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1.
ANAESTHESIA PAIN & INTENSIVE CARE ; 26(3):423-424, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939745
2.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(1):91-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841856

ABSTRACT

Objective: To share the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory -based evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 with focus on the cases of re-infection;an update after one year of the ongoing pandemic. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, in collaboration with Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Mar 2020 to Feb 2021. Methodology: Total 5190 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and transported to the laboratory in viral transport media for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2, from all symptomatic patients with a history of exposure/traveling from endemic areas and those requiring admission in hospital and were screened for COVID-19 as per hospital standing protocols. Results: 561(10.8%) patients were PCR positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2. The mean age of patients was 39.45±31.9 years and a majority of patients were males 426 (76%). The most common symptoms were fever and dry cough followed by myalgia and shortness of breath. 37 (9%) patients died due to the severity of the illness. Total 6 (1.46%) cases of laboratory-confirmed reinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 were reported. 2(33%) cases of reinfection were observed in health care workers, mortality was seen in a single patient associated with old age and comorbidities. Conclusion: In our study, the severity of the disease was directly related to the age of patients and underlying comorbidities. Reinfection was associated with increased viral load and exposure to the infected environment. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

3.
Review of Behavioral Finance ; : 20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799380

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to investigate herding spillover in BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries and Turkey under different regimes by using a time-varying approach. Design/methodology/approach The authors used the structural change model of Bai and Perron (1998). Findings The results indicate that there is an evidence of herding behaviour in the Chinese stock market in two different regimes. These regimes cover the recent global financial crisis and the period of Hong Kong protests. We also report the evidence of herding behaviour in the Turkish stock market in the regime covering the COVID-19 period. Findings of herding spillover show that there is a two-way herding among Russia and China during crises and high volatile regimes. Similarly, there exists a cross-country herding among Brazil and India during crisis regimes. Also, there is herding spillover from Turkey to Russia, China and Brazil during the global financial crisis, post-European debt crisis and COVID-19 periods respectively. Furthermore, it is also evident that there is a herding spillover from Russia and China to India during the period covering COVID-19. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that uses structural change approach to identify herding behaviour spillovers from the US stock market to BRIC countries and Turkey and to investigate the cross-country herding behaviour among BRIC countries and Turkey.

4.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases ; 28(SUPPL 1):S12-S13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effectiveness of currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in a nationwide cohort of patients with IBD in Qatar. METHODS: Using a cohort design, we compared 476 IBD patients vaccinated identified between January 1, 2021, and March 31, 2021, with 476 matched unvaccinated controls (matched on age and date of SARS-CoV-2 testing). Study outcomes included documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and COVID-19 related hospitalization. We also studied the side effects of the vaccination, including the effect on IBD exacerbation and hospitalizations related to adverse events. RESULTS: Total follow-up was 23,289 person-days for the vaccinated and 23,653 person-days for the unvaccinated group. Vaccine effectiveness >14 days [AAB1] after the second dose was 85.1% (95% CI: 65.2, 93.6) for confirmed infection, and 87.1% (95% CI: 63.6, 95.4)[AAB2] for symptomatic infection. No patient required hospitalization >14 days after the second vaccine dose. Estimated vaccine effectiveness between 22 to 35 days after the first dose was 14.8% (95% CI: -151.5, 71.2) [AAB3] for any documented infection, and 59.8% (95% CI: -106.1, 92.2) for symptomatic COVID-19 disease. For patients taking biologics with or without immunomodulators, vaccine effectiveness >14 days after the second dose was 94% (95% CI: 53.1, 99.2), and 92.7% (95% CI: 45.1, 99.0) for any documented infection and symptomatic COVID-19 respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was 87.4% (95% CI: 46.0, 97.1) for any documented infection and 91.7% (95% CI: 37.2, 98.9) for symptomatic COVID-19 during the same period for patients taking immunomodulators alone. None of the vaccinated patients required intensive care unit admission or died. No patient had IBD exacerbation or required hospitalization for vaccinationrelated adverse events. CONCLUSION: In a nationwide cohort of IBD patients, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was safe and highly effective.

