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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 843449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903204

ABSTRACT

Background: The Algerian COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which started at the end of January 2021, is marked by a slowly ascending curve despite the deployed resources. To tackle the issue, we assessed the levels and explored determinants of engagement toward the COVID-19 vaccine among the Algerian population. Methods: A nationwide, online-based cross-sectional study was conducted between March 27 and April 30, 2021. A two-stage stratified snowball sampling method was used to include an equivalent number of participants from the four cardinal regions of the country. A vaccine engagement scale was developed, defining vaccine engagement as a multidimensional parameter (5 items) that combined self-stated acceptance and willingness with perceived safety and efficacy of the vaccine. An Engagement score was calculated and the median was used to define engagement vs. non-engagement. Sociodemographic and clinical data, perceptions about COVID-19, and levels of adherence to preventive measures were analyzed as predictors for non-engagement. Results: We included 1,019 participants, 54% were female and 64% were aged 18-29 years. Overall, there were low rates of self-declared acceptance (26%) and willingness (21%) to take the vaccine, as well as low levels of agreement regarding vaccine safety (21%) and efficacy (30%). Thus, the vaccine engagement rate was estimated at 33.5%, and ranged between 29.6-38.5% depending on the region (p > 0.05). Non-engagement was independently associated with female gender (OR = 2.31, p < 0.001), low adherence level to preventive measures (OR = 6.93, p < 0.001), private-sector jobs (OR = 0.53, p = 0.038), perceived COVID-19 severity (OR = 0.66, p = 0.014), and fear from contracting the disease (OR = 0.56, p = 0.018). Concern about vaccine side effects (72.0%) and exigence for more efficacy and safety studies (48.3%) were the most commonly reported barrier and enabler for vaccine acceptance respectively; whereas beliefs in the conspiracy theory were reported by 23.4%. Conclusions: The very low rates of vaccine engagement among the Algerian population probably explain the slow ascension of the vaccination curve in the country. Vaccine awareness campaigns should be implemented to address the multiple misconceptions and enhance the levels of knowledge and perception both about the disease and the vaccine, by prioritizing target populations and engaging both healthcare workers and the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Algeria/epidemiology , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103599, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797204

ABSTRACT

Background: Third wave of COVID-19 has affected several countries. Case fatality rates from first and second waves are expected to be surpassed by the current wave due to various variant transmissions. This study was aimed to compare and contrast the significant clinical markers between survivors and non-survivors during the third wave of COVID-19 to assess severity and prognosis. Methods: It includes all the patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the third wave, and were monitored for their disease course and outcomes. A total of 209 patients were included in the analysis via non-probability consecutive sampling method. Results: The median age was higher in non-surviving patients (p = 0.010). Majority of deaths occurred in intensive care patients (p < 0.001) and those with diabetes (p = 0.032) and hypertension (p = 0.003). Fever was the most predominant symptom in all patients (78.9%), dyspnea was common among expired individuals (p = 0.043) while recovered patients were more likely to be asymptomatic (p = 0.044). Gastrointestinal symptoms were not found marked during this wave. Being on ventilator has higher mortality (p < 0.001). Predominant radiological findings were interstitial patches or infiltrate (43.7%). Multivariable analysis showed hypertension (p = 0.042), BiPAP/CPAP (p < 0.001), being on ventilator (p = 0.004), and ARDS (p < 0.001) was associated with poor survival while patchy interstitial infiltrates on X-ray had good survival probability (p = 0.032). On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, hypertension (p = 0.003), BiPAP/CPAP (p = 0.008), ventilator (p = 0.025), ICU stay (p = 0.001), high-grade fever (p = 0.001), and ARDS (p < 0.001) had reduced cumulative survival. Conclusion: Certain biochemical markers were more predictive of disease severity in the third-wave than the preceding waves.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 845415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792873

