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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 903511, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933909

ABSTRACT

With the rapid implementation of global vaccination against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the threat posed by the disease has been mitigated, yet it remains a major global public health concern. Few studies have estimated the effects of vaccination and government stringent control measures on the disease transmission from a global perspective. To address this, we collected 216 countries' data on COVID-19 daily reported cases, daily vaccinations, daily government stringency indexes (GSIs), and the human development index (HDI) from the dataset of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Our World in Data COVID-19 (OWID). We utilized the interrupted time series (ITS) model to examine how the incidence was affected by the vaccination and GSI at continental and country levels from 22 January 2020 to 13 February 2022. We found that the effectiveness of vaccination was better in Europe, North America, and Africa than in Asia, South America, and Oceania. The long-term effects outperformed the short-term effects in most cases. Countries with a high HDI usually had a high vaccination coverage, resulting in better vaccination effects. Nonetheless, some countries with high vaccination coverage did not receive a relatively low incidence due to the weaker GSI. The results suggest that in addition to increasing population vaccination coverage, it is crucial to maintain a certain level of government stringent measures to prevent and control the disease. The strategy is particularly appropriate for countries with low vaccination coverage at present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , World Health Organization
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715636

ABSTRACT

A graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism coupler sensor is proposed for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The feasibility of the proposed sensor is demonstrated by measuring the IgG concentration in phantom mouse and human serum solutions over the range of 0-250 ng/mL. The results show that the circular dichroism and principal fast axis angle of linear birefringence increase in line with increases in IgG concentration over the considered range. Moreover, the proposed device has a resolution of 5-10 ng/mL and a response time of less than three minutes. In general, the sensor provides a promising approach for IgG detection and has significant potential for rapid infectious viral disease testing applications.


Subject(s)
Graphite , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Animals , Birefringence , Gold , Immunoglobulin G , Mice
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312692

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to guide hospitals and administrators to formulate suitable interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning ( OR  = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.2–2.1) and cognitive functioning ( OR  = 1.4, 95% CI : 1.1–1.8). The respondents aged 30–39 years and 40–49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning ( OR  = 1.3, 95% CI : 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning ( OR  = 1.5, 95% CI : 1.2–1.9).Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had better scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.

4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14571, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is outbreaking globally. We aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics, cardiac injury, electrocardiogram and computed tomography (CT) features of patients confirmed Covid-19 and explored the prediction models for the severity of Covid-19. METHODS: A retrospective and single-centre study enrolled 98 laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 patients. Clinical data, electrocardiogram and CT features were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. RESULTS: There were 46 males and 52 females, with a median age of 44 years, categorised into three groups, including mild, moderate and severe/critical Covid-19. The rate of abnormal electrocardiograms in severe/critical group (79%) was significantly higher than that in the mild group (17%) (P = .027), which (r = 0.392, P = .005) positively related to the severity of Covid-19 (OR: 5.71, 95% CI: 0.45-3.04, P = .008). Age older than 60 years old, comorbidities, whether had symptoms on admission, fatigue, CT features, laboratory test results such as platelet count, lymphocyte cell count, eosinophil cell count, CD3+ cell count, CD4+ cell count, CD8+ cell count, the ratio of albumin/globulin decreased and D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevated were the risk factors for the increased severity of Covid-19. The logistic model, adjusted by age, lobular involvement score and lymphocyte cell count, could be applied for assessing the severity of Covid-19 (AUC, 0.903; Sensitivity, 90.9%; Specificity, 78.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Age >60 years old, chronic comorbidities, lymphocytopoenia and lobular involvement score were associated with the Covid-19 severity. The inflammation induced by Covid-19 caused myocardial injury with elevated BNP and cTnI level and abnormal electrocardiograms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 565849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to provide fundamental evidence for clinicians and administrators to formulate targeted intervention measures to improve the HRQoL and mental health status in pediatric medical staff during this, and future pandemics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and cognitive functioning (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). The respondents aged 30-39 and 40-49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had lower scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Res ; 197: 111096, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163738

ABSTRACT

This study is motivated by the amplified transmission rates of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in areas with high concentrations of fine particulates (PM2.5) as reported in northern Italy and Mexico. To develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 in the propagation of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in the population, the deposition patterns and efficiencies (DEs) of PM2.5 laced with the virus in healthy and asthmatic airways are studied. Physiologically correct 3-D models for generations 10-12 of the human airways are applied to carry out a numerical analysis of two-phase flow for full breathing cycles. Two concentrations of PM2.5 are applied for the simulation, i.e., 30 µg⋅m-3 and 80 µg⋅m-3 for three breathing statuses, i.e., rest, light exercise, and moderate activity. All the PM2.5 injected into the control volume is assumed to be 100% contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus. Skewed air-flow phenomena at the bifurcations are proportional to the Reynolds number at the inlet, and their intensity in the asthmatic airway exceeded that of the healthy one. Upon exhalation, two peak air-flow vectors from daughter branches combine to form one big vector in the parent generation. Asthmatic airway models has higher deposition efficiencies (DEs) for contaminated PM2.5 as compared to the healthy one. Higher DEs arise in the asthmatic airway model due to complex secondary flows which increase the impaction of contaminated PM2.5 on airways' walls.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Lung , Computer Simulation , Humans , Italy , Mexico , Models, Biological , Particulate Matter/toxicity
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(3): 1331-1346, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814025

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, an emerging coronavirus, has spread rapidly around the world, resulting in over ten million cases and more than half a million deaths as of July 1, 2020. Effective treatments and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infection do not currently exist. Previous studies demonstrated that nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) of coronavirus is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent 2'-O-methyltransferase (2'-O-MTase) that has an important role in viral replication and prevents recognition by the host innate immune system. In the present study, we employed structural analysis, virtual screening, and molecular simulation approaches to identify clinically investigated and approved drugs which can act as promising inhibitors against nsp16 2'-O-MTase of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis of primary amino acid sequences and crystal structures of seven human CoVs defined the key residues for nsp16 2-O'-MTase functions. Virtual screening and docking analysis ranked the potential inhibitors of nsp16 from more than 4,500 clinically investigated and approved drugs. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on eight top candidates, including Hesperidin, Rimegepant, Gs-9667, and Sonedenoson, to calculate various structural parameters and understand the dynamic behavior of the drug-protein complexes. Our studies provided the foundation to further test and repurpose these candidate drugs experimentally and/or clinically for COVID-19 treatment.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Methyltransferases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Ribose
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