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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1167214, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320549

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are known to function as the most effective interventional therapeutics for controlling infectious diseases, including polio, smallpox, rabies, tuberculosis, influenza and SARS-CoV-2. Smallpox has been eliminated completely and polio is almost extinct because of vaccines. Rabies vaccines and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines could effectively protect humans against respective infections. However, both influenza vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines are unable to eliminate these two infectious diseases of their highly variable antigenic sites in viral proteins. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) could be negatively influenced (i.e., interfered with) by immune imprinting of previous infections or vaccinations, and repeated vaccinations could interfere with VE against infections due to mismatch between vaccine strains and endemic viral strains. Moreover, VE could also be interfered with when more than one kind of vaccine is administrated concomitantly (i.e., co-administrated), suggesting that the VE could be modulated by the vaccine-induced immunity. In this review, we revisit the evidence that support the interfered VE result from immune imprinting or repeated vaccinations in influenza and COVID-19 vaccine, and the interference in co-administration of these two types of vaccines is also discussed. Regarding the development of next-generation COVID-19 vaccines, the researchers should focus on the induction of cross-reactive T-cell responses and naive B-cell responses to overcome negative effects from the immune system itself. The strategy of co-administrating influenza and COVID-19 vaccine needs to be considered more carefully and more clinical data is needed to verify this strategy to be safe and immunogenic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Rabies Vaccines , Smallpox , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , BCG Vaccine
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2213332120, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304032

ABSTRACT

Among the current five Variants of Concern, infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant are often associated with the greatest severity. Despite recent advances on the molecular basis of elevated pathogenicity using recombinant proteins, the architecture of intact Delta virions remains veiled. Moreover, pieces of molecular evidence for the detailed mechanism of S-mediated membrane fusion are missing. Here, we showed the pleomorphic nature of Delta virions from electron beam inactivated samples and reported the in situ structure and distribution of S on the authentic Delta variant. We also captured the virus-virus fusion events, which provided pieces of structural evidence for Delta's attenuated dependency on cellular factors for fusion activation, and proposed a model of S-mediated membrane fusion. Besides, site-specific glycan analysis revealed increased oligomannose-type glycosylation of native Delta S than that of the WT S. Together, these results disclose distinctive factors of Delta being the most virulent SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Glycosylation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 169, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305969

ABSTRACT

Effective drugs with broad spectrum safety profile to all people are highly expected to combat COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that nelfinavir, an FDA approved drug for the treatment of HIV infection, is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Preincubation of nelfinavir could inhibit the activity of the main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 (IC50 = 8.26 µM), while its antiviral activity in Vero E6 cells against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 was determined to be 2.93 µM (EC50). In comparison with vehicle-treated animals, rhesus macaque prophylactically treated with nelfinavir had significantly lower temperature and significantly reduced virus loads in the nasal and anal swabs of the animals. At necropsy, nelfinavir-treated animals had a significant reduction of the viral replication in the lungs by nearly three orders of magnitude. A prospective clinic study with 37 enrolled treatment-naive patients at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, which were randomized (1:1) to nelfinavir and control groups, showed that the nelfinavir treatment could shorten the duration of viral shedding by 5.5 days (9.0 vs. 14.5 days, P = 0.055) and the duration of fever time by 3.8 days (2.8 vs. 6.6 days, P = 0.014) in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. The antiviral efficiency and clinical benefits in rhesus macaque model and in COVID-19 patients, together with its well-established good safety profile in almost all ages and during pregnancy, indicated that nelfinavir is a highly promising medication with the potential of preventative effect for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy , Animals , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , Macaca mulatta , Prospective Studies , China , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239713

ABSTRACT

The development of an efficient and safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is a crucial approach for managing the severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in light of current conditions. In this study, we produced a shortened segment of the optimized SARS-CoV-2 spike gene (2043 bp, termed S1) that was able to encode a truncated S1 protein. The protein was tested to determine if it could elicit efficient immunization in mice against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of the S1 protein was confirmed with immunofluorescence and Western blotting. An adenovirus vaccine bearing the S1 gene fragment (Ad-S1) was administered intramuscularly to mice four times over 4 weeks. SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein humoral immunity was demonstrated in all immunized mice. The serum from immunized mice demonstrated excellent anti-infection activity in vitro. A robust humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the mice after vaccination with Ad-S1, suggesting that the adenovirus vaccine may aid the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other genetically distinct viruses.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232515

