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1.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(17):5513-5522, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2080849

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a science and cultural treasure of our country, with thousands of years of clinical experience in medication. TCM has significant advantages in prevention and treatment of complex diseases and chronic diseases, and has also demonstrated its advantages in prevention and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is currently raging around the world, but due to unclear mechanism problem, the promotion and application of TCM have been seriously limited. Mechanism of Western medicine is clear, and it has mature drug target discovery technology, mainly including chemical modification technology and non-chemical modification technology. Due to the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target action of TCM, the application of chemical modification technology in TCM mechanism study has certain limitations. Thus, the principle, operation steps and application of non-chemically modified drug target technology such as cellular thermal shift assay, molecular docking, drug affinity responsive target stability, surface plasmon resonance are introduced in this paper. The potential advantages and disadvantages of such non-chemically modified drug target technologies are discussed in the study on mechanism of TCM, in order to explore a target discovery model of TCM target discovery, provide reference for elucidating the mechanism of TCM, and promote the modernization process of TCM. Copyright © 2022 Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of Geographical Sciences ; 31(7):1059-1081, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075517

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuing to spread globally and still poses a great threat to human health. Since its outbreak, it has had catastrophic effects on human society. A visual method of analyzing COVID-19 case information using spatio-temporal objects with multi-granularity is proposed based on the officially provided case information. This analysis reveals the spread of the epidemic, from the perspective of spatio-temporal objects, to provide references for related research and the formulation of epidemic prevention and control measures. The case information is ed, descripted, represented, and analyzed in the form of spatio-temporal objects through the construction of spatio-temporal case objects, multi-level visual expressions, and spatial correlation analysis. The rationality of the method is verified through visualization scenarios of case information statistics for China, Henan cases, and cases related to Shulan. The results show that the proposed method is helpful in the research and judgment of the development trend of the epidemic, the discovery of the transmission law, and the spatial traceability of the cases. It has a good portability and good expansion performance, so it can be used for the visual analysis of case information for other regions and can help users quickly discover the potential knowledge this information contains. © 2021, Science in China Press.

3.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):359-364, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067155

ABSTRACT

Objectives To estimate the basic reproduction number of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to provide support to epidemic preparedness and response. Methods Based on the susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartment model and the assumption that the infection cases with symptoms occurred before January 26, 2020 were resulted from free propagation without intervention, we estimated the basic reproduction number of 2019-nCoV according to the reported confirmed cases and suspected cases, as well as theoretical estimated number of infected cases by other research teams, together with some epidemiological determinants learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome. Results The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 to 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV infected cases from People's Daily in China, and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. Conclusions The early transmission capability of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. It is a controllable disease with moderate-high transmissibility. Timely and effective control measures are capable to quickly reduce further transmission. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

4.
5th International Conference on Mathematics and Statistics, ICoMS 2022 ; : 84-94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053358

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus had been viral and heavily influenced daily lives for more than two years. Two popular procedures to combat the pandemic were general vaccine implantation and limited social contact. We evaluated the effectiveness of these procedures by exploring the trends of vaccination rate, public mobility, and case/death rate at the county level in the mainland United States overtime during 2021. In addition, we investigated how demographic variables such as education and income hindered or promoted vaccination and social contact at the county level. We tested the associations between vaccination rate, public mobility, demographics, and case/death rate using Spearman Correlation tests, Student t-tests, and linear regression. Our findings provide domestic statistical feedback to the anti-epidemic policies and help public health officials make informed decisions in the future. © 2022 ACM.

5.
2022 Asia Conference on Algorithms, Computing and Machine Learning, CACML 2022 ; : 505-511, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2051936

