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1.
Clin Lab ; 69(6)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lymphopenia and high CT score is associated with COVID-19 severity. Herein we describe the change pattern in lymphocyte count and CT score during hospitalization and explore a possible association with the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 13 non-severe COVID-19 patients diagnosed at admission were enrolled. One patient progressed to severe disease. Change patterns in lymphocyte counts and CT scores of all patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Lymphocyte count increased gradually from day 5 post-illness onset (day 5 vs. day 15, p = 0.001). Lymphocyte count of the severe patient fluctuated at low levels throughout the 15-day period. Chest CT scores of non-severe patients increased significantly during the first 5 days of illness onset, but decreased gradually beginning day 9 (illness onset vs. day 5, p = 0.002, day 9 vs. day 15, p = 0.015). In the severe patient, CT score continued to increase over the 11 days post-illness onset period. CONCLUSIONS: Non-severe COVID-19 patients had significantly increased lymphocyte counts and decreased CT scores beginning day 5 and day 9 of illness onset, respectively. The patients without increased lymphocyte counts and decreased CT scores during the early 2nd week of illness onset may develop to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Lymphocyte Count , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011123, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324624

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV Spike (S) protein shares considerable homology with SARS-CoV-2 S, especially in the conserved S2 subunit (S2). S protein mediates coronavirus receptor binding and membrane fusion, and the latter activity can greatly influence coronavirus infection. We observed that SARS-CoV S is less effective in inducing membrane fusion compared with SARS-CoV-2 S. We identify that S813T mutation is sufficient in S2 interfering with the cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 S by TMPRSS2, reducing spike fusogenicity and pseudoparticle entry. Conversely, the mutation of T813S in SARS-CoV S increased fusion ability and viral replication. Our data suggested that residue 813 in the S was critical for the proteolytic activation, and the change from threonine to serine at 813 position might be an evolutionary feature adopted by SARS-2-related viruses. This finding deepened the understanding of Spike fusogenicity and could provide a new perspective for exploring Sarbecovirus' evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Proteolysis , Virus Replication , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 123, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277246

ABSTRACT

Persistent asymptomatic (PA) SARS-CoV-2 infections have been identified. The immune responses in these patients are unclear, and the development of effective treatments for these patients is needed. Here, we report a cohort of 23 PA cases carrying viral RNA for up to 191 days. PA cases displayed low levels of inflammatory and interferon response, weak antibody response, diminished circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh), and inadequate specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses during infection, which is distinct from symptomatic infections and resembling impaired immune activation. Administration of a single dose of Ad5-nCoV vaccine to 10 of these PA cases elicited rapid and robust antibody responses as well as coordinated B-cell and cTfh responses, resulting in successful viral clearance. Vaccine-induced antibodies were able to neutralize various variants of concern and persisted for over 6 months, indicating long-term protection. Therefore, our study provides an insight into the immune status of PA infections and highlights vaccination as a potential treatment for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 1389-1401, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268905

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus with a high mutation rate. The rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants could increase transmissibility and diminish vaccine protection. However, whether coinfection with multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants exists remains controversial. This study collected 12,986 and 4,113 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the GISAID database on May 11, 2020 (GISAID20May11), and Apr 1, 2021 (GISAID21Apr1), respectively. With single-nucleotide variant (SNV) and network clique analyses, we constructed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coexistence networks and discovered maximal SNP cliques of sizes 16 and 34 in the GISAID20May11 and GISAID21Apr1 datasets, respectively. Simulating the transmission routes and SNV accumulations, we discovered a linear relationship between the size of the maximal clique and the number of coinfected variants. We deduced that the COVID-19 cases in GISAID20May11 and GISAID21Apr1 were coinfections with 3.20 and 3.42 variants on average, respectively. Additionally, we performed Nanopore sequencing on 42 COVID-19 patients and discovered recurrent heterozygous SNPs in twenty of the patients, including loci 8,782 and 28,144, which were crucial for SARS-CoV-2 lineage divergence. In conclusion, our findings reported SARS-CoV-2 variants coinfection in COVID-19 patients and demonstrated the increasing number of coinfected variants.

