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1.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(3):279-313, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024695

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, continues to be a global concern. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are an important element of the fight against COVID-19 in China. The combined application of TCMs and conventional medicines in the treatment of COVID-19 has achieved beneficial results, including the resolution of symptoms, prevention of disease progression, and reduced mortality. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current applications of TCMs with respect to COVID-19, as well as update the preclinical and clinical research, including chemical analysis, molecular mechanisms, quality control, drug development, and studies of clinical efficacy. The expectation is that a better understanding of the roles of TCMs against COVID-19 will improve the response to COVID-19, both in China and globally. © 2022 World Journal of Traditonal Chinese Medicine Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

2.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13:936925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As of July 2, 2022, COVID-19 has caused more than 545 million infections and 6.3 million deaths worldwide, posing a significant threat to human health. Currently, there is still a lack of effective prevention and control strategies for the variation and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has a unique theoretical system, has treated various conditions for thousands of years. Importantly, recent studies have revealed that TCM contributed significantly to COVID-19. SanHanHuaShi (SHHS) granules, a Chinese herbal medicine, which has been included in Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (6th to 9th editions) issued by the National Health Commission of China and used to prevent and treat COVID-19 disease. A previous retrospective cohort study showed that SHHS could significantly reduce the severity of mild and moderate COVID-19. However, there is an absence of high-quality randomized controlled clinical studies to confirm the clinical effectiveness of SHHS. Therefore, a clinical study protocol and a statistical analysis plan were designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of SHHS for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. This study will increase the integrity and data transparency of the clinical research process, which is of great significance for improving the practical application of SHHS granules in the future. Methods and analysis: The study was designed as a 7-day, randomized, parallel controlled, open-label, noninferiority clinical trial of positive drugs. A total of 240 patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive SanHanHuaShi granules or LianHuaQingWen granules treatment in a 1:1 ratio. Disease classification, vital signs, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing, symptoms, medications, adverse events, and safety evaluations will be recorded at each visit. The primary outcome will be the clinical symptom recovery rate. Secondary outcomes will include the recovery time of clinical symptoms, negative conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test negative conversion rate, hospitalization time, antipyretic time, rate of conversion to severe patients, and time and rate of single symptom recovery. Adverse incidents and safety assessments will be documented. All data will be analyzed using a predetermined statistical analysis plan, including our method for imputation of missing data, primary and secondary outcome analyses, and safety outcomes. Discussion: The results of this study will provide robust evidence to confirm the effectiveness and safety of SHHS in the treatment of COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn. Trial number: ChiCTR2200058080. Registered on 29 March 2022.

3.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):663-665, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010482

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, only through whole-hearted cooperation and joined efforts can medical institutions, governments, and social organizations cope with emergency, convert the crisis into opportunities, promote modern governance and accomplish high-quality development in the fight against the pandemic. Taking the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University as an example, this paper analyzes the all-media communication matrix of "one network platform, 3W + N" that the hospital established during the pandemic by combining the authoritative official website with WeChat, Wesee, Weibo and that other publicity media. The study explores how to create a publicity brand that is mindful, poignant, compassionate and devoted and maintains its scientific and refined management, so as to achieve the professional goal of educating the public, shouldering the responsibility in the combat against the pandemic, and taking the lead in the research on the pandemic.