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused extensive loss of life worldwide. Further, the COVID-19 and influenza mix-infection had caused great distress to the diagnosis of the disease. To control illness progression and limit viral spread within the population, a real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay for early diagnosis of COVID-19 was developed, but detection was time-consuming (4-6 h). To improve the diagnosis of COVID-19 and influenza, we herein developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method for simple and rapid amplification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 and Influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B (influenza B). Genes encoding the matrix protein (M) for H1N1, and the hemagglutinin (HA) for H3N2, and the polymerase A (PA) for Influenza B, and the nucleocapsid protein (N), the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRP) in the open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) region, and the envelope protein (E) for SARS-CoV-2 were selected, and specific primers were designed. We validated our method using SARS-CoV-2, H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B plasmid standards and RNA samples extracted from COVID-19 and Influenza A/B (RT-PCR-verified) positive patients. The method could detect SARS-CoV-2 plasmid standard DNA quantitatively between 102 and 105 copies/ml with a log linearity of 0.99 in 22 min. And this method also be very effective in simultaneous detection of H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B. Clinical validation of 100 cases revealed a sensitivity of 100% for differentiating COVID-19 patients from healthy controls when the specificity was set at 90%. These results demonstrate that this nucleic acid testing method is advantageous compared with traditional PCR and other isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods in terms of time and portability. This method could potentially be used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B, and adapted for point-of-care (POC) detection of a broad range of infectious pathogens in resource-limited settings.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 347-353, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113590

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the contagiousness and new SARS-CoV-2 mutations in pediatric COVID-19. METHODS: This cohort study enrolled all pediatric patients admitted to 8 hospitals in Zhejiang Province of China between 21 January and 29 February 2020, their family members and close-contact classmates. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the features of SARS-CoV-2. Individuals were divided into 3 groups by the first-generation case: Groups 1 (unclear), 2 (adult), and 3 (child). The secondary attack rate (SAR) and R0 were compared among the groups. RESULTS: The infection rate among 211 individuals was 64% (135/211). The SAR in Groups 2 and 3 was 71% (73/103) and 3% (1/30), respectively; the median R0 in Groups 2 and 3 was 2 (range: 1-8) and 0 (range: 0-1), respectively. Compared with adult cases, the SAR and R0 of pediatric cases were significantly lower (p<0.05). We obtained SARS-CoV-2 sequences from the same infant's throat and fecal samples at a two-month interval and found that the new spike protein A958D mutation detected in the stool improved thermostability theoretically. CONCLUSIONS: Children have lower ability to spread SARS-CoV-2. The new A958D mutation is a potential reason for its long residence in the intestine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Front Med ; 16(4): 507-517, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982324

ABSTRACT

Recently, monkeypox has become a global concern amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Monkeypox is an acute rash zoonosis caused by the monkeypox virus, which was previously concentrated in Africa. The re-emergence of this pathogen seems unusual on account of outbreaks in multiple nonendemic countries and the incline to spread from person to person. We need to revisit this virus to prevent the epidemic from getting worse. In this review, we comprehensively summarize studies on monkeypox, including its epidemiology, biological characteristics, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics, as well as therapeutics and vaccines, highlighting its unusual outbreak attributed to the transformation of transmission. We also analyze the present situation and put forward countermeasures from both clinical and scientific research to address it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(9): e2101898, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482095