ABSTRACT

Masked face recognition, a non-contact biometric technology, has attracted much attention and developed rapidly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The existing work trains the masked face recognition model based on a large number of 2D masked face images. However, in practical application scenarios, it is difficult to obtain a large number of masked face images in a short period of time. Therefore, combined with 3D face recognition technology, this paper proposes a masked face recognition model trained with non-masked face images. In this paper, we locate and segment the complete face region and the face region not occluded by masks from the face point clouds. The geometric features of the 3D face surface, namely depth, azimuth, and elevation, are extracted from the above two regions to generate training data. The proposed masked face recognition model based on vision Transformer divides the complete faces and part of the faces into sequence images, and then captures the relationship between the image slices to compensate for the impact caused by the lack of face information, thereby improving the recognition performance. Comparative experiments with the state-of-the-art masked face recognition work are carried out on four databases. The experimental results show that the recognition accuracy of the proposed model is improved by 9.86% on Bosphorus database, 16.77% on CASIA-3D FaceV1 database, 2.32% on StirlingESRC database, and 34.81% on Ajmal main database, respectively, which verifies the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
2022 Ieee International Conference on Communications Workshops (Icc Workshops) ; : 427-432, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042753

ABSTRACT

Social distancing can reduce the infection rates in respiratory pandemics such as COVID-19. Traffic intersections are particularly suitable for monitoring and evaluation of social distancing behavior in metropolises. Hence, in this paper, we propose and evaluate a real-time privacy-preserving social distancing analysis system (B-SDA), which uses bird's-eye view video recordings of pedestrians who cross traffic intersections. We devise algorithms for video pre-processing, object detection, and tracking which are rooted in the known computer-vision and deep learning techniques, but modified to address the problem of detecting very small objects/pedestrians captured by a highly elevated camera. We propose a method for incorporating pedestrian grouping for detection of social distancing violations, which achieves 0.92 F1 score. B-SDA is used to compare pedestrian behavior in pre-pandemic and during-pandemic videos in uptown Manhattan, showing that the social distancing violation rate of 15.6% during the pandemic is notably lower than 31.4% prepandemic baseline.

7.
Edunine2022 - Vi Ieee World Engineering Education Conference (Edunine): Rethinking Engineering Education after Covid-19: A Path to the New Normal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2018722

ABSTRACT

Engineering practice education for college students is very important in the higher education system. It requires students to carry out practical and innovative learning except for knowledge. However, the traditional offline education cannot provide enough practice opportunities for students, which limits students' in-depth concept understanding and restricts their practical ability and innovative thinking. During the period of COVID-19 spreading, the course can be taken online;but it will be quite difficult for conducting experiments, especially for the courses in the electronic and telecommunication systems, which usually requires expensive equipment. In this paper, taking the course "Intelligent Information Network" as example, we designed and implemented an online experiment platform, including optical switching equipment and data packet network equipment. Using remote programmable techniques and separated Algorithm Center, this platform allows students to deploy their own algorithm into the physical telecommunication equipment in web-based approach, and validate the network performance.

8.
4th International Conference on Image Processing and Machine Vision, IPMV 2022 ; : 13-21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973911

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus pandemic, the demand for contactless biometrics technology has promoted the development of masked face recognition. Training a masked face recognition model needs to address two crucial issues: a lack of large-scale realistic masked face datasets and the difficulty of obtaining robust face representations due to the huge difference between complete faces and masked faces. To tackle with the first issue, this paper proposes to train a 3D masked face recognition network with non-masked face images. For the second issue, this paper utilizes the geometric features of 3D face, namely depth, azimuth, and elevation, to represent the face. The inherent advantages of 3D face enhance the stability and practicability of 3D masked face recognition network. In addition, a facial geometry extractor is proposed to highlight discriminative facial geometric features so that the 3D masked face recognition network can take full advantage of the depth, azimuth and elevation information in distinguishing face identities. The experimental results on four public 3D face datasets show that the proposed 3D masked face recognition network improves the accuracy of the masked face recognition, which verifies the feasibility of training the masked face recognition model with non-masked face images. © 2022 ACM.

9.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2022 ; : 427-432, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973477

ABSTRACT

Social distancing can reduce the infection rates in respiratory pandemics such as COVID-19. Traffic intersections are particularly suitable for monitoring and evaluation of social distancing behavior in metropolises. Hence, in this paper, we propose and evaluate a real-time privacy-preserving social distancing analysis system (B-SDA), which uses bird's-eye view video recordings of pedestrians who cross traffic intersections. We devise algorithms for video pre-processing, object detection, and tracking which are rooted in the known computer-vision and deep learning techniques, but modified to address the problem of detecting very small objects/pedestrians captured by a highly elevated camera. We propose a method for incorporating pedestrian grouping for detection of social distancing violations, which achieves 0.92 F1 score. B-SDA is used to compare pedestrian behavior in pre-pandemic and during-pandemic videos in uptown Manhattan, showing that the social distancing violation rate of 15.6% during the pandemic is notably lower than 31.4% prenandemic baseline. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 5-9, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948781

