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2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332958

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern continue spreading around the world, development of antibodies and vaccines to confer broad and protective activity is a global priority. Here, we report on the identification of a special group of nanobodies from immunized alpaca with exceptional breadth and potency against diverse sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV-1, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2. Crystal structure analysis of one representative nanobody, 3-2A2-4, revealed a highly conserved epitope between the cryptic and the outer face of the receptor binding domain (RBD). The epitope is readily accessible regardless of RBD in up or down conformation and distinctive from the receptor ACE2 binding site. Passive delivery of 3-2A2-4 protected K18-hACE2 mice from infection of authentic SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron. This group of nanobodies and the epitope identified should provide invaluable reference for the development of next generation antibody therapies and vaccines against wide varieties of SARS-CoV-2 infection and beyond.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2122954119, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721790

ABSTRACT

SignificanceSARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve through emerging variants, more frequently observed with higher transmissibility. Despite the wide application of vaccines and antibodies, the selection pressure on the Spike protein may lead to further evolution of variants that include mutations that can evade immune response. To catch up with the virus's evolution, we introduced a deep learning approach to redesign the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to target multiple virus variants and obtained an antibody that broadly neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Complementarity Determining Regions , Deep Learning , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581335

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge and spread around the world, antibodies and vaccines to confer broad and potent neutralizing activity are urgently needed. Through the isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, we identified one antibody, P36-5D2, capable of neutralizing the major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Crystal and electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure analyses revealed that P36-5D2 targeted to a conserved epitope on the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, withstanding the three key mutations-K417N, E484K, and N501Y-found in the variants that are responsible for escape from many potent neutralizing mAbs, including some already approved for emergency use authorization (EUA). A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of P36-5D2 as a prophylactic treatment completely protected animals from challenge of infectious SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta. Treated animals manifested normal body weight and were devoid of infection-associated death up to 14 days. A substantial decrease of the infectious virus in the lungs and brain, as well as reduced lung pathology, was found in these animals compared to the controls. Thus, P36-5D2 represents a new and desirable human antibody against the current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice
5.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(6): 671-676, 2020 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the research hotspot and frontier of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China and abroad. METHODS: The CiteSpace software was used to visually analyze the relevant research of severe COVID-19 published by CNKI and Web of Science databases from January 30th to April 20th in 2020. The analysis content included the author of the literature, the publishing institutions, and high-frequency keywords. RESULTS: There were 389 Chinese literatures and 59 English literatures included. Analysis using CiteSpace software showed that there were four large teams in China currently concerning about the research on severe COVID-19. The co-authoring of each team was relatively close, but the teams were lack of cooperation. The main issuing institutions were affiliated hospitals of colleges and universities, but colleges and enterprises had less participation. The authors of English-language publications mainly had five research teams, some of whom had co-authored relationships. The country with the most enormous volume of English-language publications was China, followed by the United States and Canada. The Chinese keyword co-occurrence, clustering and highlighted words analysis showed that the main research areas of severe COVID-19 included clinical features, traditional Chinese medicine treatment, medical imaging, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment and so on; nucleic acid detection, clinical features and diagnosis, plague theory and etiology mechanism, traditional Chinese medicine and integrated Chinese and Western medicine treatment, severe COVID-19 combined with diabetes and prognosis research will become future research trends; keyword cluster analysis showed that severe COVID-19, combined chronic underlying diseases, CT imaging characteristics will also become new trends in the field of research. Co-occurrence analysis of keywords in English literatures showed that the main research areas of severe COVID-19 included the names of novel coronavirus, pandemic diseases, infectious diseases, medical supplies distribution, and indicators related to myocardial damage. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers in China and abroad have different concerns about severe COVID-19. Domestic research focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of severe cases, while foreign countries attach importance to epidemic response and prevention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(10): 1409-1410, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619601
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