ABSTRACT

Disinfection using effective antimicrobials is essential in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. This COVID-19 pandemic has brought the need for effective disinfectants to greater attention due to the fast transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Current active ingredients in disinfectants are small molecules that microorganisms can develop resistance against after repeated long-term use and may penetrate the skin, causing harmful side-effects. To this end, a series of membrane-disrupting polyionenes that contain quaternary ammoniums and varying hydrophobic components is synthesized. They are effective against bacteria and fungi. They are also fast acting against clinically isolated drug resistant strains of bacteria. Formulating them with thickeners and nonionic surfactants do not affect their killing efficiency. These polyionenes are also effective in preventing infections caused by nonenveloped and enveloped viruses. Their effectiveness against mouse coronavirus (i.e., mouse hepatitis virus-MHV) depends on their hydrophobicity. The polyionenes with optimal compositions inactivates MHV completely in 30 s. More importantly, the polyionenes are effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 by >99.999% within 30 s. While they are effective against the microorganisms, they do not cause damage to the skin and have a high oral lethal dose. Overall, these polyionenes are promising active ingredients for disinfection and prevention of viral and microbial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polymers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has caused a global pandemic that has severely damaged both public health and the economy. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is multifunctional and plays an important role in ribonucleocapsid formation and viral genome replication. In order to elucidate its functions, interaction partners of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human cells were identified via affinity purification and mass spectrometry. We identified 160 cellular proteins as interaction partners of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in HEK293T and/or Calu-3 cells. Functional analysis revealed strong enrichment for ribosome biogenesis and RNA-associated processes, including ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, ribosomal large and small subunits biogenesis, RNA binding, catalysis, translation and transcription. Proteins related to virus defence responses, including MOV10, EIF2AK2, TRIM25, G3BP1, ZC3HAV1 and ZCCHC3 were also identified in the N protein interactome. This study comprehensively profiled the viral-host interactome of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human cells, and the findings provide the basis for further studies on the pathogenesis and antiviral strategies for this emerging infection.

12.
Cell Res ; 31(1): 25-36, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387275

ABSTRACT

Structural principles underlying the composition and synergistic mechanisms of protective monoclonal antibody cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic antibody cocktail against SARS-CoV-2. On the basis of our previously identified humanized cross-neutralizing antibody H014, we systematically analyzed a fully human naive antibody library and rationally identified a potent neutralizing antibody partner, P17, which confers effective protection in animal model. Cryo-EM studies dissected the nature of the P17 epitope, which is SARS-CoV-2 specific and distinctly different from that of H014. High-resolution structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with H014 and P17, together with functional investigations revealed that in a two-antibody cocktail, synergistic neutralization was achieved by S1 shielding and conformational locking, thereby blocking receptor attachment and viral membrane fusion, conferring high potency as well as robustness against viral mutation escape. Furthermore, cluster analysis identified a hypothetical 3rd antibody partner for further reinforcing the cocktail as pan-SARS-CoVs therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacology , Vero Cells
13.
Biotechnol J ; 16(11): e2100207, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an urgent need for the development of therapeutic interventions. Of which, neutralizing antibodies play a crucial role in the prevention and resolution of viral infection. METHODS: We generated antibody libraries from 18 different COVID-19 recovered patients and screened neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants. After 3 rounds of panning, 456 positive phage clones were obtained with high affinity to RBD (receptor binding domain). Clones were then reconstituted into whole human IgG for epitope binning assay and all 19 IgG were classified into 6 different epitope groups or Bins. RESULTS: Although all antibodies were found to bind RBD, the antibodies in Bin2 had superior inhibitory ability of the interaction between spike protein and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2). Most importantly, the antibodies from Bin2 showed stronger binding affinity or ability to mutant RBDs (N501Y, W463R, R408I, N354D, V367F, and N354D/D364Y) derived from different SARS-CoV-2 strains as well, suggesting the great potential of these antibodies in preventing infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutations. Furthermore, such neutralizing antibodies strongly restricted the binding of RBD to hACE2 overexpressed 293T cells. Consistently, these antibodies effectively neutralized wildtype and more transmissible mutant pseudovirus entry into hACE2 overexpressed 293T cells. In Vero-E6 cells, one of these antibodies can even block the entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells at 12.5 nM. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the neutralizing human antibodies from the patient-derived antibody libraries have the potential to fight SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants in this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Serotherapy
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346403