5.
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Science ; 15(4):684-710, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695264

ABSTRACT

The current study aims to investigate the influence of budget-hotels' environmental orientation (EO) on their eco-innovation (EI) and environmental performance (EP). Besides empirically testing the said direct relationship, mediating role of EI in the relationship between EO and EP has also been investigated. Moderating effect of competitive intensity (CI) of the firm has also been examined on the link between EI and EP. The requisite data for this study was collected from 422 individuals, working on various managerial positions in the budget-hotels in Pakistan. Correlation, path analysis, structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression were used for the purpose of data analysis. Data analysis using SPSS and AMOS reveals a direct effect of EO on EI and EP. Moreover, the results substantiated that EI mediates between EO and EP. Moderating effect of CI on the link between EI and EP has also been confirmed. The study advocates new mechanisms which would be helpful in protecting natural environment. In the context of budget hotel segment of hospitality industry of Pakistan, the present study makes significant contribution to the literature through knowledge addition regarding the positive association of EO and EI © 2021,Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences.All Rights Reserved

6.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(3):857-860, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of age on outcome of COVID-19 patients at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Malir, Karachi, from Apr to Jun 2020. Methodology: This was a retrospective cross sectional study conducted at Combined Military Hospital Malir Karachi. About 120 positive cases of SARS COV-2 were studied, including males and females. Age range was 21-85 years. Patients were divided into groups according to age, group A (21-40 years), group B (41-55 years), group C (56-85 years). Presenting complaints and associated co morbidities were also analyzed. Mild cases were managed conservatively. Moderate to severe oxygen dependent cases were managed in intensive care units. Results: The mean age of patients was 40.24 years with 16.25 ± SD. Co-morbidities were noted in 67 (55.83%) patients, highest in group C, hypertension being the most common. Ten patients could not survive, due respiratory failure complicated by adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bilateral infiltrates >50% observed in (14%) out of (n=120) patients. One hundred and ten patients were discharged with uneventful recovery. Conclusion: Mortality was highest among elderly patients with comorbidities. Therefore, international standing operative measures (SOPs) to be followed. Meticulous monitoring of vital signs and oxygen saturation in mild cases is the bare mini-mum requirement and timely appropriate treatment escalation of moderate to severe cases in intensive care units is the key to success. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

7.
Anaesthesia Pain & Intensive Care ; 25(2):185-188, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1232748

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective: The massive burden of COVID-19 disease is believed to be associated with significant psychological disturbances on healthcare professionals. Increasing levels of stress may lead to anxiety, depression, burnout syndrome, and in severe cases, post-traumatic stress disorder. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of stress among resident trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia in the context of the corona pandemic. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We included the resident trainee doctors from different specialties of our hospital including medical, surgical, anesthesia, emergency room (ER), and critical care units. We used convenience sampling to select study respondents. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used for assessing the stress levels among trainees. Trainees were requested to fill the questionnaire either online survey monkey or in paper form. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 26. We calculated mean, standard deviation, frequency count, and percentages for the perceived stress. Results: A total of 60 trainees were included in this study. Mean PSS-10 score was 20 +/- 5.51, with a range between 6 and 34. Four (6.7 %) trainees had low stress and 50 (83.3 %) trainees had moderate stress while 6 (10 %) trainees had high stress Conclusion: The majority of resident trainees in our study experienced a moderate level of anxiety during this COVID pandemic.