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927892

ABSTRACT

Rationale: SARS-CoV-2 has affected millions worldwide. Among those individuals infected with this coronavirus, most recover without hospitalization. However, COVID-19 is characterized by chronic lung failure and death in a significant number of hospitalized patients. Indeed, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 causes ARDS leading to lung fibrosis that shares similarities with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Herein, we addressed the hypothesis that fatal COVID-19, PASC, and ILDs share key biomarkers of interest in lung fibrosis. Methods: This study included 9 fatal COVID-19 and 13 PASC cases, who received lung transplants due COVID-19 associated lung failure. Clinical characteristics such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, age, sex, and BMI were evaluated in each patient. Autopsy and explanted lung samples were subjected to histopathological and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for key biomarkers of interest in lung fibrosis including bromodomain-containing protein-4(BRD4), interferon alpha 2(IFNα2), interleukin-1(IL-11), growth differentiation factor 15(GDF15), and keratin 8(KRT8). COVID-19 and PASC lung samples were also compared with lung samples from fatal ARDS due to other causes (i.e., non-COVID-19 ARDS).Results: In the fatal COVID-19 patient group, the mean age was 60.6(50-71) years-old and included 6 males and 3 females. In the transplanted-PASC patient group, the mean age was 46(31-71) years-old and included 12 males and 2 females. The average BMI was 28.3(21-35.5) for fatal COVID-19 and 25.2(19-29.5) for PASC. In fatal COVID-19, comorbidities included hypertension(22%), diabetes(44%), immunocompromised status(11%). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 23(8-65) days while hospitalization was 25(8-67) days. Conversely, PASC patients averaged 168(71-539) days from diagnosis to transplant date. The SARS-CoV-2 ARDS survivors that developed chronic lung failure had diffuse interstitial fibrosis frequently with organization into a non-specific interstitial fibrosis (NSIP) pattern. Key IHC findings in fatal COVID-19 and in PASC lung samples included BRD4, IFNalpha2, and IL-11 receptor alpha (IL-11RA) protein expression, which were markedly increased in several cell types most notably macrophages or myeloid cells localized in the alveolar space in COVID-19 lung samples. Although these markers were detected in non-COVID-19 ARDS the levels of each were markedly lower than that detected in the COVID-19 lung samples.Conclusions: These data suggest that key profibrotic pathways in the lung are shared among COVID-19 and chronic fibrotic ILDs. The identification of these pathways provides the impetus to further explore treatment strategies which might survival benefit to chronically ventilated COVID-19 patients and mitigate the need from lung transplantation in PASC patients.

5.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886237

ABSTRACT

B-cell receptors (BCRs) and their impact on B cells play a vital role in our immune system;however, the manner in which B cells are activated by BCRs are still poorly understood. Ze Zhang and colleagues present a graph-based method that connects BCR and single B-cell RNA sequencing data and identifies notable coupling between BCR and B-cell expression in COVID-19. B-cell receptors (BCRs) are a crucial player in the development and activation of B cells, and their mature forms are secreted as antibodies, which execute functions such as the neutralization of invading pathogens. All current analytical approaches for BCRs solely investigate the BCR sequences and ignore their correlations with the transcriptomics of the B cells, yielding conclusions of unknown functional relevance regarding the roles of BCRs and B cells, and could generate biased interpretation. Many single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) techniques can now capture both the gene expression and BCR of each B cell, which could potentially address this issue. Here, we investigated 43,938 B cells from 13 scRNA-seq datasets with matched scBCR sequencing, and we observed an association between the BCRs and the B cells' transcriptomics. Motivated by this, we developed the Benisse model (BCR embedding graphical network informed by scRNA-seq) to provide refined analyses of BCRs guided by single-cell gene expression. Benisse revealed a gradient of B-cell activation along BCR trajectories. We discovered a stronger coupling between BCRs and B-cell gene expression during COVID-19 infections. We found that BCRs form a directed pattern of continuous and linear evolution to achieve the highest antigen targeting efficiency, compared with the convergent evolution pattern of T-cell receptors. Overall, a simultaneous digestion of the BCR and gene expression of B cells, viewed through the lens of Benisse, will lead to a more insightful interpretation of the functional relevance of the BCR repertoire in different biological contexts.

6.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333536

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest respiratory pandemic resulting from zoonotic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe symptoms include viral pneumonia secondary to infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, in some cases causing death. We developed primary human lung epithelial infection models to understand responses of proximal and distal lung epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of proximal airway epithelium and 3D organoid cultures of alveolar epithelium were readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 leading to an epithelial cell-autonomous proinflammatory response. We validated the efficacy of selected candidate COVID-19 drugs confirming that Remdesivir strongly suppressed viral infection/replication. We provide a relevant platform for studying COVID-19 pathobiology and for rapid drug screening against SARS-CoV-2 and future emergent respiratory pathogens. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: A novel infection model of the adult human lung epithelium serves as a platform for COVID-19 studies and drug discovery.

