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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8893, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245029

ABSTRACT

It has been revealed that SARS-CoV-2 can be efficiently isolated from clinical specimens such as nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs or saliva in cultured cells. In this study, we examined the efficiency of viral isolation including SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains between nasal/nasopharyngeal swab or saliva specimens. Furthermore, we also examined the comparison of viral isolation rates by sample species using simulated specimens for COVID-19. As a result, it was found that the isolation efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva specimens was significantly lower than that in the nasal/nasopharyngeal swab specimens. In order to determine which component of saliva is responsible for the lower isolation rate of saliva specimens, we tested the abilities of lactoferrin, amylase, cathelicidin, and mucin, which are considered to be abundant in saliva, to inhibit the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses (SARS-CoV-2pv). Lactoferrin and amylase were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2pv infection. In conclusion, even if the same number of viral genome copies was detected by the real-time RT-PCR test, infection of SARS-CoV-2 present in saliva is thought to be inhibited by inhibitory factors such as lactoferrin and amylase, compared to nasal/nasopharyngeal swab specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Lactoferrin , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Nasopharynx , Cell Culture Techniques , Specimen Handling
2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243619

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infection (BI) after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has exploded owing to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and has become a major problem at present. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological information and possession status of neutralizing antibodies in patients with BI using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses (SARS-CoV-2pv). Analysis of 44 specimens diagnosed with COVID-19 after two or more vaccinations showed high inhibition of infection by 90% or more against the Wuhan strain and the Alpha and Delta variants of pseudotyped viruses in 40 specimens. In contrast, almost no neutralizing activity was observed against the Omicron BA.1 variant. Many cases without neutralizing activity or BI were immunosuppressed individuals. The results of this study show that contact with an infected person can result in BI even when there are sufficient neutralizing antibodies in the blood. Thus, even after vaccination, sufficient precautions must be taken to prevent infection.

3.
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2234-2242, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264139

ABSTRACT

The sustained epidemic of Omicron subvariants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide concern, and older adults are at high risk. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) in nursing home residents and staff between May 2021 and December 2022. A total of 335 SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, including 141 residents (median age: 88 years) and 194 staff (median age: 44 years) participated. Receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG and neutralizing titer (NT) against the Wuhan strain, Alpha and Delta variants, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 subvariants were measured in serum samples drawn from participants after the second and third doses of mRNA vaccine using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. Breakthrough infection (BTI) was confirmed by a notification of COVID-19 or a positive anti-N IgG result in serum after mRNA vaccination. Fifty-one participants experienced SARS-CoV-2 BTI during the study period. The RBD IgG and NTs against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 were markedly increased in SARS CoV-2 naïve participants 2 months after the third dose of mRNA vaccine, compared to those 5 months after the second dose, and declined 5 months after the third dose. The decline in RBD IgG and NT against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 in SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants after the second and the third dose was particularly marked in those aged ≥ 80 years. BTIs during the BA.5 epidemic period, which occurred between 2 and 5 months after the third dose, induced a robust NT against BA.5 even five months after the booster dose vaccination. Further studies are required to assess the sustainability of NTs elicited by Omicron-containing bivalent mRNA booster vaccine in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , East Asian People , Immunoglobulin G , Nursing Homes , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Vaccine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2264138

ABSTRACT

The sustained epidemic of Omicron subvariants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide concern, and older adults are at high risk. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) in nursing home residents and staff between May 2021 and December 2022. A total of 335 SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, including 141 residents (median age: 88 years) and 194 staff (median age: 44 years) participated. Receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG and neutralizing titer (NT) against the Wuhan strain, Alpha and Delta variants, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 subvariants were measured in serum samples drawn from participants after the second and third doses of mRNA vaccine using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. Breakthrough infection (BTI) was confirmed by a notification of COVID-19 or a positive anti-N IgG result in serum after mRNA vaccination. Fifty-one participants experienced SARS-CoV-2 BTI during the study period. The RBD IgG and NTs against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 were markedly increased in SARS CoV-2 naïve participants 2 months after the third dose of mRNA vaccine, compared to those 5 months after the second dose, and declined 5 months after the third dose. The decline in RBD IgG and NT against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 in SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants after the second and the third dose was particularly marked in those aged ≥ 80 years. BTIs during the BA.5 epidemic period, which occurred between 2 and 5 months after the third dose, induced a robust NT against BA.5 even five months after the booster dose vaccination. Further studies are required to assess the sustainability of NTs elicited by Omicron-containing bivalent mRNA booster vaccine in older adults.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 347-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510011

ABSTRACT

Genetic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the mainstay of diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it has not been fully investigated whether infectious viruses are contained in SARS-CoV-2 genome-positive specimens examined using the rRT-PCR test. In this study, we examined the correlation between the threshold Cycle (Ct) value obtained from the rRT-PCR test and virus isolation in cultured cells, using 533 consecutive clinical specimens of COVID-19 patients. The virus was isolated from specimens with a Ct value of less than 30 cycles, and the lower the Ct value, the more efficient the isolation rate. A cytopathic effect due to herpes simplex virus type 1 contamination was observed in one sample with a Ct value of 35 cycles. In a comparison of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells and VeroE6 cells used for virus isolation, VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells isolated the virus 1.7 times more efficiently than VeroE6 cells. There was no significant difference between the two cells in the mean Ct value of the detectable sample. In conclusion, Lower Ct values in the PCR test were associated with higher virus isolation rates, and VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were able to isolate viruses more efficiently than VeroE6 cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Line , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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