5.
Virol J ; 20(1): 28, 2023 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant BA.2 was the dominant variant in the COVID-19 outbreak in Shanghai since March 2022. We aim to investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in pediatric liver-transplanted recipients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational, single-arm study. We enrolled pediatric liver-transplanted patients infected with the Omicron variant BA.2 from March 19th to October 1st, 2022 and analyzed their demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data. The management of COVID-19 was conducted according to the 9th trial edition of the Chinese guideline. The immunosuppressive therapy was tailored considering the patients' infection developments and liver functions. RESULTS: Five children were included. The primary diseases included Niemann-Pick disease, propionic acidemia, decompensated cirrhosis, biliary atresia, and Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I. All of the patients were onset with fever before or when getting RNA-positive results at the age of 3 (Range: 1-13) years. The infection duration was 29 (Range: 18-40) days. Three and two children were diagnosed with mild and moderate COVID-19 respectively. Two patients were tested RNA-positive within 14 days after having been tested negative. The immunosuppressants were paused or extenuated in four patients. Eight of all nine cohabitants were injected with at least two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The disease courses were significantly longer than the patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Post-transplant immunosuppression slows down the virus clearance and increases the risk of relapse but does not affect symptom duration or infection severity in pediatric patients. Patients can usually gain a favorable outcome and prognosis by extenuating immunosuppressants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Propionic Acidemia , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Liver
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30874, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the common signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea, with multiple organ injuries in severe cases. Therefore, finding drugs to prevent and treat COVID-19 is urgently needed and expected by the public. Several studies suggested beneficial effects of melatonin for the relevant prevention and treatment. To explore the effect and safety of melatonin in the treatment and provide theoretical support and reference for seeking the most suitable drug for COVID-19, the meta-analysis was carried out accordingly. METHODS: It included randomized clinical trials of patients with COVID-19 treated with melatonin. Total effective rate was the primary outcome, while C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), white blood cell count (WBC) were the secondary measures. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effect size of some indicators in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six eligible studies with 338 participants were included. One hundred seventy subjects were treated with melatonin adjuvant therapy and 168 subjects were assigned to the control group, with total excellent effective rate in subjects treated with melatonin [odds ratio = 3.05, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.47, 6.31, P = .003]. Homogeneity was analyzed by fixed effect model (I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in CRP between the melatonin group and the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.36, 95% CI = -3.65, 2.92, P = .83). Significant difference was not existed in SaO2 between the melatonin treatment group and the control group (WMD = 1, 95% CI = -1.21, 3.22, P = .37). In terms of WBC, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (WMD = -1.07, 95% CI = -2.44, 0.30, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed that melatonin had the beneficial effects for COVID-19 prevention and treatment as an adjunctive agent in combination with basic treatment for the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Melatonin , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/drug therapy , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 943234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043529

ABSTRACT

More than 405 million people have contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, and mycotic infection may be related to COVID-19 development. There are a large number of reports showing that COVID-19 patients with mycotic infection have an increased risk of mortality. However, whether mycotic infection can be considered a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unknown. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to December 27, 2021. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random-effects model or fixed-effect model, depending on heterogeneity. We also performed subgroup analyses to identify differences in mortality rates between continents and fungal species. A total of 20 articles were included in this study. Compared with the controls, patients with mycotic infection had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.22-3.26] for mortality and an OR of 2.28 (95% CI: 1.65-3.16) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We also conducted two subgroup analyses based on continent and fungal species, and we found that Europe and Asia had the highest ORs, while Candida was the most dangerous strain of fungi. We performed Egger's test and Begg's test to evaluate the publication bias of the included articles, and the p-value was 0.423, which indicated no significant bias. Mycotic infection can be regarded as a risk factor for COVID-19, and decision makers should be made aware of this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
8.
The Journal of Applied Business and Economics ; 24(3):129-139, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1898227

ABSTRACT

This paper compares family financial socialization with school financial education in their roles to improve consumer financial well-being. Using a national sample of US adult respondents (at the age of 18 and above) from the 2016 National Financial Well-Being Survey, this study proposes a structural equation model. It shows that family socialization and school education play equally important and distinctively separate roles in elevating financial well-being. Family socialization functions through a mediating factor in helping people cultivate good financial habits in saving, planning, and budgeting. This study contributes to the research of the direct and indirect relationship between family financial socialization, financial literacy, financial habits, and financial well-being.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 819058, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834399

ABSTRACT

Vaccines for COVID-19 are now a crucial public health need, but the degree of protection provided by conventional vaccinations for individuals with compromised immune systems is unclear. The use of viral vectors to express neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the lung is an alternative approach that does not wholly depend on individuals having intact immune systems and responses. Here, we identified an anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody, NC0321, which can efficiently neutralize a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including alpha, beta, delta, and eta. Both prophylactic and therapeutic NC0321 treatments effectively protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, we adopted viral vector-mediated delivery of NC0321 IgG1 as an attractive approach to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The NC0321 IgG1 expression in the proximal airway, expressed by a single direct in-vivo intranasal (I.N.) administration of a self-inactivating and recombinant lentiviral vector (rSIV.F/HN-NC0321), can protect young, elderly, and immunocompromised mice against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 surrogate challenge. Long-term monitoring indicated that rSIV.F/HN-NC0321 mediated robust IgG expression throughout the airway of young and SCID mice, importantly, no statistical difference in the NC0321 expression between young and SCID mice was observed. A single I.N. dose of rSIV.F/HN-NC0321 30 or 180 days prior to SARS-CoV-2 challenge significantly reduced lung SARS-CoV-2 titers in an Ad5-hACE2-transduced mouse model, reconfirming that this vectored immunoprophylaxis strategy could be useful, especially for those individuals who cannot gain effective immunity from existing vaccines, and could potentially prevent clinical sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, SCID , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(5): 391-403, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799261

