dose of tocilizumab was 400 mg, diluted in 100 ml 0.9% saline, and intravenous dripped in more than 1 h. A second dose was given if a patient remained febrile for 24 hours after the first dose. The primary endpoint was the cure rate. Primary analysis was done in the intention -to -treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Findings: Between Feb 13, 2020, and March 13, 2020, 65 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (33 to tocilizumab and 32 to the controls). One patient in the control group, who aggravated severely 3 days after randomization, was transferred to the tocilizumab group. The cure rate in tocilizumab group was higher than that in the controls but not significant (94.12% vs 87.10%, P=0.4133). Adverse events were recorded in 20 (58.82%) of 34 tocilizumab recipients versus 4 (12.90%) of 31 in the controls. No serious adverse events were reported in tocilizumab group. Interpretation: Tocilizumab treatment did not increase the cure rate of COVID-19. A large scale of study enrolling more patients is needed. However,tocilizumab can improve oxygenation without significant influence on the time virus load tunes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab should be recommended for better disease management. Trial Registration: This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Number: ChiCTR2000029765). Funding: This work was supported by Department of Science and Technology of Anhui Province and Health Commission of Anhui Province (grant number: 202004a07020001) and the China National Center for Biotechnology Development (grant number: 2020YFC0843800).

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 589833, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945660

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development utilizing various platforms is one of the strategies that has been proposed to address the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Adjuvants are critical components of both subunit and certain inactivated vaccines because they induce specific immune responses that are more robust and long-lasting. A review of the history of coronavirus vaccine development demonstrates that only a few adjuvants, including aluminum salts, emulsions, and TLR agonists, have been formulated for the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and currently the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in experimental and pre-clinical studies. However, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the effects of the adjuvants tested in coronavirus vaccines. This paper presents an overview of adjuvants that have been formulated in reported coronavirus vaccine studies, which should assist with the design and selection of adjuvants with optimal efficacy and safety profiles for COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Aluminum , Emulsions , Humans , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
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