7.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(4):373-379, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791921

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed clinical studies, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines on the treatment of COVID-19 with antiviral drugs. It elaborated on the evidence ecosystems in these studies following the "efficacy, evidence-based practice, effectiveness" (3E) model that considered five elements: research hypothesis, research evidence, big data from healthcare facilities, real-world data, and real-world evidence. Finally, this paper summarized the experience in the production, transformation and application of evidence. This paper could help clinicians conduct highquality clinical research and provide good clinical practice based on the best currently available evidence.

8.
Advanced Therapeutics ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1777522

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the most prevalent mental diseases and a primary cause of disability worldwide with high incidence and high recurrence. The current deterioration of the COVID-19 epidemic also pushes up the incidence of depression. Nevertheless, the currently available treatments remain inadequate response and limited efficacy. Therefore, discoveries of more potent and safer antidepressant drugs are urgently needed. In this review, the current potential physiological and pathological mechanisms of depression, and the clinical research progresses of candidate drugs as well as the recent advances in small-molecule drug discovery for potential treatments of depression are systematically summarized. More importantly, the structure–activity relationships of compounds from different classes, the statistical analysis of the blood-brain barrier permeability, the pharmacological targets, and the in vivo models are comprehensively discussed. Further insights on antidepressant drug discovery are also analyzed from multidimensional perspectives.

9.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 14(3):2063-2072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1777100

ABSTRACT

We present a study protocol designed to test the safety and efficacy of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine in patients with major psychotic disease. A secondary objective is to investigate optional vaccination methods for these patients. In a self-experiment, a Chinese psychiatrist examined the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine under clinical use of typical antipsychotic agents and sedatives (olanzapine, duloxetine, and diazepam). For patients with extremely drug-resistant conditions, the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine under electroconvulsive therapy was also investigated. The entire study process was recorded on high-definition video. This clinical study protocol is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind. Our findings will shed new light on the protection of patients with psychotic diseases from COVID-19 infection.

10.
2nd Asia Conference on Computers and Communications, ACCC 2021 ; : 115-121, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1735774

ABSTRACT

At present, the world economy is in recession, especially under the impact of the Covid-19 epidemic, China's economy has also been greatly impacted. In this context, the disposable personal income of residents has also declined to varying degrees. More and more people choose economical life. If they can buy a used car in good condition at a good price, they are less likely to buy a brand new one. Under such a consumption concept, China's demand for second-hand cars is increasing. However, although China's second-hand car industry has developed for more than 30 years and the market scale has gradually expanded, there are still many problems behind the prosperity of the second-hand car market. These problems have existed for a long time, leading to a lot of disputes, unhappiness, disappointment, and even threats to the lives of consumers. These long-term problems also affect the virtuous circle of the second-hand car market, and hinder the healthy development of China's economy to a certain extent. In the past, research work mainly focused on the role of new policies, relevant laws and vehicle management and traffic management functions, this paper introduces the blockchain technology, which has the advantages of non tampering, transparency and traceability. This paper attempts to use blockchain technology as an auxiliary means to solve the long-standing problems in the used car market. This paper proposes a framework of used car trading based on blockchain in cloud service environment, and explains the working principle of the framework. Finally, the future research work is prospected. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326637

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterised by immunopathology and epithelial injury. Proteomic studies have identified circulating proteins that are biomarkers of severe COVID-19, but cannot distinguish correlation from causation. To address this, we performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify proteins that mediate severe COVID-19. Using protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) data from the SCALLOP consortium, involving meta-analysis of up to 26,494 individuals, and COVID-19 genome-wide association data from the Host Genetics Initiative, we performed MR for 157 COVID-19 severity protein biomarkers. We identified significant MR results for five proteins: FAS, TNFRSF10A, CCL2, EPHB4 and LGALS9. Further evaluation of these candidates using sensitivity analyses and colocalization testing provided strong evidence to implicate the apoptosis-associated cytokine receptor FAS as a causal mediator of severe COVID-19. This effect was specific to severe disease. Using RNA-seq data from 4,778 individuals, we demonstrate that the pQTL at the FAS locus results from genetically influenced alternate splicing causing skipping of exon 6. We show that the risk allele for very severe COVID-19 increases the proportion of transcripts lacking exon 6, and thereby increases soluble FAS. Soluble FAS acts as a decoy receptor for FAS-ligand, inhibiting apoptosis induced through membrane-bound FAS. In summary, we demonstrate a novel genetic mechanism that contributes to risk of severe of COVID-19, highlighting a pathway that may be a promising therapeutic target.

