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1.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(9): 100146, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917453

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine is being investigated for a potential prophylactic effect in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Circulating leukocytes from the blood of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show increased responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, suggestive of trained immunity. By analyzing interferon responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors conditioned with heat-killed Candida, trained innate immunity can be modeled in vitro. In this model, hydroxychloroquine inhibits the responsiveness of these innate immune cells to virus-like stimuli and interferons. This is associated with a suppression of histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation of inflammation-related genes, changes in the cellular lipidome, and decreased expression of interferon-stimulated genes. Our findings indicate that hydroxychloroquine inhibits trained immunity in vitro, which may not be beneficial for the antiviral innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Interferons/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575047, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895305

ABSTRACT

Reports suggest a role of endothelial dysfunction and loss of endothelial barrier function in COVID-19. It is well established that the endothelial glycocalyx-degrading enzyme heparanase contributes to vascular leakage and inflammation. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) serve as an inhibitor of heparanase. We hypothesize that heparanase contributes to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and that heparanase may be inhibited by LMWH. To test this hypothesis, heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were measured in plasma of healthy controls (n = 10) and COVID-19 patients (n = 48). Plasma heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients. Heparanase activity was associated with disease severity including the need for intensive care, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and creatinine levels. Use of prophylactic LMWH in non-ICU patients was associated with a reduced heparanase activity. Since there is no other clinically applied heparanase inhibitor currently available, therapeutic treatment of COVID-19 patients with low molecular weight heparins should be explored.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/pathology , Glucuronidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucuronidase/blood , Heparin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Tight Junctions/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102969, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728523

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe inflammation in mainly the lung, and kidney. Reports suggest a beneficial effect of the use of heparin/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on mortality in COVID-19. In part, this beneficial effect could be explained by the anticoagulant properties of heparin/LMWH. Here, we summarise potential beneficial, non-anticoagulant mechanisms underlying treatment of COVID-19 patients with heparin/LMWH, which include: (i) Inhibition of heparanase activity, responsible for endothelial leakage; (ii) Neutralisation of chemokines, and cytokines; (iii) Interference with leukocyte trafficking; (iv) Reducing viral cellular entry, and (v) Neutralisation of extracellular cytotoxic histones. Considering the multiple inflammatory and pathogenic mechanisms targeted by heparin/LMWH, it is warranted to conduct clinical studies that evaluate therapeutic doses of heparin/LMWH in COVID-19 patients. In addition, identification of specific heparin-derived sequences that are functional in targeting non-anticoagulant mechanisms may have even higher therapeutic potential for COVID-19 patients, and patients suffering from other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Glucuronidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Histones/blood , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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