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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324377

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and treatment are significant health organizations' concerns worldwide. Although there is no proven drug license against the virus, a variety of components have under investigation. In this regard, the present study was intended to evaluate the consequences of Sovodak (Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir) treatment in COVID-19 patients compared with Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir). Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized trial using 120 COVID19 confirmed cases between August 19th and September 19th, 2020, in which subjects were classified into two treatment groups, 58 (Sovodak group) and 54 (Kaletra group). Related statistical operations calculated significant outcomes such as survival rate and hazard ratio via SPSS v.16. Sovodak was composed of Sofosbuvir 400mg and Daclatasvir 60mg, and Kaletra included Lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg. Results: We observed that there was no significant difference concerning the comorbidities, death, ICU admission, remission. Besides, Kaletra had a higher rate of discharge versus Sovodak (HR=1.551 (95% CI=1.008-2.386), P-value=0.046), and a better outcome was observed in patients receiving Conclusion: Sovodak compared to Kaletra by Hazard plot. Sovodak (Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir) therapy in COVID19 cases was accompanied by a significantly higher survival rate and better outcome than Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir).

2.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(2): e05355, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680282

ABSTRACT

Here, we report six cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinitis in patients with COVID-19 in Iran, which were treated with different drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, sofosbuvir, atazanavir, and remdesivir as antiviral agents. Despite the differences in the type of drugs, pneumothorax occurred in all patients.

3.
Clinical case reports ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679272

ABSTRACT

Here, we report six cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinitis in patients with COVID‐19 in Iran, which were treated with different drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, sofosbuvir, atazanavir, and remdesivir as antiviral agents. Despite the differences in the type of drugs, pneumothorax occurred in all patients. Chest CT can provide useful information in patients with COVID‐19‐associated pneumonia. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum may develop in COVID‐19‐associated pneumonia due to alveolar damage. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum may be the first symptom of COVID‐19 or a late complication. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum may appear in the patients with different antiviral therapy.

4.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 35: 114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594586

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 infection is a novel virus that mainly targets the respiratory system via specific receptors without any coronavirus-targeted therapies. Many efforts have been made to prepare specific vaccines for COVID-19 or use of prefabricated vaccines of other similar viruses, especially severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and influenza (flu). We aimed to evaluate the effects of previous flu vaccine injection on severity of incoming COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a large cross-sectional study of 529 hospitalized Iranian COVID patients to evaluate the severity of disease courses in patients with or without previous flu vaccination history using some main factors like length of hospitalization, need for the intensive care unit (ICU) admission and length of stay in the ICU for comparison between COVID-19 infected patients with or without flu vaccination history. For the quantitative data, we used independent-samples t and Mann-Whitney tests. The qualitative data were calculated using the Fisher exact and chi-square tests in IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (SPSS Inc) and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data of patients, disease, and severity-related parameters between the 2 groups. It means that there were not any significant differences between patients with and without history of flu vaccination regarding mean days of hospitalization, percentage of needing to be admitted to the ICU, days being admitted to the ICU (8.44±6.36 vs 7.94±8.57; 17% vs 11.5%; and 1.17±3.09 vs 0.92±3.04, retrospectively) (p=0.883, 0.235, and 0.809, respectively). In the laboratory tests, in comparison between patients with and without history of previous flu vaccination, only lymphocytes count in the vaccine positive group was higher than the vaccine negative group (20.82±11.23 vs 18.04±9.71) (p=0.067) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were higher in the vaccine negative group (146.57±109.72 vs 214.15±332.06) (p=0.006). Conclusion: We did not find any association between flu vaccination and decrease in disease severity in our patients. It seems that patients with previous history of flu vaccination may experience less laboratory abnormalities in some parameters that could be interpreted in favor of lower overall inflammation; however, this study cannot answer this definitely because of its design. As we collected retrospective data from only alive discharged patients and had no healthy control group, we could not discuss the probable effect of the vaccine on the mortality rate or its probable protective role against the infection. We need more well-designed controlled studies with different populations in different geographic areas to address the controversies.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306657

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1130-1134, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046857

ABSTRACT

To our knowledge, no previous studies have reported lung abscess as a complication of COVID-19 infection. It is essential to follow-up with the patients after discharge for such complications, especially if they are symptomatic.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 954, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with COVID-19 has included supportive care to mainly relief symptoms of the disease. Although World Health Organization (WHO) has not recommended any effective treatments for COVID-19, there are some reports about use of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Arbidol (ARB) on COVID-19 disease. METHODS: Using an open-label randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of ARB in patients with COVID-19 in a teaching hospital. One hundred eligible patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of either hydroxychloroquine followed by KALETRA (Lopinavir/ritonavir) or hydroxychloroquine followed by ARB. The primary outcome was hospitalization duration and clinical improvement 7 days after admission. The criteria of improvement were relief of cough, dyspnea, and fever. Time to relief from fever was also assessed across the two groups. Without any dropouts, 100 patients were entered into the study for the final analysis at significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 56.6 (17.8) years and 56.2 (14.8) years in ARB and KALETRA groups, respectively. Majority of patients were male across two groups (66 and 54%). The duration of hospitalization in ARB group was significantly less than KALETRA arm (7.2 versus 9.6 days; P = 0.02). Time to relief fever was almost similar across two groups (2.7 versus 3.1 days in ARB and KALETRA arms, respectively). Peripheral oxygen saturation rate was significantly different after 7 days of admission across two groups (94% versus 92% in ARB and KALETRA groups respectively) (P = 0.02). Based on multiple linear regression analysis, IHD, Na level, and oxygen saturation at the time of admission and type of therapy were the independent adjusted variables that determined the duration of hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that Arbidol, compared to KALETRA, significantly contributes to clinical and laboratory improvements, including peripheral oxygen saturation, requiring ICU admissions, duration of hospitalization, chest CT involvements, WBC, and ESR. We suggest further studies on ARB against COVID-19 using larger sample size and multicenter design. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20180725040596N2 on 18 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 43: 102216, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-419863

ABSTRACT

The new severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 is reported to affect the nervous system. Among the reports of the various neurological manifestations, there are a few documented specific processes to explain the neurological signs. We report a para-infectious encephalitis patient with clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings during evolution and convalescence phase of coronavirus infection. This comprehensive overview can illuminate the natural history of similar cases. As the two previously reported cases of encephalitis associated with this virus were not widely discussed regarding the treatment, we share our successful approach and add some recommendations about this new and scarce entity.


Subject(s)
Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Disease Progression , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/therapy , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pons/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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