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1.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(4):679-688, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040523

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of the disease in humans that is very similar to smallpox called monkeypox (MPX) disease, caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), is the dominant topic of discussion in the scientific and popular press around the world right now. This is taking place as the world celebrates the historic accomplishments made in the fight against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic MPX is currently thought to pose a risk to the general public's health, particularly in areas with high rates of MPXV infection and close human-wild animal contact. Despite the rarity of MPX outbreaks, they are often caused by human-to-human transmission, especially in households and healthcare settings. Recent decades have seen recurrent outbreaks of the MPX after the smallpox disease was declared eliminated and the consequent cessation of smallpox vaccination programs. MPX has presently spread to several countries throughout the world and posed a global public health emergency, with nearly 45000 confirmed cases in 96 countries and locations, and 12 deaths as of August 24, 2022. Even though this viral illness is thought to be self-limiting, its consequences and feasible pandemic potential seriously jeopardize public health. The main approach to avoiding MPX is to adopt appropriate prevention and control measures, increase awareness of risk factors, and inform the public of the steps they may take to reduce viral exposure. Scientific studies are currently looking at the viability and suitability of the MPX vaccination. This article presents a general introduction to MPXV/MPX along with progress in diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, and prevention and control strategies for tackling this global health emergency.

2.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 92(3):382-386, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912981

ABSTRACT

Telehealth facility was launched to extend veterinary services throughout Kashmir valley. It was also desired for continuation of veterinary internship during the COVID-19 lock-down period. A total of 714 response forms were received from the participating veterinary faculty of clinical disciplines in six months. The majority (n=504, 70.6%) of the cases pertained to the dairy cattle. Thirty per cent (n=9/30) of the designated specialists participated. The tele-health facility was availed by interns (44.25%), farmers/animal owners (36.51%), field veterinarians (15.28%) and the para-veterinarians (3.97%) in significantly decreasing order. Telephone mobile calls, WhatsApp messages (text, photos and videos), and the SMS text messages were the platforms used. The animals with medical problems (67.66%) were significantly more than those showing gynaecological (18.25%) and surgical (14.09%) ailments. More than half (52.58%) of the cases were reported from the nearby three districts. The remaining (47.42%) animal owners resided in rest of the seven districts. Most of the complaints pertained to skin and appendages (27.18%), alimentary (25.79%) and reproductive tract (18.25%) in the affected cattle respectively. Udder and teat affections, metabolic diseases, and repeat breeding were tentatively diagnosed in majority of the cows. From this preliminary study, it is concluded that the veterinary telehealth service can reach far-off places and education can be continued amidst lockdown period. Short duration and lack of the follow up details are the weakness of this study. Additionally, more veterinary specialists need be persuaded to participate in telehealth modality.

3.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319906

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative/supportive therapeutic options.

4.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000711

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease – 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative / supportive therapeutic options. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1623-1638, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-881571

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now spread across the globe in past few months while affecting 26 million people and leading to more than 0.85 million deaths as on 2nd September, 2020. Severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection increases in COVID-19 patients due to pre-existing health co-morbidities. This mini-review has focused on the three significant co-morbidities viz., heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, which are posing high health concerns and increased mortality during this ongoing pandemic. The observed co-morbidities have been found to be associated with the increasing risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 critical illness as well as to be associated positively with the worsening of the health condition of COVID-19 suffering individuals resulting in the high risk for mortality. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cell via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. Regulation of crucial cardiovascular functions and metabolisms like blood pressure and sugar levels are being carried out by ACE2. This might be one of the reasons that contribute to the higher mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities. Clinical investigations have identified higher levels of creatinine, cardiac troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, creatine kinase, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in patients who have succumbed to death from COVID-19 as compared to recovered individuals. More investigations are required to identify the modes behind increased mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities of heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. This will enable us to design and develop suitable therapeutic strategies for reducing the mortality. More attention and critical care need to be paid to such high risk patients suffering from co-morbidities during COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(2):174-184, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-87198

ABSTRACT

The world has been thrown into pandemonium due to the recent Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early available clinical data have indicated that geriatric persons cum those with co-morbidity such as cardiovascular, metabolic and immunological disorders suffered severe form of COVID-19. All countries and territories of the world are currently exploring available strategies to control the pandemic with the hope to significantly minimize its morbidity and mortality rate. This present study critically reviewed available and latest research progress of the genetics and ecology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the influence of climatic factors on the spread of COVID-19, and thus, discussed how these concepts could be harnessed for COVID-19 control and further scientific advancements in resolving the pandemic.

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