Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S252-S253, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746703


Background. Regardless of severity of acute SARS-CoV-2 illness, adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. Long COVID is typically classified as symptoms lasting greater than four weeks post-infection. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of resolved and unresolved long COVID symptoms in adults residing in greater Nashville, TN. Methods. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-positive and exposed individuals from March 20 to May 15, 2020. Participants for this analysis were included if: 1) ≥18 years;2) SARS-CoV-2 positive by molecular or antibody testing;and 3) completed a one-year visit. Demographic and illness information were collected at enrollment, and long COVID symptoms were systematically collected at the one-year survey. Long COVID symptoms are defined as an adult experiencing at least one of the following symptoms four weeks post-infection: fatigue, confusion, loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, muscle aches, inability to exercise, or heart palpitations. Unresolved symptoms are defined as an individual with long COVID still experiencing symptoms at the one-year visit. Results. A total of 115 adults enrolled and completed the one-year survey, of which 63 (54.8%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive, with one asymptomatic individual. Of SARS-CoV-2-positive symptomatic adults, 32 (51%) were female, 5 (88%) were of Hispanic ethnicity, and 58 (92%) were white. At the one-year visit, 33 (52%) reported having long COVID, of which 17 (52%) reported having unresolved symptoms. Fatigue (89%), headache (89%), muscle aches (79%), and cough (77%) were the most common symptoms reported at illness onset (Figure 1). Among 33 adults with long COVID, fatigue (42%), loss of smell (39%), and loss of taste (33%) were most common (Figure 2A). In the 17 individuals with unresolved symptoms, loss of smell (29%) and loss of taste (24%) were commonly reported (Figure 2B). Figure 1. COVID-19 symptoms reported at enrollment (n=62) Figure 2. Long COVID (symptoms lasting ≥ 4 weeks) (n=33) (A) and unresolved long COVID symptoms one-year post-infection (n=17) (B) reported on the one-year survey Conclusion. Half of the adults in our cohort reported long COVID symptoms, with more than quarter of symptoms persisting one-year post-illness. Our findings support that prolonged symptoms up to year after SARS-CoV-2 exposure occur, and future studies should investigate the residual impacts of long COVID symptoms and conditions.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S344-S345, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746509


Background. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an illness associated with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure. Kawasaki disease (KD), a vasculitis with an unknown etiology, has overlapping clinical presentation with MIS-C, making it difficult to clinicians for distinguish between them. Therefore, we aimed to compare demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics between MIS-C and KD in hospitalized children in Nashville, TN. Methods. We conducted a single-center retrospective chart review for hospitalized children under 18 years who met American Heart Association criteria for KD and were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin from May 2000 to December 2019, and children meeting the CDC criteria for MIS-C from July 2020 to May 2021. Data ion for patients' demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory values and imaging results was performed. Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables, with alpha=5%, were used to compare groups. Results. A total of 603 KD and 52 MIS-C hospitalized patients were included. Children with MIS-C were older than those with KD. A higher frequency of male sex was noted in both groups, with no significant differences in race and ethnicity (Table). MIS-C children frequently presented with symptoms similar to KD (63.5% rash, 55.8% conjunctivitis, 28.9% mucous membrane changes);however, only one MIS-C patient met criteria for complete KD (Figure). Both MIS-C and KD children presented with elevated CRP and ESR, but the median value of CRP in MIS-C children was significantly higher (Table). In addition, white cell count was lower in MIS-C children, which is primarily driven by the lower absolute lymphocyte count in this group (0.9 vs 2.7, p< 0.001), and echocardiography was more likely to be abnormal at presentation compared to KD (Table). Conclusion. MIS-C and KD present similarly in children;however, age, laboratory and echocardiography findings can help differentiate between them. Different laboratory values suggest different pathophysiology and inflammatory mediators behind these two illnesses, warranting further research.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S386, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746430


Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, including solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Despite being excluded from phase 1-3 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, SOTR were identified as high-risk populations and prioritized for vaccination in public health guidelines. We aimed to evaluate the antibody response to two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in SOTR as compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. SOTR and HC scheduled to receive two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine and able to complete required follow-up visits were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected from participants before receiving the first and second doses and 21-42 days after the second dose. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Generalized estimating equations with a working independence correlation structure were used to compare anti-RBD IgG levels between SOTR and HC at each study visit and within each group over time. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and pre-vaccination seroreactivity in the ELISA. Results. A total of 54 SOTR and 26 HC were enrolled, with mean (SD) ages of 72 (3.6) and 62 (6.7) years, 61% and 35% were male, and 91% and 88% were white, respectively. The most common organ transplant types were kidney (41%) and liver (37%). All SOTR were receiving calcineurin inhibitors. The median time post-transplantation was 7 years. SOTR had markedly lower mean anti-RBD IgG levels when compared to HC with adjusted mean differences of -0.76 (95%CI: [-1.04, -0.47];p < 0.001) ELISA units (EU) and -1.35 (95%CI [-1.68, -1.01];p < 0.001) EU after the first and second doses, respectively (Figure 1). Both groups had a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels after the second dose. However, the magnitude was lower in SOTR, 0.49 (95%CI [0.31, 0.69];p < 0.001) EU than in HCs, 1.08 (95% CI [0.91, 1.24];p < 0.001) EU. Figure 1. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels in solid organ transplant recipients and healthy controls before receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine (baseline), post-vaccine dose 1, and post-vaccine dose 2. Conclusion. Our study showed SOTR mounted weaker humoral immune responses than HC to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Given a lower response, SOTR should continue to practice social distancing and masking until data on vaccine efficacy are available in this vulnerable population.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S392-S393, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746417


Background. In December 2020, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were made available to healthcare workers and soon thereafter offered to the general public according to age and risk of severe illness. Despite widespread access, vaccination rates vary by region, with Tennessee ranking lower than the national average. Therefore, we aimed to survey adults in greater Nashville, TN regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine perceptions. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of an ongoing longitudinal cohort of individuals with confirmed and/or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts with enrollment onset in March 2020. For this analysis, individuals were included if they were ≥ 18 years and available for a one-year follow-up visit. At the one-year visit individuals completed a survey about vaccine preferences, beliefs and risks. Demographic and social characteristics were collected at enrollment. Individuals were considered vaccinated if they had received at least one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine under FDA emergency use authorization. Vaccine perceptions were compared by SARS-CoV-2-infection and vaccination status using Pearson's chi-squared, alpha=5%. Results. Between April-May 2021, 115 individuals completed the one-year follow-up. Table 1 includes sociodemographic characteristics of adults, of which the majority were vaccinated and were unemployed or in non-essential occupations. Most individuals agreed the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine can prevent infection and hospitalization (Figure 1A & B). Unvaccinated participants more often agreed that those who contracted SARS-CoV-2 should not receive the vaccine (30%), whereas vaccinated persons less often agreed (11%, p< 0.001) (Figure 1A). Additionally, 44% of unvaccinated individuals were neutral or disagreed that benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination outweighed the illness risk, compared to 10% in the vaccinated group, p=0.001 (Figure 1A). Minimal differences of vaccine perceptions were observed between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative adults (Figure 1B). Conclusion. Although some unvaccinated individuals seemingly perceived the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine offered some protection, research should continue to evaluate the implications of vaccine hesitancy on the COVID-19 pandemic response as we prepare for the upcoming respiratory season.

Pharmaceutics ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480915


The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of process parameters on the printability of a formulation containing copovidone and paracetamol, and on the properties of solid oral forms 3D-printed through selective laser sintering. Firstly, the influence of the heating temperature was evaluated individually, and it was revealed that this parameter was critical for printability, as a sufficiently high temperature (100 °C) is necessary to avoid curling. Secondly, the effects of laser power, scan speed, and layer thickness were determined using a Box-Behnken design. The measured responses, printing yield, height, weight, hardness, disintegration time, and percentage of drug release at 10 min showed the following ranges of values: 55.6-100%, 2.92-3.96 mm, 98.2-187.2 mg, 9.2-83.4 N, 9.7-997.7 s, and 25.8-99.9%, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved that the generated quadratic models and the effect of the three-process parameters were significant (p < 0.05). Yield improved at high laser power, low scan speed, and increased layer thickness. Height was proportional to laser power, and inversely proportional to scan speed and layer thickness. Variations in the other responses were related to the porosity of the SOFs, which were dependent on the value of energy density. Low laser power, fast scan speed, and high layer thickness values favored a lower energy density, resulting in low weight and hardness, rapid disintegration, and a high percentage of drug release at 10 min. Finally, an optimization was performed, and an additional experiment validated the model. In conclusion, by applying a Quality by Design approach, this study demonstrates that process parameters are critical for printability, but also offer a way to personalize the properties of the SOFs.