ABSTRACT

As a result of Coronavirus disease (Covid-19), container trade volumes and container port throughputs in the world have both declined over the first half of 2020. Covid - 19 causes unprecedented disruptions to the countries where food supplies heavily rely on shipping, such as the United Kingdom (UK). It is vital to assess the associated food shipping systems to ensure national food supply resilience. This paper aims to assess the national food supply chain (FSC) resilience for the UK by considering food import dependency and shipping transport connectivity. A new national food connectivity index (NFCI) framework is formulated, and supporting data is collected from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the United Nations Commodity Trade (UN Comtrade). NFCI of the UK is calculated and compared with other countries. The formulation and analysis contribute to a newly proposed formal method to assess a nation's FSC resilience and observe and address the shortcomings of its food supply system for food security. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1915347

ABSTRACT

Scholarly attention to foreign language learning boredom (FLLB) has surged in recent years. However, little is known about L2 learners' online FLLB experience prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To fill this gap, the present mixed-methods study explores the conceptual structure and sources of FLLB in an online learning environment. A corpus of 348 Chinese as second language (CSL) learners participated in a questionnaire survey and 10 of them attended follow-up interviews. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying CSL learners' FLLB: classroom boredom, content boredom and teacher/learner boredom. Qualitative data enriched our understanding of the three-factor construct of FLLB and boredom sources in online classes. Results were discussed with reliance on the control-value theory of achievement emotions, previous findings, as well as their theoretical and practical implications for L2 teaching and learning. The newly found three-factor structure coincides with the long-lasting '3T' difficulties ['3T' difficulties refer to three major concerns in teaching CSL. They are connected with how to implement effective teaching strategies, develop high-quality teaching materials and build qualified and capable teaching teams] in International Chinese education;therefore, it inspires CSL researchers and teachers to attach more importance to the negative emotion of FLLB in the future.

12.
Land ; 11(5):23, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884258

ABSTRACT

As an important symbol and carrier of regional social and economic activities, population mobility is a vital force to promote the re-agglomeration and diffusion of social and economic factors. An accurate and timely grasp on the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on population mobility between cities is of great significance for promoting epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development. This study proposes a theoretical framework for resilience assessment, using centrality and nodality, hierarchy and matching, cluster, transmission, and diversity to measure the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on population mobility in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration in 2020-2022, based on the migration data of AutoNavi and social network analysis. The results show that the COVID-19 epidemic had different impacts on the population network resilience of the BTH urban agglomeration based on the scale and timing. During the full-scale outbreak of the epidemic, strict epidemic prevention and control measures were introduced. The measures, such as social distancing and city and road closure, significantly reduced population mobility in the BTH urban agglomeration, and population mobility between cities decreased sharply. The population mobility network's cluster, transmission, and diversity decreased significantly, severely testing the network resilience. Due to the refinement of the epidemic control measures over time, when a single urban node was impacted, the urban node did not completely fail, and consequently it had little impact on the overall cluster, transmission, and diversity of the population mobility network. Urban nodes at different levels of the population mobility network were not equally affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. The findings can make references for the coordination of epidemic control measures and urban development. It also provides a new perspective for the study of network resilience, and provides scientific data support and a theoretical basis for improving the resilience of BTH urban agglomeration and promoting collaborative development.

13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):63, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881039

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern harbor mutations in the Spike (S) glycoprotein that confer more efficient transmission and dampen the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies. S mediates virus entry and is the primary target for antibody responses, with structural studies of soluble S variants revealing an increased propensity towards conformations accessible to the human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. However, real-time observations of conformational dynamics that govern the structural equilibriums of the S variants have been lacking. Methods: Here, we report single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) studies of S variants of concern containing critical mutations, including D614G and E484K, in the context of virus particles. Results: Investigated variants were shown by smFRET to predominantly occupy more open hACE2-accessible conformations, agreeing with predictions from structures of soluble trimers. Additionally, S variants exhibited decelerated transitions from hACE2-accessible/bound states. Conclusion: Here, we provide the real-time dimension to distinct structures of Spikes in the context of virus particles and present the first experimental evidence of increased stability of Spike variants. Our finding of increased S kinetic stability in the open conformation provides a new perspective on SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to the human population.