8.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care ; 25(2):185-188, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1227294

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective: The massive burden of COVID-19 disease is believed to be associated with significant psychological disturbances on healthcare professionals. Increasing levels of stress may lead to anxiety, depression, burnout syndrome, and in severe cases, post-Traumatic stress disorder. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of stress among resident trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia in the context of the corona pandemic. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We included the resident trainee doctors from different specialties of our hospital including medical, surgical, anesthesia, emergency room (ER), and critical care units. We used convenience sampling to select study respondents. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used for assessing the stress levels among trainees. Trainees were requested to fill the questionnaire either online survey monkey or in paper form. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 26. We calculated mean, standard deviation, frequency count, and percentages for the perceived stress. Results: A total of 60 trainees were included in this study. Mean PSS-10 score was 20 5.51, with a range between 6 and 34. Four (6.7 %) trainees had low stress and 50 (83.3 %) trainees had moderate stress while 6 (10 %) trainees had high stress Conclusion: The majority of resident trainees in our study experienced a moderate level of anxiety during this COVID pandemic.

9.
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge ; 19(4):S81-S88, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1107242

ABSTRACT

The whole world is facing a big challenge to fight against COVID-19 as it is a novel disease, highly infectious and having no treatment yet. Traditional Unani medicine is reviewed with an aim to find some solution for this disease prevention, control and management. Unani medical literature is extensively reviewed and it is found that there are some presentations similar to this disease and management of those clinical syndromes could be applied in present scenario. Major symptoms like fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath and rhinorrhoea are reviewed from Unani medical text having similar aetiology and interlinked pathology. It is demonstrated that in cold & humid atmospheric conditions in persons having Fuzlat (waste) in their body, Nazla (fall) of Balghami Rutubaat (phlegmatic fluids) from head comes towards lungs, infected there resulting in Zatur Riya (pneumonia/pneumonitis) and Humma Mawazba (fever caused by abnormal humour Balgham) and /or Humma Mutbiqa (fever caused by abnormal humour Dam). The bad atmospheric condition favours spread of this infection to other people who come in contact with such patient. The detailed description of these Unani concepts & interpretation is given below.

10.
Environ Res ; 195: 110748, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033702

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to serve as an early warning system for a community. Despite successful detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewaters sampled from multiple locations, there is still no clear idea on the minimal number of cases in a community that are associated with a positive detection of the virus in wastewater. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled wastewaters from a septic tank (n = 57) and biological activated sludge tank (n = 52) located on-site of a hospital. The hospital is providing treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, with the number of hospitalized patients per day known. It was observed that depending on which nucleocapsid gene is targeted by means of RT-qPCR, a range of 253-409 positive cases out of 10,000 persons are required prior to detecting RNA SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. There was a weak correlation between N1 and N2 gene abundances in wastewater with the number of hospitalized cases. This correlation was however not observed for N3 gene. The frequency of detecting N1 and N2 gene in wastewater was also higher than that for N3 gene. Furthermore, nucleocapsid genes of SARS-CoV-2 were detected at lower frequency in the partially treated wastewater than in the septic tank. In particular, N1 gene abundance was associated with water quality parameters such as total organic carbon and pH. In instances of positive detection, the average abundance of N1 and N3 genes in the activated sludge tank were reduced by 50 and 70% of the levels detected in septic tank, suggesting degradation of the SARS-CoV-2 gene fragments already occurring in the early stages of the wastewater treatment process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Waste Water
11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20177667

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest to use wastewater-based surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 as an early warning of the outbreak within a community. Despite successful detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewaters sampled from multiple locations, there is still no clear idea on the minimal number of cases needed in a community to result in a positive detection of the virus in wastewaters. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled wastewaters from a septic tank and biological activated sludge tank located on-site of a hospital. The hospital is providing treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, with the number of hospitalized patients per day known. It was observed that > 253 positive cases out of 10,000 persons are required prior to detecting SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. There was a weak correlation between N1 and N2 gene abundances in wastewater with the number of hospitalized cases. This correlation was however not observed for N3 gene. The occurrence frequency of SARS-CoV-2 is at least 5 times lower in the partially treated wastewater than in the septic tank. Furthermore, abundance of N1 and N3 genes in the activated sludge tank were 50 and 70% of the levels detected in septic tank, suggesting poor persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 gene fragments in wastewater. O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=200 HEIGHT=115 SRC="FIGDIR/small/20177667v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (28K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@3c868eorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1a5ec59org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@3fcafborg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@273440_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

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