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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200326


HSV-1 is a typical neurotropic virus that infects the brain and causes keratitis, cold sores, and occasionally, acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The large amount of proinflammatory cytokines induced by HSV-1 infection is an important cause of neurotoxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, as resident macrophages in CNS, are the first line of defense against neurotropic virus infection. Inhibiting the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines in overactivated microglia is a crucial strategy for the treatment of HSE. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nicotinamide n-oxide (NAMO), a metabolite mainly produced by gut microbe, on HSV-1-induced microglial inflammation and HSE. We found that NAMO significantly inhibits the production of cytokines induced by HSV-1 infection of microglia, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, NAMO promotes the transition of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 type to the anti-inflammatory M2 type. More detailed studies revealed that NAMO enhances the expression of Sirtuin-1 and its deacetylase enzymatic activity, which in turn deacetylates the p65 subunit to inhibit NF-κB signaling, resulting in reduced inflammatory response and ameliorated HSE pathology. Therefore, Sirtuin-1/NF-κB axis may be promising therapeutic targets against HSV-1 infection-related diseases including HSE.

Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Herpes Simplex/pathology