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1.
Microb Genom ; 8(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909085

ABSTRACT

There is a need to identify microbial sequences that may form part of transmission chains, or that may represent importations across national boundaries, amidst large numbers of SARS-CoV-2 and other bacterial or viral sequences. Reference-based compression is a sequence analysis technique that allows both a compact storage of sequence data and comparisons between sequences. Published implementations of the approach are being challenged by the large sample collections now being generated. Our aim was to develop a fast software detecting highly similar sequences in large collections of microbial genomes, including millions of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. To do so, we developed Catwalk, a tool that bypasses bottlenecks in the generation, comparison and in-memory storage of microbial genomes generated by reference mapping. It is a compiled solution, coded in Nim to increase performance. It can be accessed via command line, rest api or web server interfaces. We tested Catwalk using both SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes generated by prospective public-health sequencing programmes. Pairwise sequence comparisons, using clinically relevant similarity cut-offs, took about 0.39 and 0.66 µs, respectively; in 1 s, between 1 and 2 million sequences can be searched. Catwalk operates about 1700 times faster than, and uses about 8 % of the RAM of, a Python reference-based compression and comparison tool in current use for outbreak detection. Catwalk can rapidly identify close relatives of a SARS-CoV-2 or M. tuberculosis genome amidst millions of samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software
2.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727516

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(W1): W366-W371, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342682

ABSTRACT

Metagenomic sequencing combined with Oxford Nanopore Technology has the potential to become a point-of-care test for infectious disease in public health and clinical settings, providing rapid diagnosis of infection, guiding individual patient management and treatment strategies, and informing infection prevention and control practices. However, publicly available, streamlined, and reproducible pipelines for analyzing Nanopore metagenomic sequencing data are still lacking. Here we introduce NanoSPC, a scalable, portable and cloud compatible pipeline for analyzing Nanopore sequencing data. NanoSPC can identify potentially pathogenic viruses and bacteria simultaneously to provide comprehensive characterization of individual samples. The pipeline can also detect single nucleotide variants and assemble high quality complete consensus genome sequences, permitting high-resolution inference of transmission. We implement NanoSPC using Nextflow manager within Docker images to allow reproducibility and portability of the analysis. Moreover, we deploy NanoSPC to our scalable pathogen pipeline platform, enabling elastic computing for high throughput Nanopore data on HPC cluster as well as multiple cloud platforms, such as Google Cloud, Amazon Elastic Computing Cloud, Microsoft Azure and OpenStack. Users could either access our web interface (https://nanospc.mmmoxford.uk) to run cloud-based analysis, monitor process, and visualize results, as well as download Docker images and run command line to analyse data locally.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , Metagenomics/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Software , Viruses/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cloud Computing , Viruses/isolation & purification
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