14.
Advances in Science and Technology of Water Resources ; 42(3):39-44 and 56, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875847

ABSTRACT

In order to comprehensively understand the current situation of global hydropower development, and to analyze the development potential of global hydropower and the international hydropower market, the current situation of global hydropower development in recent years was analyzed based on the hydropower annual reports released by the International Hydropower Association. It is found that the total installed capacity of global hydropower continues to increase, and affected by the continuous COVID-19 and the 2050 carbon neutrality target, the increaserate was still rebounded although it did not reach the estimated 2%. Combined with the development of global hydropower resources, the potential of global hydropower development was analyzed. The results show that Asia, South America, Africa, and North America have great development potential. China, Brazil, Russia, Canada, and the United States are among the best in overall hydropower potential. Bhutan, Iceland, Papua New Zealand Guinea, Guyana, and Gabon have relatively large hydropower potential per capita. © 2022, Editorial Board of Advances in Science and Technology of Water Resources, Hohai University. All right reserved.

15.
3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Educational Informization, ITEI 2021 ; : 99-104, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831834

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 is a challenge and an opportunity for the education industry. Under the environment of the pandemic, Teaching Chinese as a Second Language (TCSL) has responded to the call of the country and the needs of the times by developing online teaching, using modern information technology to enable foreign students to continue learning Chinese. And the online teaching mode can still be retained as a new teaching mode after the pandemic is controlled. However, in the process of online TCSL, some defects and shortcomings of online teaching are gradually revealed, which have a certain negative impact on students' Chinese learning. This article analyzes the impact of the pandemic on the TCSL and emphasizes the urgency of online teaching in the pandemic environment. At the same time, this article explores the challenges faced by online TCSL and proposes strategies, putting forward personal thoughts and suggestions for the progress and optimization of online TCSL. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
Indoor and Built Environment ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819962

ABSTRACT

The novel corona respiratory viruses usually leave the host via droplets and float in the air or settle down. Medically, the decay characteristics of aerosolized viruses have been simulated and measured by atomizing suspensions into air, but there has been no systematic study on the effect of ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, we collected experimental data from existing medical studies, then introduced and calculated the initial decay constant (k(1)) and the secondary decay constant (k(2)) based on these data as a unified standard to quantify the decay process of the aerosolized viruses. Additionally, the influence of various factors on the decay constant of respiratory viruses in the air was statistically analyzed. The results showed that the phase decay of aerosolized viruses was very evident, and k(1) (0.1 similar to 50) was usually one order of magnitude higher than k(2) (0.005 similar to 3.2). Furthermore, the relationship between the decay constant and the survival rate of viruses, representing the risk of virus transmission, and the decay time constants, reflecting the effective period of prevention and control, was discussed. According to the decay law, the main contradiction between virus transmission and epidemic prevention and control at different time nodes was pointed out, and scientific measures to reduce the transmission risk in the built environment were recommended.

17.
Journal of Safety Science and Resilience ; 2(4):230-237, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1773521

ABSTRACT

To battle with economic challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, the US government implemented various measures to mitigate economic loss. From issuance of stimulus checks to reopening businesses, consumers had to constantly alter their behavior in response to government policies. Using anonymized card transactions and mobile device-based location tracking data, we analyze the factors that contribute to these behavior changes, focusing on stimulus check issuance and state-wide reopening. Our finding suggests that stimulus payment has a significant immediate effect of boosting spending, but it typically does not reverse a downward trend. State-wide reopening had a small effect on spending. Foot traffic increased gradually after stimulus check issuance, but only increased slightly after reopening, which also coincided or preceded several policy changes and confounding events (e.g., protests) in the US. We also find differences in the reaction to these policies in different regions in the US. Our results may be used to inform future economic recovery policies and their potential consumer response. © 2021 The Authors

18.
10th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability held as Part of the 23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) ; 12780:548-561, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1763311