ABSTRACT

The urgency for telemedicine is felt during the COVID-19 pandemic which has rendered the world shut by enforcing quarantines and lockdowns. Many developing countries including Pakistan have inadequate telehealth care services that limited access to rural and remote areas. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among medical students i.e., both preclinical and clinical enrolled in various medical colleges from all provinces of Pakistan to determine their Knowledge, Attitude and Perception regarding the use of Telemedicine during the COVID-19 Pandemic. A total of 398 respondents were included in this preliminary survey. Knowledgeable scores were calculated, from a maximum obtainable score of 7. The mean knowledge was found to be significantly associated with age, province, and year of study (p-value < 0.05). Attitude scores were calculated from a maximum obtainable score of 10. All the independent variables failed to reach a significant (p < 0.05) association with the mean attitude of respondents about telemedicine. Perception scores were calculated from a maximum obtainable score of 8. Residents of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are more likely to know about telemedicine than Balochistan (p = 0.022) on univariate regression. We identified, lack of knowledge and training for telemedicine in medical institutes. It is crucial to assess the knowledge of medical students regarding telemedicine to comprehend, and evaluate their attitude as future doctors who can play a significant role in establishing telemedicine services in the health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Telemedicine , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pakistan , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 830935, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775776

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to draw the attention toward the implications of COVID-19 and the related restrictions imposed worldwide especially in Pakistan. The primary objective was to highlight the levels of psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and well-being due to COVID-19 and the secondary objective was to associate it to social demographic factors. Materials and Methods: It is designed as a cross-sectional study by employing an online questionnaire in the English language and obtaining responses using a snowball sampling technique. We used three validated measures including Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) index and World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Results: A sample of 420 participants was recruited from across Pakistan, with most participants were females (79%), students (89.8%) and belonging to Punjab (54%). Nearly one-fourth of the participants (23.8%) scored above the minimum value set for moderate or high psychological distress (K10 > 12). There was a higher prevalence of distress among females and resident of province Punjab. The majority of individuals reported that they were living with their family (94.5%) and more than half (52.6%) were neutral regarding their satisfaction with their living conditions. 40.5% believed that the lockdown has had a negative impact on their mental health. 31.4% have reported that they themselves have experienced abuse from a family member. 48.6% scored high on the GAD-7 scale and low wellbeing score was found among 80.2%. Students were found to be more vulnerable to mental illness and anxiety. Conclusion: With the lockdown restrictions, psychosocial distress has become prevalent in Pakistan.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colchicine has been used an effective anti-inflammatory drug to treat gout diseases. Owing to its pharmacodynamic of inhibiting interleukins, it has been repurposed to target the cytokine storm post-SARS-CoV-2 invasion. The goal of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients using the gold-standard randomised-control trials. METHODS: Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) were systematically searched until June 2021 and RCTs were extracted. Outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality, COVID-19 severity, mechanical ventilation, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels. Using a random-effects model, dichotomous outcomes were pooled using odds ratios (OR) through the generic inverse variance formula while weighted mean differences were calculated using the Wan's method. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant for all outcomes. RESULTS: A total population of 16,048 from five RCTs were included in the analysis. Of this, 7957 were randomized to colchicine, and 8091 received standard care, with an average age of 60.67 years. Colchicine was observed to significantly reduce COVID-19 severity (OR: 0.41, 95% CI [0.22, 0.76]; p = 0.005), and CRP levels (WMD: -19.99, 95% CI [-32.09, -7.89]; p = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in D-dimer levels (WMD: 0.31, 95% CI [-0.61, 1.23]; p = 0.51), mechanical ventilation (OR: 0.42, 95% CI [0.17, 1.03]; p = 0.06; I2 = 74%) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.98, 95% CI [0.83, 1.16]; p = 0.84) among patients receiving colchicine or standard care. CONCLUSION: Colchicine treatment decreased CRP levels and COVID-19 severity, with dimer levels, all-cause mortality and mechanical ventilation remaining seemingly unaffected. Thus, clinical trials need to be carried out that allow effective evaluation of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 803937, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771117

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: During the pandemic, the growing influence of social media, accessibility of over-the-counter medications, and fear of contracting the virus may have led to self-medication practices among the general public. Medical students are prone to such practices due to relevant background knowledge, and access to drugs. This study was carried out to determine and analyze the prevalence of self-medication practices among medical students in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted online in which the participants were asked about the general demographics, their self-medication practices and the reasons to use. All participants were currently enrolled in a medical college pursuing medical or pharmacy degree. Non-probability sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Results: A total of 489 respondents were included in the final analysis. The response rate was 61%. Majority of the respondents were females and 18-20 years of age. Self-medication was quite prevalent in our study population with 406 out of 489 individuals (83.0%) were using any of the drugs since the start of pandemic. The most commonly utilized medications were Paracetamol (65.2%) and multivitamins (56.0%). The reasons reported for usage of these medications included cold/flu, or preventive measures for COVID-19. The common symptoms reported for self-medication included fever (67.9%), muscle pain (54.0%), fatigue (51.7%), sore throat (46.6%), and cough (44.4%). Paracetamol was the most commonly used drug for all symptoms. Female gender, being in 3rd year of medical studies, and individuals with good self-reported health were found more frequent users of self-medication practices. Conclusion: Our study revealed common self-medication practices among medical and pharmacy students. It is a significant health issue especially during the pandemic times, with high consumption reported as a prevention or treating symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Self Medication
7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 76: 103527, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763549

ABSTRACT

Background: & Objectives: We conducted this single-centered retrospective study including female patients infected with COVID-19 with aim to compare laboratory findings and the outcomes between pregnant and non-pregnant women infected with COVID-19. Previous data rendered pregnant women as vulnerable population for COVID-19. Methods: We included 131 patients in our analysis out of which 60 were pregnant females and rest 71 were non-pregnant females. Results: Factors like fatigue, total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophils were higher in pregnant patients, while mean age, fever, hemoglobin, ferritin, D-dimer and use of mechanical ventilation was lower in pregnant patients as compared to non-pregnant females. Conclusion: Our study concluded that COVID-19 do not show significant high risk of disease severity when compared with non-pregnant females of similar age group.

8.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22883, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761169

ABSTRACT

Intracardiac thrombus is often seen as a complication of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and non-ischemia cardiomyopathies (NICM). The advancements in imaging modalities and therapeutic options have helped reduce the complications arising from ventricular thrombi, such as systemic embolization. Here we present two cases of intracardiac thrombus associated with coronavirus disease (COVID) 19, one with an apical thrombus in the left ventricle and the other with a thrombus in the right ventricle adjacent to chordae tendinae. The effects of covid-19 on the cardiovascular system are yet to be thoroughly evaluated. Venous and arterial thrombosis is commonly associated with COVID-19 but in situ detection of intracardiac thrombus has not been very frequently reported. Intracardiac thrombus and embolization pose a very high risk of complications in COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 during 2019-2021 has caused several deaths and has resulted in many long-term consequences, many of which remain unclear. In-hospital complications from COVID-19 are better reported due to constant monitoring. The ongoing, late, and chronic complications arising from COVID-19 require more vigilant case-by-case screening and surveillance.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718375

ABSTRACT

Norovirus, an enteric virus primarily responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, is currently causing outbreaks around the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic. With an already exhausted health care system, the significant burden norovirus can have on the National Health Service, including economic and social burdens, is immense and cannot be tolerated. Primary challenges and priorities to be focused on due to the increase in norovirus outbreaks include a further depletion of health care services, increase cases in schools, nurseries, and care facilities, underreporting of the cases, and no effective vaccine being available. Therefore, it is essential to increase awareness about norovirus and its transmission in public, take necessary precautions, and increase reporting of cases. This article discusses the impact norovirus has during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the challenges, and recommendations to achieve control before it reaches epidemic levels.

11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 74: 103284, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654017

ABSTRACT

In the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cancer patients are considered a particularly susceptible population. We compared the type and magnitude of COVID-19 clinical manifestations among cancer patients in our center to non-cancer COVID-19 affected patients including 99 patients (28 cancer patients and 71 non-cancer patients). Hepatocellular carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and leukemia were the most common cancers. Diabetes and hypertension were prevalent comorbidities. Dyspnea, cough, fatigue, myalgia and diarrhea were statistically indifferent in both groups. Fatigue was more pronounced in cancer patients [OR: 2.573(1.025-6.460), p = 0.041] along with early onset of bilateral patchy consolidation [HR: 3.127(1.197-5.851), p = 0.032].

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 770985, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566667

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy in the US throughout the pandemic has revealed inconsistent results. This systematic review has compared COVID-19 vaccine uptake across US and investigated predictors of vaccine hesitancy and acceptance across different groups. A search of PUBMED database was conducted till 17th July, 2021. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were screened and 65 studies were selected for a quantitative analysis. The overall vaccine acceptance rate ranged from 12 to 91.4%, the willingness of studies using the 10-point scale ranged from 3.58 to 5.12. Increased unwillingness toward COVID-19 vaccine and Black/African Americans were found to be correlated. Sex, race, age, education level, and income status were identified as determining factors of having a low or high COVID-19 vaccine uptake. A change in vaccine acceptance in the US population was observed in two studies, an increase of 10.8 and 7.4%, respectively, between 2020 and 2021. Our results confirm that hesitancy exists in the US population, highest in Black/African Americans, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and low in the male sex. It is imperative for regulatory bodies to acknowledge these statistics and consequently, exert efforts to mitigate the burden of unvaccinated individuals and revise vaccine delivery plans, according to different vulnerable subgroups, across the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
14.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 73(5): 460-466, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513377

ABSTRACT

Inevitably, along with other healthcare specializations, pediatric surgery was affected by the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children were reported to manifest mild to moderate symptoms and mortality was primarily observed in patients aged <1 year and having underlying comorbidities. Most of the cases were asymptomatic in children, hence, posing a challenge for pediatric surgery centers to take drastic measures to reduce the virus transmission. Telemedicine was introduced and out-patient consultations were conducted online as out-patient clinics were closed. Elective surgeries were postponed with delayed appointments while the healthcare sector was diverted towards tackling COVID-19. Case urgency was classified and triaged, leading to limited surgeries being performed only in COVID-19 negative patients following an extensive screening process. The screening process consisted of online history taking and RT-PCR tests. Newer practices such as mouth rinse, video laryngoscopy, and anesthesia were introduced to restrict patients from crying, coughing, and sneezing, as an attempt to avoid aerosolization of viral particles and safely conduct pediatric surgeries during the pandemic. Surgical trainees were also affected as the smaller number of surgeries conducted reduced the clinical experience available to medical enthusiasts. There is still room for advanced practices to be introduced in pediatric surgery and restore all kinds of surgeries to improve the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Elective Surgical Procedures , General Surgery/education , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Patient Selection , Pediatrics/education , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 150-155, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512900

ABSTRACT

The risk of acute respiratory tract infections is particularly pronounced in patients deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). With respect to COVID-19, there are conflicting evidence on the association of 25(OH)D levels with disease severity. We undertook this study to evaluate the 25(OH)D status in COVID-19 patients admitted in Karachi, Pakistan, and associated vitamin D deficiency with primary outcomes of mortality, length of stay, intubation, and frequency of COVID-19 symptoms. A total of 91 patients were evaluated for 25(OH)D status during their COVID-19 disease course. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were classified as deficient (< 10 ng/mL), insufficient (10-30 ng/mL), or sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). The study population comprised 68.1% males (N = 62). The mean age was 52.6 ± 15.7 years. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with intensive care unit (ICU) admission (RR: 3.20; P = 0.048), invasive ventilation (RR: 2.78; P = 0.043), persistent pulmonary infiltrates (RR: 7.58; P < 0.001), and death (RR: 2.98; P < 0.001) on univariate Cox regression. On multivariate Cox regression, only death (RR: 2.13; P = 0.046) and persistent pulmonary infiltrates (RR: 6.78; P = 0.009) remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors. On Kaplan Meier curves, vitamin D deficient patients had persistent pulmonary infiltrates and a greater probability of requiring mechanical ventilation than patients with 25(OH)D ≥ 10 ng/mL. Mechanical ventilation had to be initiated early in the deficient group during the 30-day hospital stay (Chi-square: 4.565, P = 0.033). Patients with 25(OH)D ≥ 10 ng/mL also demonstrated a higher probability of survival than those with 25(OH)D concentrations < 10 ng/mL. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient population had longer hospital stays and worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 74: 102974, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507075

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a severe pneumonia-like illness emerged in the city of Wuhan, China which inevitably led to the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Due to the increase in infectivity and mortality caused by the virus, multiple therapeutic regimens are being suggested in order to help tackle this problem. The infectivity of SARS-CoV2 virus is due to its ability to attach itself to the ACE II receptors on the host cells via its viral spike protein (S protein) and inducing its entry into the target cell. The effects of the drug, Fenofibrate on the ACE II receptors and also, how the pharmaceutical properties of this drug can help prevent viral entry and eventually, reduce severity in COVID-19 patients. Since this drug has a good profile and is relatively safe to use, the risk-to-benefit analysis is positive and can be beneficial for patients infected with severe SARS-CoV2 infection.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266058

ABSTRACT

Diverse migrant populations in Europe are at risk of under-immunisation and have recently shown lower levels of COVID-19 vaccination intent and uptake. Understanding the determinants of vaccine uptake in migrants is critical to address immediate COVID-19 vaccination inequities, and longer-term will help improve coverage for routine vaccinations, aligning with the goals of the new Immunisation Agenda 2030. We did a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines and using a PICOS framework (PROSPERO CRD42020219214; MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO databases, 1 January 2000 - 14 September 2021) exploring barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake and determinants of under-vaccination in migrants in the EU/EEA, UK, and Switzerland. We categorised barriers/facilitators using the 5As Determinants of Vaccine Uptake Taxonomy. 5259 data sources were screened, with 67 studies included from 16 countries, representing 366,529 migrants. Access barriers were most commonly reported (language, literacy and communication barriers; practical and legal barriers to accessing/delivering vaccination services; service barriers, including lack of specific guidelines and knowledge of healthcare professionals) for key vaccines including MMR, DTP, HPV, influenza, polio, COVID-19 vaccines. Acceptance barriers were mostly reported in Eastern European and Muslim communities for HPV, measles, and influenza vaccines. We identified 23 determinants of under-vaccination in migrants, including geographical origin (where 25/26 (96%) studies showed significance) - particularly African/Eastern European origin; recent migration; being a refugee/asylum seeker; higher income; parental education level; no healthcare contact in the past year; and lower language skills. Facilitators of migrants vaccine uptake included tailored vaccination messaging, community outreach and nudging interventions. Migrants barriers to accessing healthcare are already well documented, and this review confirms their role in limiting vaccine uptake. These data hold immediate relevance to strengthening vaccination programmes in high-income countries, including for COVID-19. Our findings suggested that targeted, evidence-informed strategies are needed to address access and acceptance barriers to vaccination in migrants, including the development of migrant-sensitive and adaptable vaccination services and systems, unambiguous public health messaging, and coproduction of tailored interventions.

20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), first appearing in Wuhan, China, and later declared as a pandemic, has caused serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe cases usually present with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage, or septic shock. However, with recent advances in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) research, the virus´s effect on cardiac tissues has become evident. Reportedly, an increased number of COVID-19 patients manifested serious cardiac complications such as heart failure, increased troponin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (NT-proBNP), cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis. These cardiac complications initially present as chest tightness, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Diagnostic investigations such as telemetry, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, PT, PTT), must be performed according to the patient´s condition. The best available options for treatment are the provision of supportive care, anti-viral therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, IL-6 blockers, statins, thrombolytic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) healthcare workers should be well-informed about the evolving research regarding COVID-19 and approach as a multi-disciplinary team to devise effective strategies for challenging situations to reduce cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
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