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has several advantages compared to haemodialysis (HD), but there is evidence showing underutilization globally, especially in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) where kidney replacement therapies (KRT) are often unavailable, inaccessible, and unaffordable. Only 11% of all dialysis patients worldwide use PD, more than 50% of whom live in China, the United States of America, Mexico, or Thailand. Various barriers to increased PD utilization have been reported worldwide including patient preference, low levels of education, and lower provider reimbursement. However, unique but surmountable barriers are applicable to LLMICs including the excessively high cost of providing PD (related to PD fluids in particular), excessive cost of treatment borne by patients (relative to HD), lack of adequate PD training opportunities for doctors and nurses, low workforce availability for kidney care, and challenges related to some PD outcomes (catheter-related infections, hospitalizations, mortality, etc.). This review discusses some known barriers to PD use in LLMICs and leverages data that show a global trend in reducing rates of PD-related infections, reducing rates of modality switches from HD, and improving patient survival in PD to discuss how PD use can be increased in LLMICs. We therefore, challenge the idea that low PD use in LLMICs is unavoidable due to these barriers and instead present opportunities to improve PD utilization in LLMICs.


Subject(s)
Kidney Failure, Chronic , Peritoneal Dialysis , Developing Countries , Dialysis Solutions , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , United States
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 715519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477836

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondary infections pose tremendous challenges in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and are associated with higher mortality rates. Clinicians face of the challenge of diagnosing viral infections because of low sensitivity of available laboratory tests. Case Presentation: A 66-year-old woman initially manifested fever and shortness of breath. She was diagnosed as critically ill with COVID-19 using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and treated with antiviral therapy, ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, after the condition was relatively stabled for a few days, the patient deteriorated with fever, frequent cough, increased airway secretions, and increased exudative lesions in the lower right lung on chest X-rays, showing the possibility of a newly acquired infection, though sputum bacterial and fungal cultures and smears showed negative results. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), we identified a reactivation of latent human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1) in the respiratory tract, blood and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a worsened clinical course in a critically ill COVID-19 patient on ECMO. Anti-HHV-1 therapy guided by these sequencing results effectively decreased HHV-1 levels, and improved the patient's clinical condition. After 49 days on ECMO and 67 days on the ventilator, the 66-year-old patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates the potential value of mNGS for evidence-based treatment, and suggests that potential reactivation of latent viruses should be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e426-e433, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is a newly recognized disease, and its diagnosis is primarily confirmed by routine reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: However, we report a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with a negative routine RT-PCR. RESULTS: This case was finally diagnosed by nanopore sequencing combined with antibody of SARS-CoV-2. Simultaneously, the ORF and NP gene variations of SARS-CoV-2 were found. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlighted that false-negative results could be present in routine RT-PCR diagnosis, especially with virus variation. Currently, nanopore pathogen sequencing and antibody detection have been found to be effective in clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Humans , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 941, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by stratifying by the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis status is still uncertain. METHODS: We included 1,590 hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay or high-throughput sequencing of pharyngeal and nasal swab specimens from 575 hospitals across China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. Times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were described and turned into binary variables by the maximally selected rank statistics method. Then, survival analysis, including a log-rank test, Cox regression, and conditional inference tree (CTREE) was conducted, regarding whether patients progressed to a severe disease level during the observational period (assessed as severe pneumonia according to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Clinical Practice for Emergency Severe Pneumonia, admission to an intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, or death) as the prognosis outcome, the dependent variable. Independent factors included whether the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was longer than 5 days (the exposure) and other demographic and clinical factors as multivariate adjustments. The clinical characteristics of the patients with different times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis were also compared. RESULTS: The medians of the times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit, and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were 6, 3, and 2 days. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbidity status, age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04], comorbidity (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.73), and a duration from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis of >5 days (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10-2.60) were independent predictors of COVID-19 prognosis, which echoed the CTREE models, with significant nodes such as time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, age, and comorbidities. Males, older patients with symptoms such as dry cough/productive cough/shortness of breath, and prior COPD were observed more often in the patients who procrastinated before initiating the first medical consultation. CONCLUSIONS: A longer time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis yielded a worse COVID-19 prognosis.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 621, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since there are reports of cases of 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) asymptomatic carriers in China recently and fever is one of the main symptoms, we aimed to distinguish COVID-19 cases from other febrile patients with clinical examinations in this study. METHODS: A total of 134 suspected COVID-19 patients in the isolation ward of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were recruited from January 23 to May 23, 2020. We analyze the pathogenic form and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among them, pathogens were identified in only 84 patients (62.7%), including 23 (17.1%) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), 30 (22.3%) with other viruses, 31 (25.0%) with other pathogens and 3 (3.5%) with mixed infections. The commonly observed symptoms of COVID-19 patients were cough, fever, fatigue, and muscle aches, which were significantly different than the symptoms of nonviral infections (P<0.05) but from those of other viral infections (P>0.05). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase and the neutrophil/lymphocyte were found significantly high in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). The most common manifestations of COVID-19 patients were ground-glass opacities (100%) with or without lung consolidation, however, they also often showed involvement of several lobes of both lungs (P<0.05). Due to the clear differential diagnosis, the overall antibiotic use rate was 35.8% (31/87). CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing COVID-19, infections with other pathogens should not be ignored. Successful pathogen identification will support accurate treatment.