12.
Journal of Diversity in Higher Education ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1586025

ABSTRACT

Using neoracism (Lee & Rice, 2007) as a theoretical framework, this study explored international students' experiences, challenges, and perceptions of racism and racial discrimination during COVID-19 in the U.S. By conducting three virtual focus group interviews with 18 international students in total, we identified three key themes that encapsulated participants' challenges and experiences of perceived racism: perceptions of racism-explicit discrimination and fear of threats, feelings of being unwelcome and unsafe, and two faces of quarantine-navigating tensions of relief and isolation. Implications for research and practice to support international students are discussed.

13.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750464

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest respiratory pandemic resulting from zoonotic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe symptoms include viral pneumonia secondary to infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, in some cases causing death. We developed primary human lung epithelial infection models to understand responses of proximal and distal lung epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of proximal airway epithelium and 3D organoid cultures of alveolar epithelium were readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 leading to an epithelial cell-autonomous proinflammatory response. We validated the efficacy of selected candidate COVID-19 drugs confirming that Remdesivir strongly suppressed viral infection/replication. We provide a relevant platform for studying COVID-19 pathobiology and for rapid drug screening against SARS-CoV-2 and future emergent respiratory pathogens. One Sentence Summary: A novel infection model of the adult human lung epithelium serves as a platform for COVID-19 studies and drug discovery.

14.
2nd International Conference on Internet and E-Business, ICIEB 2021 ; : 145-149, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1476853

ABSTRACT

The core concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics for the new era is to promote the optimization and upgrading of the economic system and the construction of sustainable ecological civilization. In the wake of the COVID-19, it has become a major issue for countries around the world to pursue green recovery. Green is a necessary condition for sustainable development, finance is the leading force of social economy, and the development of green finance is the core call of today's era. Guangdong, as the main force of the national economic lifeline, took the lead in green finance innovation and promoted the transformation and adjustment of leading industries. At present, the banking industry has repeatedly disclosed the environment, society and governance (ESG) in its social responsibility reports in order to achieve the strategic goal of carbon peak and carbon neutral, but there is a lack of systematic review on the measures and implementation. Aiming at objective problems, this paper mainly discusses how green finance stimulates sustainability and explores the value potential of the future economy and society. Based on this, this paper selected 300 literatures from the Web of Science (WOS) database, mapped the coword cluster, and analyzed their annual trend, topic scope, literature sources, etc. With the help of big data analysis technology and visualization software function, scientometrics is used to demonstrate the possibility and feasibility of the research contents in relevant fields, and to produce cutting-edge academic achievements with insight. In order to achieve the ultimate goal of green development with capital and financial design for diversified and deep thinking, to provide reference value theory for co-construction environment, data-driven investment scale and sustainable development, to accelerate the green finance reform in Guangdong Province and even the country to make a forward-looking small contribution. © 2021 ACM.

15.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 7(3):339-346, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1377069

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical compounds of a Hanshi-Yufei formulation (HSYF;a modified formulation of a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating COVID-19) to elucidate the mechanism of action and to evaluate potential anti-inflammatory effects of HSYF. Materials and Methods: The chemical constituents of HSYF extract were characterized using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Subsequently, a set of TCM network pharmacology methods was applied to identify disease-associated genes and to predict target profiles and pharmacological actions associated with the constituents of HSYF. Then, the antiviral effects of HSYF on H1N1 were assessed in RAW264.7 cells using MTT assays. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α following infection of RAW264.7 cells with H1N1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), and expression levels of inflammatory-related factors were detected using western blotting. Results: In total, 165 chemical constituents (including glycosides, tannins, volatile oils, amino acids, triterpenoids, polyphenols, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids, among others) were tentatively identified in HSYF. Network pharmacology demonstrated that HSYF can regulate immunomodulatory- and anti-inflammatory-related targets of multiple pathways through its active ingredients, suggesting potential anti-COVID-19 effects. Furthermore, cell viability assays and ELISA showed that HSYF significantly inhibited H1N1 replication in RAW64.7 cells and markedly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 at the proteins level. Conclusions: The results of the present study help improve our understanding of the therapeutic effects of HSYF in COVID-19 treatment from multi-level perspectives.

