Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 3 de 3
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 112(5): 990-999, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694806


As the scientific research community along with healthcare professionals and decision makers around the world fight tirelessly against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the need for comparative effectiveness research (CER) on preventive and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 is immense. Randomized controlled trials markedly under-represent the frail and complex patients seen in routine care, and they do not typically have data on long-term treatment effects. The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) for clinical research offers the opportunity to generate timely real-world evidence reflective of routine care for optimal management of COVID-19. However, there are many potential threats to the validity of CER based on EHR data that are not originally generated for research purposes. To ensure unbiased and robust results, we need high-quality healthcare databases, rigorous study designs, and proper implementation of appropriate statistical methods. We aimed to describe opportunities and challenges in EHR-based CER for COVID-19-related questions and to introduce best practices in pharmacoepidemiology to minimize potential biases. We structured our discussion into the following topics: (1) study population identification based on exposure status; (2) ascertainment of outcomes; (3) common biases and potential solutions; and (iv) data operational challenges specific to COVID-19 CER using EHRs. We provide structured guidance for the proper conduct and appraisal of drug and vaccine effectiveness and safety research using EHR data for the pandemic. This paper is endorsed by the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE).

COVID-19 , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Humans , Comparative Effectiveness Research/methods , Electronic Health Records , Pharmacoepidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20463, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469990


Identifying patients at increased risk for severe COVID-19 is of high priority during the pandemic as it could affect clinical management and shape public health guidelines. In this study we assessed whether a second PCR test conducted 2-7 days after a SARS-CoV-2 positive test could identify patients at risk for severe illness. Analysis of a nationwide electronic health records data of 1683 SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals indicated that a second negative PCR test result was associated with lower risk for severe illness compared to a positive result. This association was seen across different age groups and clinical settings. More importantly, it was not limited to recovering patients but also observed in patients who still had evidence of COVID-19 as determined by a subsequent positive PCR test. Our study suggests that an early second PCR test may be used as a supportive risk-assessment tool to improve disease management and patient care.

COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20872, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694840


BACKGROUND: Reliably identifying patients at increased risk for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complications could guide clinical decisions, public health policies, and preparedness efforts. Multiple studies have attempted to characterize at-risk patients, using various data sources and methodologies. Most of these studies, however, explored condition-specific patient cohorts (eg, hospitalized patients) or had limited access to patients' medical history, thus, investigating related questions and, potentially, obtaining biased results. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify factors associated with COVID-19 complications from the complete medical records of a nationally representative cohort of patients, with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We studied a cohort of all SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing of either nasopharyngeal or saliva samples, in a nationwide health organization (covering 2.3 million individuals) and identified those who suffered from serious complications (ie, experienced moderate or severe symptoms of COVID-19, admitted to the intensive care unit, or died). We then compared the prevalence of pre-existing conditions, extracted from electronic health records, between complicated and noncomplicated COVID-19 patient cohorts to identify the conditions that significantly increase the risk of disease complications, in various age and sex strata. RESULTS: Of the 4353 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals, 173 (4%) patients suffered from COVID-19 complications (all age ≥18 years). Our analysis suggests that cardiovascular and kidney diseases, obesity, and hypertension are significant risk factors for COVID-19 complications. It also indicates that depression (eg, males ≥65 years: odds ratio [OR] 2.94, 95% CI 1.55-5.58; P=.01) as well as cognitive and neurological disorders (eg, individuals ≥65 years old: OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.69-4.17; P<.001) are significant risk factors. Smoking and presence of respiratory diseases do not significantly increase the risk of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis agrees with previous studies on multiple risk factors, including hypertension and obesity. It also finds depression as well as cognitive and neurological disorders, but not smoking and respiratory diseases, to be significantly associated with COVID-19 complications. Adjusting existing risk definitions following these observations may improve their accuracy and impact the global pandemic containment and recovery efforts.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult