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Sci Immunol ; 7(76): eadd5446, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992933


SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants have generated a worldwide health crisis due to resistance to most approved SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and evasion of vaccination-induced antibodies. To manage Omicron subvariants and prepare for new ones, additional means of isolating broad and potent humanized SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are desirable. Here, we describe a mouse model in which the primary B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire is generated solely through V(D)J recombination of a human VH1-2 heavy chain (HC) and, substantially, a human Vκ1-33 light chain (LC). Thus, primary humanized BCR repertoire diversity in these mice derives from immensely diverse HC and LC antigen-contact CDR3 sequences generated by nontemplated junctional modifications during V(D)J recombination. Immunizing this mouse model with SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) spike protein immunogens elicited several VH1-2/Vκ1-33-based neutralizing antibodies that bound RBD in a different mode from each other and from those of many prior patient-derived VH1-2-based neutralizing antibodies. Of these, SP1-77 potently and broadly neutralized all SARS-CoV-2 variants through BA.5. Cryo-EM studies revealed that SP1-77 bound RBD away from the receptor-binding motif via a CDR3-dominated recognition mode. Lattice light-sheet microscopy-based studies showed that SP1-77 did not block ACE2-mediated viral attachment or endocytosis but rather blocked viral-host membrane fusion. The broad and potent SP1-77 neutralization activity and nontraditional mechanism of action suggest that it might have therapeutic potential. Likewise, the SP1-77 binding epitope may inform vaccine strategies. Last, the type of humanized mouse models that we have described may contribute to identifying therapeutic antibodies against future SARS-CoV-2 variants and other pathogens.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Membrane Fusion , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitopes , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell