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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017770

ABSTRACT

Beta (B.1.351) variant COVID-19 disease was investigated in Qatar. Compared to Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant, odds of progressing to severe disease were 1.24-fold (95% CI: 1.11-1.39) higher for Beta. Odds of progressing to critical disease were 1.49-fold (95% CI: 1.13-1.97) higher. Odds of COVID-19 death were 1.57-fold (95% CI: 1.03-2.43) higher.

2.
Vaccines ; 10(8):1318, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1988061

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited commercial LFA assays are available to provide a reliable quantitative measurement of the total binding antibody units (BAU/mL) against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-RBD). Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the fluorescence LFA FinecareTM 2019-nCoV S-RBD test along with its reader (Model No.: FS-113 against the following reference methods: (i) the FDA-approved GenScript surrogate virus-neutralizing assay (sVNT);and (ii) three highly performing automated immunoassays: BioMérieux VIDAS®3, Ortho VITROS®, and Mindray CL-900i®. Methods: Plasma from 488 vaccinees was tested by all aforementioned assays. Fingerstick whole-blood samples from 156 vaccinees were also tested by FinecareTM. Results and conclusions: FinecareTM showed 100% specificity, as none of the pre-pandemic samples tested positive. Equivalent FinecareTM results were observed among the samples taken from fingerstick or plasma (Pearson correlation r = 0.9, p < 0.0001), suggesting that fingerstick samples are sufficient to quantitate the S-RBD BAU/mL. A moderate correlation was observed between FinecareTM and sVNT (r = 0.5, p < 0.0001), indicating that FinecareTM can be used for rapid prediction of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) post-vaccination. FinecareTM BAU results showed strong correlation with VIDAS®3 (r = 0.6, p < 0.0001) and moderate correlation with VITROS®(r = 0.5, p < 0.0001) and CL-900i®(r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), suggesting that FinecareTM can be used as a surrogate for the advanced automated assays to measure S-RBD BAU/mL.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 929689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection currently remains one of the biggest global challenges that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) in severe cases. In line with this, prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognized, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. In this study, we used a metabolomics analysis to identify potential biomarkers that aid in the prognosis of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in post-TB infected patients. This analysis involved blood samples from 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected adults, of which 23 had a previous diagnosis of TB (post-TB), while 132 did not have a prior or current TB infection. Our analysis indicated that the vast majority (~92%) of post-TB individuals showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, required intensive oxygen support with a significantly high mortality rate (52.2%). Amongst individuals with severe COVID-19 symptoms, we report a significant decline in the levels of amino acids, notably the branched chains amino acids (BCAAs), more so in the post-TB cohort (FDR <= 0.05) in comparison to mild and asymptomatic cases. Indeed, we identified betaine and BCAAs as potential prognostic metabolic biomarkers of severity and mortality, respectively, in COVID-19 patients who have been exposed to TB. Moreover, we identified serum alanine as an important metabolite at the interface of severity and mortality. Hence, our data associated COVID-19 mortality and morbidity with a long-term metabolically driven consequence of TB infection. In summary, our study provides evidence for a higher mortality rate among COVID-19 infection patients who have history of prior TB infection diagnosis, which mandates validation in larger population cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Adult , Alanine , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4675, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984386

ABSTRACT

There is significant genetic distance between SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages. This study investigates immune protection of infection with one sub-lineage against reinfection with the other sub-lineage in Qatar during a large BA.1 and BA.2 Omicron wave, from December 19, 2021 to March 21, 2022. Two national matched, retrospective cohort studies are conducted to estimate effectiveness of BA.1 infection against reinfection with BA.2 (N = 20,994; BA.1-against-BA.2 study), and effectiveness of BA.2 infection against reinfection with BA.1 (N = 110,315; BA.2-against-BA.1 study). Associations are estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models after multiple imputation to assign a sub-lineage status for cases with no sub-lineage status (using probabilities based on the test date). Effectiveness of BA.1 infection against reinfection with BA.2 is estimated at 94.2% (95% CI: 89.2-96.9%). Effectiveness of BA.2 infection against reinfection with BA.1 is estimated at 80.9% (95% CI: 73.1-86.4%). Infection with the BA.1 sub-lineage appears to induce strong, but not full immune protection against reinfection with the BA.2 sub-lineage, and vice versa, for at least several weeks after the initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271324, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938448

ABSTRACT

We developed a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk score to guide targeted RT-PCR testing in Qatar. The Qatar national COVID-19 testing database, encompassing a total of 2,688,232 RT-PCR tests conducted between February 5, 2020-January 27, 2021, was analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were implemented to derive the COVID-19 risk score, as a tool to identify those at highest risk of having the infection. Score cut-off was determined using the ROC curve based on maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity. The score's performance diagnostics were assessed. Logistic regression analysis identified age, sex, and nationality as significant predictors of infection and were included in the risk score. The ROC curve was generated and the area under the curve was estimated at 0.63 (95% CI: 0.63-0.63). The score had a sensitivity of 59.4% (95% CI: 59.1%-59.7%), specificity of 61.1% (95% CI: 61.1%-61.2%), a positive predictive value of 10.9% (95% CI: 10.8%-10.9%), and a negative predictive value of 94.9% (94.9%-95.0%). The concept and utility of a COVID-19 risk score were demonstrated in Qatar. Such a public health tool can have considerable utility in optimizing testing and suppressing infection transmission, while maximizing efficiency and use of available resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Public Health , Qatar/epidemiology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
N Engl J Med ; 387(1): 21-34, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The protection conferred by natural immunity, vaccination, and both against symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with the BA.1 or BA.2 sublineages of the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a national, matched, test-negative, case-control study in Qatar from December 23, 2021, through February 21, 2022, to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), natural immunity due to previous infection with variants other than omicron, and hybrid immunity (previous infection and vaccination) against symptomatic omicron infection and against severe, critical, or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). RESULTS: The effectiveness of previous infection alone against symptomatic BA.2 infection was 46.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.5 to 51.9). The effectiveness of vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was negligible (-1.1%; 95% CI, -7.1 to 4.6), but nearly all persons had received their second dose more than 6 months earlier. The effectiveness of three doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was 52.2% (95% CI, 48.1 to 55.9). The effectiveness of previous infection and two doses of BNT162b2 was 55.1% (95% CI, 50.9 to 58.9), and the effectiveness of previous infection and three doses of BNT162b2 was 77.3% (95% CI, 72.4 to 81.4). Previous infection alone, BNT162b2 vaccination alone, and hybrid immunity all showed strong effectiveness (>70%) against severe, critical, or fatal Covid-19 due to BA.2 infection. Similar results were observed in analyses of effectiveness against BA.1 infection and of vaccination with mRNA-1273. CONCLUSIONS: No discernable differences in protection against symptomatic BA.1 and BA.2 infection were seen with previous infection, vaccination, and hybrid immunity. Vaccination enhanced protection among persons who had had a previous infection. Hybrid immunity resulting from previous infection and recent booster vaccination conferred the strongest protection. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data assessing COVID-19 disease severity in children/adolescents infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: We identified children and adolescents <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection with Delta and propensity-score matched controls with Omicron variant infection from the National COVID-19 Database in Qatar. Primary outcome was disease severity, determined by hospital admission, admission to ICU, or mechanical ventilation within 14 days of diagnosis, or death within 28 days. RESULTS: Among 1,735 cases with Delta variant infection between June 1 and November 6, 2021 and 32 635 cases with Omicron variant infection between January 1 and January 15, 2022 who did not have prior infection and were not vaccinated, we identified 985 propensity-score matched pairs. Among Delta infected, 84.2% had mild, 15.7% had moderate, and 0.1% had severe/critical disease. Among Omicron infected, 97.8% had mild, 2.2% had moderate, and none had severe/critical disease (P < .001). Omicron variant infection (vs. Delta) was associated with significantly lower odds of moderate or severe/critical disease (adjusted odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI 0.07-0.18). Those aged 6-11, and 12-<18 years had lower odds of developing moderate or severe/critical disease compared with those younger than six years (aOR, 95% CI 0.47; 0.33-0.66 for 6-11 year old; aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.94 for 12-<18 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Omicron variant infection in children/adolescents is associated with less severe disease than Delta variant infection as measured by hospitalization rates and need for ICU care or mechanical ventilation. Those 6 to <18 years also have less severe disease than those <6 years old.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884443

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus that belongs to the coronavirus family and is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of May 2022, it had caused more than 500 million infections and more than 6 million deaths worldwide. Several vaccines have been produced and tested over the last two years. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, on the other hand, has mutated over time, resulting in genetic variation in the population of circulating variants during the COVID-19 pandemic. It has also shown immune-evading characteristics, suggesting that vaccinations against these variants could be potentially ineffective. The purpose of this review article is to investigate the key variants of concern (VOCs) and mutations of the virus driving the current pandemic, as well as to explore the transmission rates of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in relation to epidemiological factors and to compare the virus's transmission rate to that of prior coronaviruses. We examined and provided key information on SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in this study, including their transmissibility, infectivity rate, disease severity, affinity for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, viral load, reproduction number, vaccination effectiveness, and vaccine breakthrough.

9.
J Travel Med ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873966

ABSTRACT

Compared to BA.1, BA.2 was associated with lower RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) value-3.53 fewer cycles (95% CI: 3.46-3.60), signifying higher infectiousness. This may reflect higher viral load and/or longer duration of infection for BA.2. Natural immunity from previous infection and booster vaccination were associated with less infectious breakthrough infections.

10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3082, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873502

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 subvariants are genetically divergent. We conducted a matched, test-negative, case-control study to estimate duration of protection of the second and third/booster doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against BA.1 and BA.2 infections in Qatar. BNT162b2 effectiveness was highest at 46.6% (95% CI: 33.4-57.2%) against symptomatic BA.1 and at 51.7% (95% CI: 43.2-58.9%) against symptomatic BA.2 infections in the first three months after the second dose, but declined to ~10% or below thereafter. Effectiveness rebounded to 59.9% (95% CI: 51.2-67.0%) and 43.7% (95% CI: 36.5-50.0%), respectively, in the first month after the booster dose, before declining again. Effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalization and death was 70-80% after the second dose and >90% after the booster dose. mRNA-1273 vaccine protection showed similar patterns. mRNA vaccines provide comparable, moderate, and short-lived protection against symptomatic BA.1 and BA.2 Omicron infections, but strong and durable protection against COVID-19 hospitalization and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 412-424, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796484

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, diabetes mellitus (DM) has been receiving increasing attention among autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly and has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors that trigger the onset of DM would help develop more efficient therapeutics and preventive measures. The role and mechanism of respiratory viruses in inducing autoimmunity have been frequently reported. On the other hand, the association of DM with respiratory infections might result in severe complications or even death. Since influenza is the most common respiratory infection, DM patients experience disease severity and increased hospitalization during influenza season. Vaccinating diabetic patients against influenza would significantly reduce hospitalization due to disease severity. However, recent studies also report the role of viral vaccines in inducing autoimmunity, specifically diabetes. This review reports causes of diabetes, including genetic and viral factors, with a special focus on respiratory viruses. We further brief the burden of influenza-associated complications and the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in DM patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 802312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775693

ABSTRACT

Recent progress in genomics and bioinformatics technologies have allowed for the emergence of immunogenomics field. This intersection of immunology and genetics has broadened our understanding of how the immune system responds to infection and vaccination. While the immunogenetic basis of the huge clinical variability in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently being extensively studied, the host genetic determinants of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remain largely unknown. Previous reports evidenced that vaccines may not protect all populations or individuals equally, due to multiple host- and vaccine-specific factors. Several studies on vaccine response to measles, rubella, hepatitis B, smallpox, and influenza highlighted the contribution of genetic mutations or polymorphisms in modulating the innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination. Specifically, genetic variants in genes encoding virus receptors, antigen presentation, cytokine production, or related to immune cells activation and differentiation could influence how an individual responds to vaccination. Although such knowledge could be utilized to generate personalized vaccine strategies to optimize the vaccine response, studies in this filed are still scarce. Here, we briefly summarize the scientific literature related to the immunogenetic determinants of vaccine-induced immunity, highlighting the possible role of host genetics in response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines as well.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 386(19): 1804-1816, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning of vaccine protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and the emergence of the omicron (or B.1.1.529) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have led to expedited efforts to scale up booster vaccination. Protection conferred by booster doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines in Qatar, as compared with protection conferred by the two-dose primary series, is unclear. METHODS: We conducted two matched retrospective cohort studies to assess the effectiveness of booster vaccination, as compared with that of a two-dose primary series alone, against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19-related hospitalization and death during a large wave of omicron infections from December 19, 2021, through January 26, 2022. The association of booster status with infection was estimated with the use of Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS: In a population of 2,239,193 persons who had received at least two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine, those who had also received a booster were matched with persons who had not received a booster. Among the BNT162b2-vaccinated persons, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic omicron infection was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 2.5) in the booster cohort and 4.5% (95% CI, 4.3 to 4.6) in the nonbooster cohort after 35 days of follow-up. Booster effectiveness against symptomatic omicron infection, as compared with that of the primary series, was 49.4% (95% CI, 47.1 to 51.6). Booster effectiveness against Covid-19-related hospitalization and death due to omicron infection, as compared with the primary series, was 76.5% (95% CI, 55.9 to 87.5). BNT162b2 booster effectiveness against symptomatic infection with the delta (or B.1.617.2) variant, as compared with the primary series, was 86.1% (95% CI, 67.3 to 94.1). Among the mRNA-1273-vaccinated persons, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic omicron infection was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2) in the booster cohort and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1) in the nonbooster cohort after 35 days; booster effectiveness against symptomatic omicron infection, as compared with the primary series, was 47.3% (95% CI, 40.7 to 53.3). Few severe Covid-19 cases were noted in the mRNA-1273-vaccinated cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The messenger RNA (mRNA) boosters were highly effective against symptomatic delta infection, but they were less effective against symptomatic omicron infection. However, with both variants, mRNA boosters led to strong protection against Covid-19-related hospitalization and death. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Qatar/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
14.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726015

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread worldwide since its discovery in Wuhan city, China in December 2019. A comprehensive strategy, including surveillance, diagnostics, research, clinical treatment, and development of vaccines, is urgently needed to win the battle against COVID-19. The past three unprecedented outbreaks of emerging human coronavirus infections at the beginning of the 21st century have highlighted the importance of readily available, accurate, and rapid diagnostic technologies to contain emerging and re-emerging pandemics. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based assays performed on respiratory specimens remain the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnostics. However, point-of-care technologies and serologic immunoassays are rapidly emerging with high sensitivity and specificity as well. Even though excellent techniques are available for the diagnosis of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 in well-equipped laboratories; critical gaps still remain in screening asymptomatic people who are in the incubation phase of the virus, as well as in the accurate determination of live viral shedding during convalescence to inform decisions for ending isolation. This review article aims to discuss the currently available laboratory methods and surveillance technologies available for the detection of COVID-19, their performance characteristics and highlight the gaps in current diagnostic capacity, and finally, propose potential solutions. We also summarize the specifications of the majority of the available commercial kits (PCR, EIA, and POC) for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Neutralization Tests , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Virus Shedding
15.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective reproduction number, Rt , is a tool to track and understand pandemic dynamics. This investigation of Rt estimations was conducted to guide the national COVID-19 response in Qatar, from the onset of the pandemic until August 18, 2021. METHODS: Real-time "empirical" Rt Empirical was estimated using five methods, including the Robert Koch Institute, Cislaghi, Systrom-Bettencourt and Ribeiro, Wallinga and Teunis, and Cori et al. methods. Rt was also estimated using a transmission dynamics model (Rt Model-based ). Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Correlations between different Rt estimates were assessed by calculating correlation coefficients, and agreements between these estimates were assessed through Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Rt Empirical captured the evolution of the pandemic through three waves, public health response landmarks, effects of major social events, transient fluctuations coinciding with significant clusters of infection, and introduction and expansion of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. The various estimation methods produced consistent and overall comparable Rt Empirical estimates with generally large correlation coefficients. The Wallinga and Teunis method was the fastest at detecting changes in pandemic dynamics. Rt Empirical estimates were consistent whether using time series of symptomatic PCR-confirmed cases, all PCR-confirmed cases, acute-care hospital admissions, or ICU-care hospital admissions, to proxy trends in true infection incidence. Rt Model-based correlated strongly with Rt Empirical and provided an average Rt Empirical . CONCLUSIONS: Rt estimations were robust and generated consistent results regardless of the data source or the method of estimation. Findings affirmed an influential role for Rt estimations in guiding national responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, even in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology
17.
Intervirology ; 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673579

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported serological cross-reactivity of the immune responses between SARS-CoV-2 and DENV. Most of the available studies are based on the point of care (POC) rapid testing kits. However, some rapid test kits have low specificity and can generate false positives. Hence, we aimed to investigate the potential serological cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and DENV IgG antibodies using advanced assays including chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and ELISA test. A total of 90 DENV-IgG-ELISA positive and 90 negative pre-pandemic sera were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG using the automated CL-900i CLIA assay. Furthermore, a total of 91 SARS-CoV-2-IgG-CLIA positive and 91 negative post-pandemic sera were tested for anti-DENV-IgG using the Novalisa ELISA assay. The DENV-IgG positive sera resulted in five positives and 85 negatives for SARS-CoV-2-IgG. Similarly, the DENV-IgG negative sera also resulted in five positives and 85 negatives for SARS-CoV-2-IgG. No statistically significant difference in specificity between the DENV-IgG positive and DENV-IgG negative sera was found (p-value=1.00). The SARS-CoV-2-IgG positive sera displayed 43 positives, 47 negatives, and one equivocal for DENV-IgG. Whereas the SARS-CoV-2-IgG negative sera resulted in 50 positives, 40 negatives, and one equivocal for DENV-IgG. No statistically significant difference in the proportion that is DENV-IgG positive between the SARS-CoV-2-IgG positive and SARS-CoV-2-IgG negative sera (p-value=0.58). In conclusion, there is a low risk of serological cross-reactivity between the DENV, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies when using advanced detection assays. .

19.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262897, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662441

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the performance of a rapid point-of-care antibody test, the BioMedomics COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test, in comparison with a high-quality, validated, laboratory-based platform, the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Serological testing was conducted on 709 individuals. Concordance metrics were estimated. Logistic regression was used to assess associations with seropositivity. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 63.5% (450/709; 95% CI 59.8%-67.0%) using the BioMedomics assay and 71.9% (510/709; 95% CI 68.5%-75.2%) using the Elecsys assay. There were 60 discordant results between the two assays, all of which were seropositive in the Elecsys assay, but seronegative in the BioMedomics assay. Overall, positive, and negative percent agreements between the two assays were 91.5% (95% CI 89.2%-93.5%), 88.2% (95% CI 85.1%-90.9%), and 100% (95% CI 98.2%-100%), respectively, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84). Excluding specimens with lower (Elecsys) antibody titers, the agreement improved with overall, positive, and negative percent concordance of 94.4% (95% CI 92.3%-96.1%), 91.8% (95% CI 88.8%-94.3%), and 100% (95% CI 98.2%-100%), respectively, and a Cohen's kappa of 0.88 (95% CI 0.85-0.90). Logistic regression confirmed better agreement with higher antibody titers. The BioMedomics COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test demonstrated good performance in measuring detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, supporting the utility of such rapid point-of-care serological testing to guide the public health responses and vaccine prioritization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , Qatar , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Young Adult
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 52-54, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654529

ABSTRACT

Complementing whole genome sequencing strategies with high-throughput multiplex RT-qPCR genotyping allows for more comprehensive and real-time tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. During the second and third waves of COVID-19 in Qatar, PCR genotyping, combined with Sanger sequencing of un-typeable samples, was employed to describe the epidemiology of the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. A total of 9792 nasopharyngeal PCR-positive samples collected between April-June 2021 were successfully genotyped, revealing the importation and transmission dynamics of these three variants in Qatar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Qatar/epidemiology
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