16.
Crystal Growth and Design ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1284672

ABSTRACT

Recently, favipiravir, as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, has gain more attention because it might be a candidate to remedy the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To improve its poor permeability and tabletability, four multicomponent crystals of favipiravir (FPV) were prepared by a slow evaporation or liquid-assisted grinding method, including three cocrystals (FPV-theophylline, 1:1;FPV-saccharin, 1:1;FPV-5-fluorouracil, 1:1) and one salt (FPV-piperazine, 2:1). All of the crystal structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, FPV-theophylline has a crystal structure similar to that of FPV, leading to similar properties, such as solubility, permeability, and tabletability. Except for FPV-theophylline, all of the other multicomponent crystals exhibit an enhanced permeability and tabletability. Our studies provide a new insight in overcoming the shortcomings of the important antiviral drug FPV. ©

17.
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Medical Science) ; 41(4):421-426, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1256743

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in human and mouse testes based on single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq). Methods: Ten testicular tissues from humans and nine testicular tissues from C57BL/6 mice with normal developmental stages were collected and digested into single cell suspensions by enzyme, and then the cell-gene expression matrixes were obtained by scRNA-Seq standard processing procedures. After quality control, data standardization, batch effect processing, clustering, and dimensionality reduction, each subgroup of cells was annotated based on known testicular cell bio-markers to clarify the expression patterns and differences of ACE2 in human and mouse testes with normal developmental stages. Results: In this study, nine testicular cell subgroups found in human and mice were identified, including three subgroups of germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids/sperm) and six subgroups of somatic cells (Sertoli cells, macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular myoid cells). In terms of spatial distribution, ACE2 was predominantly expressed in human Sertoli cells in adult testes, and also expressed in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, and germ cells. In terms of time scale, the transcription abundance of ACE2 in human Sertoli cells increased with the development of testis, and the expression level of ACE2 in Sertoli cells after puberty was significantly higher than that in infancy and childhood (P=0.000). Judging from the stages of mouse testicular development, the expression patterns of Ace2 were both significantly different from those in humans. In testis of the 5-week-old adult C57BL/6 mouse, the transcription level of Ace2 was low and it was mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (P=0.000), while the number of Ace2 positive cell in Sertoli cells was extremely low. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 may mainly infects human testis through Sertoli cells, and the conventional C57BL/6 mouse model is not suitable to simulate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human testicular function.

18.
Remote Sensing Letters ; 11(12):1118-1126, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970116

ABSTRACT

The lockdowns imposed worldwide to curb the coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) spread has positive effects on the environment. However, it is unclear what fraction is caused by weather and what is related to lockdown. Here we used Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) height anomaly time series to quantify the spatio-temporal characteristics of lockdown-induced noise anomalies at 231 selected sites over mainland China. The results indicated that apparent declines (0.52 mm) in noise in 6 days (24–29 January 2020) after the lockdown in Wuhan resulted in drastically reduced human activities, which accounts for 71% of the total noise decrease. The lockdown effects persisted for 8 weeks and reached the maximum in the third week (6–12 February 2020) with reduced GNSS noise anomalies occurring at 81% of the GNSS sites. With the control of pandemic, increased noise anomalies occurred at more than 60% of the sites during the 9th week, which correlated well with the easing of lockdown in many cities in China. We concluded that this study provides new insights to quantifying the effects of human activities on geodetic measurements during the COVID-19 lockdown. © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

19.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637840

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest respiratory pandemic resulting from zoonotic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe symptoms include viral pneumonia secondary to infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, in some cases causing death. We developed primary human lung epithelial infection models to understand responses of proximal and distal lung epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of proximal airway epithelium and 3D organoid cultures of alveolar epithelium were readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 leading to an epithelial cell-autonomous proinflammatory response. We validated the efficacy of selected candidate COVID-19 drugs confirming that Remdesivir strongly suppressed viral infection/replication. We provide a relevant platform for studying COVID-19 pathobiology and for rapid drug screening against SARS-CoV-2 and future emergent respiratory pathogens. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: A novel infection model of the adult human lung epithelium serves as a platform for COVID-19 studies and drug discovery.

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