ABSTRACT

There is a worldwide pandemic of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; yet our understanding remains limited on the characteristic of antibodies, especially for dynamic long-term tracking. Sequential serum samples were collected up to 416 days post onset of symptoms (POS) from 102 patients who were hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA levels targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD), spike 2 extracellular domain (S2-ECD), and nucleocapsid protein (N) were quantified as well as neutralizing activity. We were pleasantly surprised to find that the antibody remained detective and effective for more than a year POS. We also found the varied reactions of different antibodies as time passed: N-IgA rose most rapidly in the early stage of infection, while S2-IgG was present at a high level in the long time of observation. This study described the long traceable antibody response of the COVID-19 and offered hints about targets to screen for postinfectious immunity and for vaccination development of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 357, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The risk of transmitting coronavirus via transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are identified in COVID-19 cases, blood safety has become particularly important. Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. The present study aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation effects of MB in plasma. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain was isolated from Zhejiang University. The live virus was harvested from cultured VERO-E6 cells, and mixed with MB in plasma. The MB final concentrations were 0, 1, 2, and 4 µM. The "BX-1 AIDS treatment instrument" was used at room temperature, the illumination adjusted to 55,000 ± 0.5 million Lux, and the plasma was irradiated for 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mins using light at a single wavelength of 630 nm. Virus load changes were measured using quantitative reverse transcription- PCR. RESULTS: BX-1 could effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins in plasma, and the virus titer declined to 4.5 log10 TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose)/mL. CONCLUSION: BX-1 is based on MB photochemical technology, which was designed to inactivate HIV-1 virus in plasma. It was proven to be safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In this study, we showed that BX-1 could also be applied to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. During the current outbreak, this technique it has great potential for ensuring the safety of blood transfusions, for plasma transfusion therapy in recovering patients, and for preparing inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Transfusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma/virology , RNA, Viral , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Serotherapy
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 969-974, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298415

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza A(H5) viruses (avian IAVs) pose a major threat to the economy and public health. We developed an antigen-ELISA (ag-ELISA) and a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip for the rapid detection of avian A(H5) viruses. Both detection methods displayed no cross-reactivity with other viruses (e.g., other avian IAVs, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian paramyxovirus). The ag-ELISA was sensitive down to 0.5 hemagglutinin (HA) units/100 µL of avian A(H5) viruses and 7.5 ng/mL of purified H5 HA proteins. The immunochromatographic strip was sensitive down to 1 HA unit/100 µL of avian A(H5) viruses. Both detection methods exhibited good reproducibility with CVs < 10%. For 200 random poultry samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the ag-ELISA were 92.6% and 98.8%, respectively, and for test strips were 88.9% and 98.3%, respectively. Both detection methods displayed high specificity, sensitivity, and stability, making them suitable for rapid detection and field investigation of avian A(H5) viruses.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Gold Colloid , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 577-581, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271943

ABSTRACT

The H2 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses (avian IAVs) have been circulating in poultry, and they have the potential to infect humans. Therefore, establishing a method to quickly detect this subtype is pivotal. We developed a TaqMan minor groove binder real-time RT-PCR assay that involved probes and primers based on conserved sequences of the matrix and hemagglutinin genes. The detection limit of this assay was as low as one 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)/mL per reaction. This assay is specific, sensitive, and rapid for detecting avian IAV H2 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
J Proteome Res ; 20(7): 3463-3474, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253876

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a worldwide health crisis. So far, most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infectious disease. Little attention has been given to the disease sequelae in patients recovering from COVID-19, and nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. Herein, we profiled the serum proteome of a cohort of COVID-19 patients in the disease onset and recovery stages. Based on the close integration of our proteomic analysis with clinical data, we propose that COVID-19 is associated with prolonged disorders in cholesterol metabolism and myocardium, even in the recovery stage. We identify potential biomarkers for these disorders. Moreover, severely affected patients presented more serious disturbances in these pathways. Our findings potentially support clinical decision-making to improve the prognosis and treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Cholesterol , Humans , Myocardium , Pandemics , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cell Discov ; 6(1): 76, 2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904771

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally with more than 33 million patients diagnosed, taking more than a million lives. Abundant mutations were observed but the functional consequences of these mutations are largely unknown. We report the mutation spectrum, replication dynamics, and infectivity of 11 patient-derived viral isolates in diverse cell lines, including the human lung cancer cell line Calu-3. We observed 46 mutations, including 9 different mutations in the spike gene. Importantly, these viral isolates show significant and consistent variations in replication dynamics and infectivity in tested cell lines, up to a 1500-fold difference in viral titers at 24 h after infecting Calu-3 cells. Moreover, we show that the variations in viral titers among viral isolates are positively correlated with blood clotting function but inversely correlated with the amount of red blood cell and hemoglobin in patients. Therefore, we provide direct evidence that naturally occurring mutations in SARS-CoV-2 can substantially change its replication dynamics and infectivity in diverse human cell lines, with clinical implications in vivo.

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