ABSTRACT

The arrival of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has accelerated the replacement of old lifestyles by new lifestyles. In the post-COVID-19 era, the various behavioral changes, emotional and psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 epidemic may not yet be over, forcing the public to face a variety of experiential changes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the influence of COVID-19 on the psychology, emotion, behavior and experience of the public through literature review, and analyze the causal relationship between them. Then this paper looks for a usability design strategy to solve the user experience from the perspective of design and 'creation of cure'. Finally, the logical framework of the design strategy is summarized to deal with the realistic needs of the post-COVID-19 era. Based on the analysis of the existing literature, this paper proposes: 1) the potential design strategies of mental models and art therapy for psychological and emotional experience, 2) the potential design strategy of behavioral model and art therapy is proposed for behavioral experience, and 3) user experience models in different fields are proposed for the change of user experience.

19.
Kybernetes ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759006

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the face of major disasters, the Chinese people's willingness to donate has increased and the result is that the donation paths have increased. However, there are certain differences in the choice of donation paths for different types of individuals. It is crucial to pay more attention to the attitude and donation path selection of donors and propose strategies to promote individual donation behavior. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptualized moderated mediation model for testing the linkage between individual attitude and donation path selection through the mediating effect of donors' behavioral intention and the moderating effect of behavioral difficulty perception or social pressure between donors' attitude and their donation path selection. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a questionnaire survey of 628 community workers during COVID-19 in China. Self-reported measures were used to obtain data on IA, BI, SP, BDP and DPS. Survey data were used to test the proposed model using hierarchical regression analysis. Mediation analyses with bootstrap via PROCESS were used to ascertain the proposed relationship. Findings: The results showed that individual attitude are positively related to donation path selection. Moreover, this study finds that behavioral intention serves as a mediator in the relationships between individual attitude and donation path selection. The social pressure and behavioral difficulty perception negatively moderate the relationship between individual attitude and behavioral intention. Research limitations/implications: There are still some shortcomings in this study: First, although the data collected at multiple points in this study are all individual data. Future research can add evaluations of relatives, friends or colleagues to individual scheduling of survey subjects to reduce homology errors. Second, although this study has verified the mediating role of the opposite sex, some of the mediating results show that there may be other variables that play a role in the relationship between individual attitudes and donation path selection. In the research on path selection, the integrated theoretical perspective has rich connotations but has not attracted enough attention from the academic community. This research is only based on this single theoretical perspective to construct, verify and explain the model, and there should be other integrated theories. The fit point can be used to analyze the influence mechanism of individual attitudes on the choice of donation path. Practical implications: First of all, we must deepen our understanding of the connotation and role of individuals' attitudes. In the event of a major epidemic, the following two types of measures will be taken to improve individuals' attitudes toward specific donation paths: First, the sponsors of each donation should do their best to donors and provide more information about donations, because the more information resources they have, the stronger the experience of the corresponding donation path, and the more they will choose the path. The sponsor of the second donation must show concern for major epidemics that are prone to occur and a desire to help people affected by disasters, so as to enhance the emotional identity of the donor, thereby increasing the probability of the donor choosing a specific donation path. Secondly, donation sponsors should be wary of the negative influence of social pressure on the donation path selection of individual donors. Donation sponsors can train individuals who are willing to donate, guide them in social relations, online public opinion and other pressure methods and improve the possibility of individuals choosing specific donation routes. Social implications: Deepen the understanding of the content and effectiveness of the behavioral difficulty perception that has a profound impact on the donor. The greater the tendency to make a path choice is often affected by the individual's perception of the difficulty of behavior. The perception of difficulty of a certain d nation path will cause the individual to retreat and inhibit the possibility of the individual choosing the path. Therefore, donation sponsors should take all measures to make their own donation channels simpler and more efficient, thereby reducing the individual's perception of the difficulty of donation behavior. Originality/value: Drawing on TPB theory, a theoretical framework is constructed that specifies the process through which individual attitude affects donation path selection to expand collective understandings of individual attitude in the donation context. Furthermore, the boundary conditions of the underlying process are investigated, which further enhances the contribution of this paper to the extant literature on individual attitude. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

20.
Biophysical Journal ; 121(3):39-39, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1756157
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