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1.
J Bus Psychol ; 37(6): 1313-1327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748464

ABSTRACT

Businesses are gradually reopening as lockdown measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are being relieved in many places across the globe. It is challenging but imperative for businesses to manage the risk of infection in the workplace and reopen safely. Drawing on risky decision-making theory and the job demands-resource model of workplace safety, we examined the influences of employees' COVID-19 risk perception on their safety performance at work. On the one hand, COVID-19 risk perception motivates employees to perform safely; on the other hand, COVID-19 risk perception could also undermine safety performance through triggering anxiety. In an effort to find ways that alleviate the negative implications of risk perception, we also tested a cross-level interaction model where the risk perception-anxiety relation is weakened with a favorable team safety climate as well as low abusive supervision. Our data were collected from car dealership employees located in China in March 2020, when businesses just started to reopen in locations where these data were collected. Results showed that COVID-19 risk perception was positively related to anxiety, which in turn undermined safety performance. This negative effect canceled out the direct positive effects of COVID-19 risk perception on safety performance. In addition, cross-level interaction results showed that the buffering effect of team safety climate on the risk perception-anxiety relation was diminished with an abusive supervisor. Our findings provide valuable and timely implications on risk management and workplace safety during a public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
COVID ; 1(4):666-673, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1542439

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has high infectivity and some of its variants have higher transmissibility. To explore the high infectivity mechanism, the charge distributions of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and variants of concern were calculated through a series of net charge calculation formulas. The results showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had more positive charges than that of SARS-CoV. Further results showed that the variants had similar but higher positive charges than preexisting SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the Delta variant had the greatest increase in positive charges in S1 resulting in the highest infectivity. In particular, the S1 positive charge increased greatly in the Delta variant. The S1 positive charge increased, and due to the large negative charge of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), this resulted in a large increase in Coulomb’s force between S1 and ACE2. This finding agrees with the expectation that the positive charges in the spike protein result in more negative charges on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than that of SARS-CoV. Thus, the infectivity of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant may be evaluated preliminarily by calculating the charge distribution.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e23064, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990918

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most important global public health issue that we currently face. We aimed to explore the clinical features of patients with COVID-19 and compared them with those of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients caused by influenza virus during the same period.From Jan 1, to Mar 4, 2020, patients with COVID-19 or CAP caused by influenza virus who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University were consecutively screened for enrollment.A total of 35 COVID-19 patients and 22 CAP patients caused by influenza virus were included in this study. Most of COVID-19 patients had characteristics of familial clustering (63%), however, in the other group, there was no similar finding. The percentages of patients with a high fever (the highest recorded temperature was ≥39.0°C; 11% vs 45% [COVID-19 vs CAP groups, respectively]), dyspnea (9% vs 59%), leukocytosis (3% vs 32%), elevated C-reactive protein concentrations (>10 mg/L, 48% vs 86%), elevated procalcitonin levels (>0.1 ng/ml, 15% vs 73%), PaO2/FiO2 <200 mm Hg (4% vs 22%), and infiltration on imaging (29% vs 68%) in the COVID-19 group were less than those same indices in the hospitalized CAP patients caused by influenza virus. Ground-glass opacity with reticular pattern (63%) and interlobular septal thickening (71%) in chest CT were commonly observed in the COVID-19 group.COVID-19 and CAP caused by influenza virus appear to share some similarities in clinical manifestaions but they definitely have major distinctions. Influenza infection remains a health problem even during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2105-2113, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913100

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster for human society. A convenient and reliable neutralization assay is very important for the development of vaccines and novel drugs. In this study, a G protein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVdG) bearing a truncated spike protein (S with C-terminal 18 amino acid truncation) was compared to that bearing the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and showed much higher efficiency. A neutralization assay was established based on VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus and hACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells (BHK21-hACE2 cells). The experimental results can be obtained by automatically counting the number of EGFP-positive cells at 12 h after infection, making the assay convenient and high-throughput. The serum neutralizing titer measured by the VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus assay has a good correlation with that measured by the wild type SARS-CoV-2 assay. Seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were obtained. This efficient and reliable pseudovirus assay model could facilitate the development of new drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
5.
Eur Respir J ; 56(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a prerequisite for treatment and prevention. The serology characteristics and complement diagnosis value of the antibody test to RNA test need to be demonstrated. METHOD: Serial sera of 80 patients with PCR-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were collected at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Total antibody (Ab), IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected, and the antibody dynamics during the infection were described. RESULTS: The seroconversion rates for Ab, IgM and IgG were 98.8%, 93.8% and 93.8%, respectively. The first detectible serology marker was Ab, followed by IgM and IgG, with a median seroconversion time of 15, 18 and 20 days post exposure (d.p.e.) or 9, 10 and 12 days post onset (d.p.o.), respectively. The antibody levels increased rapidly beginning at 6 d.p.o. and were accompanied by a decline in viral load. For patients in the early stage of illness (0-7 d.p.o), Ab showed the highest sensitivity (64.1%) compared with IgM and IgG (33.3% for both; p<0.001). The sensitivities of Ab, IgM and IgG increased to 100%, 96.7% and 93.3%, respectively, 2 weeks later. When the same antibody type was detected, no significant difference was observed between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and other forms of immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: A typical acute antibody response is induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serology testing provides an important complement to RNA testing in the later stages of illness for pathogenic-specific diagnosis and helpful information to evaluate the adapted immunity status of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Viral Load
6.
Elife ; 92020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demands assimilation of all biomedical knowledge to decode mechanisms of pathogenesis. Despite the recent renaissance in neural networks, a platform for the real-time synthesis of the exponentially growing biomedical literature and deep omics insights is unavailable. Here, we present the nferX platform for dynamic inference from over 45 quadrillion possible conceptual associations from unstructured text, and triangulation with insights from single-cell RNA-sequencing, bulk RNA-seq and proteomics from diverse tissue types. A hypothesis-free profiling of ACE2 suggests tongue keratinocytes, olfactory epithelial cells, airway club cells and respiratory ciliated cells as potential reservoirs of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. We find the gut as the putative hotspot of COVID-19, where a maturation correlated transcriptional signature is shared in small intestine enterocytes among coronavirus receptors (ACE2, DPP4, ANPEP). A holistic data science platform triangulating insights from structured and unstructured data holds potential for accelerating the generation of impactful biological insights and hypotheses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Libraries, Medical , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Knowledge Discovery , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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