18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(12): 2129-2143, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212915

ABSTRACT

Prolonged viral RNA shedding and recurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been reported. However, the clinical outcome and pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we recruited 43 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. We found that prolonged viral RNA shedding or recurrence mainly occurred in severe/critical patients (P<0.05). The average viral shedding time in severe/critical patients was more than 50 days, and up to 100 days in some patients, after symptom onset. However, chest computed tomography gradually improved and complete absorption occurred when SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was still positive, but specific antibodies appeared. Furthermore, the viral shedding time significantly decreased when the A1,430G or C12,473T mutation occurred (P<0.01 and FDR<0.01) and increased when G227A occurred (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). High IL1R1, IL1R2, and TNFRSF21 expression in the host positively correlated with viral shedding time (P<0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). Prolonged viral RNA shedding often occurs but may not increase disease damage. Prolonged viral RNA shedding is associated with viral mutations and host factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding
19.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 23, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182823

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the microbial composition of the respiratory tract and other infected tissues as well as their possible pathogenic contributions to varying degrees of disease severity in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. Between 27 January and 26 February 2020, serial clinical specimens (sputum, nasal and throat swab, anal swab and feces) were collected from a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including 8 mildly and 15 severely ill patients in Guangdong province, China. Total RNA was extracted and ultra-deep metatranscriptomic sequencing was performed in combination with laboratory diagnostic assays. We identified distinct signatures of microbial dysbiosis among severely ill COVID-19 patients on broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Co-detection of other human respiratory viruses (including human alphaherpesvirus 1, rhinovirus B, and human orthopneumovirus) was demonstrated in 30.8% (4/13) of the severely ill patients, but not in any of the mildly affected patients. Notably, the predominant respiratory microbial taxa of severely ill patients were Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Mycoplasma spp. (including M. hominis and M. orale). The presence of the former two bacterial taxa was also confirmed by clinical cultures of respiratory specimens (expectorated sputum or nasal secretions) in 23.1% (3/13) of the severe cases. Finally, a time-dependent, secondary infection of B. cenocepacia with expressions of multiple virulence genes was demonstrated in one severely ill patient, which might accelerate his disease deterioration and death occurring one month after ICU admission. Our findings point to SARS-CoV-2-related microbial dysbiosis and various antibiotic-resistant respiratory microbes/pathogens in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to disease severity. Detection and tracking strategies are needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance, improve the treatment regimen and clinical outcomes of hospitalized, severely ill COVID-19 patients.

20.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-360416.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the willingness of medical undergraduates to work as volunteers for fighting COVID-19 and effect factors of willingness to volunteer. Methods: A cross-sectional online questionnaire survey which consisted of three sections with 26 items was conducted. The primary outcome was the willingness to volunteer. Descriptive analysis was used for the results of characteristics, a univariant analysis was performed by chi-square test and a multivariate analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 5499 questionnaires were issued and 5379 effective questionnaires were finally recovered. There were 1797 males (33.4%) and 3582 females (66.6%), with an average age of 20±1.5 years old. 3553(66.1%) students wanted to volunteer. Male was associated with less adjusted OR (0.68, 0.56 to 0.81) for willingness. The undergraduates in school of public health was most (3.81, 2.26 to 6.40) willing to work. The undergraduates who had often participated in voluntary activities but not regularly was 3.23(2.03-5.16) times more willing than those that never participate. Conclusion: It suggested that medical educators should emphasize voluntary activities in undergraduate medical education and continue to insistence of medical humanities and public health education to improve the social responsibility and professional identity of medical undergraduates.


Subject(s)
Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , COVID-19
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