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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110955, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866959

ABSTRACT

Direct myocardial and vascular injuries due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-driven inflammation is the leading cause of acute cardiac injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in-depth knowledge of the injury characteristics of the heart affected by inflammation is lacking. In this study, using a quantitative spatial proteomics strategy that combines comparative anatomy, laser-capture microdissection, and histological examination, we establish a region-resolved proteome map of the myocardia and microvessels with obvious inflammatory cells from hearts of patients with COVID-19. A series of molecular dysfunctions of myocardia and microvessels is observed in different cardiac regions. The myocardia and microvessels of the left atrial are the most susceptible to virus infection and inflammatory storm, suggesting more attention should be paid to the lesion and treatment of these two parts. These results can guide in improving clinical treatments for cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333032

ABSTRACT

How SARS-CoV-2 causes disturbances of the lung microenvironment and systemic immune response remains a mystery. Here, we first analyze detailedly paired single-cell transcriptome data of the lungs, blood and bone marrow of two patients who died of COVID-19. Second, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increases the cellular communication frequency between AT1/AT2 cells and highly inflammatory myeloid cells, and induces the pulmonary inflammation microenvironment, and drives the disorder of fibroblasts, club and ciliated cells, thereby causing the increase of pulmonary fibrosis and mucus accumulation. Third, our works reveal that the increase of the lung T cell infiltration is mainly recruited by myeloid cells through certain ligands/receptors (ANXA1/FPR1, C5AR1/RPS19 and CCL5/CCR1), rather than AT1/AT2. Fourth, we find that some ligands and receptors such as ANXA1/FPR1, CD74/COPA, CXCLs/CXCRs, ALOX5/ALOX5AP, CCL5/CCR1, are significantly activated and shared among patients’ lungs, blood and bone marrow, implying that dysregulated ligands and receptors may cause the migration, redistribution and the inflammatory storm of immune cells in different tissues. Overall, our study reveals a latent mechanism by which the disorders of ligands and receptors caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection drive cell communication alteration, the pulmonary inflammatory microenvironment and systemic immune responses across tissues in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786477

ABSTRACT

How SARS-CoV-2 causes disturbances of the lung microenvironment and systemic immune response remains a mystery. Here, we first analyze detailedly paired single-cell transcriptome data of the lungs, blood and bone marrow of two patients who died of COVID-19. Second, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increases the cellular communication frequency between AT1/AT2 cells and highly inflammatory myeloid cells, and induces the pulmonary inflammation microenvironment, and drives the disorder of fibroblasts, club and ciliated cells, thereby causing the increase of pulmonary fibrosis and mucus accumulation. Third, our works reveal that the increase of the lung T cell infiltration is mainly recruited by myeloid cells through certain ligands/receptors (ANXA1/FPR1, C5AR1/RPS19 and CCL5/CCR1), rather than AT1/AT2. Fourth, we find that some ligands and receptors such as ANXA1/FPR1, CD74/COPA, CXCLs/CXCRs, ALOX5/ALOX5AP, CCL5/CCR1, are significantly activated and shared among patients’ lungs, blood and bone marrow, implying that dysregulated ligands and receptors may cause the migration, redistribution and the inflammatory storm of immune cells in different tissues. Overall, our study reveals a latent mechanism by which the disorders of ligands and receptors caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection drive cell communication alteration, the pulmonary inflammatory microenvironment and systemic immune responses across tissues in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296428

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathological features of severe cardiac injury induced by COVID-19 and relevant clinical features is unknown.<br><br>Methods: This autopsy cohort study, including hearts from 26 deceased patients hospitalized in intensive care unit due to COVID-19, was conducted at four sites in Wuhan, China. Cases were divided into neutrophil-infiltration group and no-neutrophil group according to histopathological identification of neutrophilic infiltrates or not.<br><br>Findings: Among 26 cases, four cases had active myocarditis with histopathological examination. All cases with myocarditis accompanied with extensive neutrophil infiltration, while cases without myocarditis did not. Detection rates of interleukin-6 (100% vs 4.6%) and tumor necrosis factor-α (100% vs 31.8%) in neutrophil-infiltration group were significantly higher compared to no-neutrophil group (p<0.05 for both). At admission, patients with neutrophil infiltration in myocardium had significantly higher baseline values of aspartate aminotransferase, D dimer and high-sensitivity C reactive protein compared to other 22 patients (p<0.05 for all). During hospitalization, patients with neutrophil infiltration had a significantly higher maximum of creatine kinase (CK)-MB (median 280.0 vs 38.7IU/L, p=0.04), and a quantitatively higher top Troponin I (median 1.112 vs 0.220ng/ml, p=0.56) than patients without neutrophil infiltration.<br><br>Interpretation: In hearts from deceased patients with severe COVID-19 , active myocarditis was commonly infiltrated with neutrophils. Cases with neutrophil-infiltrated myocarditis had a series of severe abnormal laboratory tests at admission, and a high maximum of CK-MB during hospitalization. Role of neutrophil on severe heart injury and even systemic condition in COVID-19 should be emphasized.<br><br>Funding Information: : Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory, Grant No. EKPG21-32. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: None exist.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: Full autopsy was performed after patient death with the approval of the ethics committees and written consent of patient relatives in accordance with regulations issued by the National Health Commission of China and the Helsinki Declaration.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296091

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is highly contagious and causes lymphocytopenia, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate here that heterotypic cell-in-cell structures with lymphocytes inside multinucleate syncytia are prevalent in the lung tissues of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. These unique cellular structures are a direct result of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is sufficient to induce a rapid (approximately 45.1 nm/sec) membrane fusion to produce syncytium, which could readily internalize multiple lines of lymphocytes to form typical cell-in-cell structures, remarkably leading to the death of internalized cells. This membrane fusion is dictated by a bi-arginine motif within the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site, which is frequently present in the surface glycoprotein of most highly contagious viruses. Moreover, candidate anti-viral drugs could efficiently inhibit spike glycoprotein processing, membrane fusion, and cell-in-cell formation. Together, we delineate a molecular and cellular rationale for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and identify novel targets for COVID-19 therapy.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293601

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is highly contagious and causes lymphocytopenia, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate here that heterotypic cell-in-cell structures with lymphocytes inside multinucleate syncytia are prevalent in the lung tissues of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. These unique cellular structures are a direct result of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is sufficient to induce a rapid (approximately 45.1 nm/sec) membrane fusion to produce syncytium, which could readily internalize multiple lines of lymphocytes to form typical cell-in-cell structures, remarkably leading to the death of internalized cells. This membrane fusion is dictated by a bi-arginine motif within the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site, which is frequently present in the surface glycoprotein of most highly contagious viruses. Moreover, candidate anti-viral drugs could efficiently inhibit spike glycoprotein processing, membrane fusion, and cell-in-cell formation. Together, we delineate a molecular and cellular rationale for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and identify novel targets for COVID-19 therapy.

10.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
11.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(9): 2765-2777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195611

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is highly contagious and causes lymphocytopenia, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate here that heterotypic cell-in-cell structures with lymphocytes inside multinucleate syncytia are prevalent in the lung tissues of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. These unique cellular structures are a direct result of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is sufficient to induce a rapid (~45.1 nm/s) membrane fusion to produce syncytium, which could readily internalize multiple lines of lymphocytes to form typical cell-in-cell structures, remarkably leading to the death of internalized cells. This membrane fusion is dictated by a bi-arginine motif within the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site, which is frequently present in the surface glycoprotein of most highly contagious viruses. Moreover, candidate anti-viral drugs could efficiently inhibit spike glycoprotein processing, membrane fusion, and cell-in-cell formation. Together, we delineate a molecular and cellular rationale for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and identify novel targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Giant Cells/virology , Lymphocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Giant Cells/pathology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Jurkat Cells , K562 Cells , Lymphocytes/pathology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/genetics
12.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(12): 1868-1878, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087785

ABSTRACT

Systematic autopsy and comprehensive pathological analyses of COVID-19 decedents should provide insights into the disease characteristics and facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we report the autopsy findings from the lungs and lymphatic organs of 12 COVID-19 decedents-findings that evaluated histopathological changes, immune cell signature and inflammatory factor expression in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Here we show that the major pulmonary alterations included diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial fibrosis and exudative inflammation featured with extensive serous and fibrin exudates, macrophage infiltration and abundant production of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IP-10, TNFα and IL-1ß). The spleen and hilar lymph nodes contained lesions with tissue structure disruption and immune cell dysregulation, including lymphopenia and macrophage accumulation. These findings provide pathological evidence that links injuries of the lungs and lymphatic organs with the fatal systematic respiratory and immune malfunction in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927674, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and laboratory indices of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and explore their association with the severity of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 61 patients with COVID-19 were divided into groups with common symptoms and with severe diseases, and clinical data were collected to analyze and compare the differences between them. RESULTS In patients with severe COVID-19, compared with the common group, lymphocyte count and albumin levels were lower, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea, blood creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and prothrombin time (PT) were elevated (all P<0.05). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio (MPVLR), and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) were significantly elevated in the severe group compared with the group with common symptoms; however, the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression showed that lower lymphocyte count, prolonged PT, elevated CRP and LDH levels, and elevated NLR, PLR, MPVLR, and CAR were risk factors for COVID-19 severity (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that elevated CRP levels (odds ratio [OR], 0.028; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.002-0.526; P=0.017), prolonged PT (OR, 0.014; 95% CI: 0.001-0.341; P=0.09), and an MPVLR >8.9 (OR, 0.026; 95% CI: 0.002-0.349; P=0.006) were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS Elevated CRP and prolonged PT, and an MPVLR >8.9 were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Platelets , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Creatinine/analysis , Female , Humans , Inpatients , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/chemistry , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Neutrophils/chemistry , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
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