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1.
J Virol ; : e0077522, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973793

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially the Omicron variant, have impaired the efficacy of existing vaccines and most therapeutic antibodies, highlighting the need for additional antibody-based tools that can efficiently neutralize emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The use of a "single" agent to simultaneously target multiple distinct epitopes on the spike is desirable in overcoming the neutralizing escape of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Herein, we generated a human-derived IgG-like bispecific antibody (bsAb), Bi-Nab35B5-47D10, which successfully retained parental specificity and simultaneously bound to the two distinct epitopes on receptor-binding domain (RBD) and S2. Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 showed improved spike binding breadth among wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2, variants of concern (VOCs), and variants being monitored (VBMs) compared with its parental monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Furthermore, pseudotyped virus neutralization demonstrated that Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 can efficiently neutralize VBMs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Kappa (B.1.617.1), as well as VOCs, including Delta (B.1.617.2), Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2. Crucially, Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 substantially improved neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1 (IC50 = 0.15 nM) and Omicron BA.2 (IC50 = 0.67 nM) compared with its parental MAbs. Therefore, Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 represents a potential effective countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern. IMPORTANCE The new, highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant caused substantial breakthrough infections and has become the dominant strain in countries across the world. Omicron variants usually bear high mutations in the spike protein and exhibit considerable escape of most potent neutralization monoclonal antibodies and reduced efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines. The development of neutralizing antibodies with potent efficacy against the Omicron variant is still an urgent priority. Here, we generated a bsAb, Bi-Nab35B5-47D10, which simultaneously targets SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S2 and improves the neutralizing potency and breadth against SARS-CoV-2 WT and the tested variants compared with their parental antibodies. Notably, Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 has more potent neutralizing activity against the VOC Omicron pseudotyped virus. Therefore, Bi-Nab35B5-47D10 is a feasible and potentially effective strategy by which to treat and prevent COVID-19.

2.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970993

ABSTRACT

Upon acute viral infection, virus-specific CD4+ T cells differentiate into either TH1 cells or follicular helper T (TFH) cells. The molecular pathways governing such bimodal cell fate commitment remain elusive. Additionally, effector virus-specific TFH cells further differentiate into corresponding memory population, which confer long-term protection against re-infection of same viruses by providing immediate help to virus-specific memory B cells. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term maintenance of memory TFH cells are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss current understanding of early differentiation of virus-specific effector TFH cells and long-term maintenance of virus-specific memory TFH cells in mouse models of viral infection and patients of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, especially the Delta and Omicron variants, have been reported to show significant resistance to approved neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccines. We previously identified a mAb named 35B5 that harbors broad neutralization to SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Herein, we explored the protection efficacy of a 35B5-based nasal spray against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in a small-scale clinical trial. METHODS: We enrolled 30 healthy volunteers who were nasally administrated with the modified 35B5 formulation. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after nasal spray, the neutralization efficacy of nasal mucosal samples was assayed with pseudoviruses coated with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein of the wild-type (WT), Alpha, Beta, Delta, or Omicron variants. RESULTS: The nasal mucosal samples collected within 24 hours after nasal spray effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (including Delta and Omicron). Meanwhile, the protection efficacy was 60% effective and 20% effective at 48 and 72 hours after nasal spray, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A single nasal spray of 35B5 formation conveys 24-hour effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, including the Alpha, Beta, Delta, or Omicron variants. Thus, 35B5 nasal spray might be potential in strengthening SARS-CoV-2 prevention, especially in the high-risk population.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336894

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially the Omicron variant, have impaired the efficacy of existing vaccines and most therapeutic antibodies, highlighting the need for additional antibody-based tools that can efficiently neutralize emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The use of a “single” agent to simultaneously target multiple distinct epitopes on the spike is desirable to overcome the neutralizing escape of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Herein, we generated a human-derived IgG-like bispecific antibody (bsAb), Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 , which successfully retained the specificity and simultaneously bound to the two distinct epitopes on RBD and S2. Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 showed improved spike binding breadth among wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2, variants of concern (VOCs) and variants being monitored (VBMs) compared with its parental mAbs. Furthermore, pseudotyped virus neutralization demonstrated that Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 can efficiently neutralize VBMs including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Kappa (B.1.617.1) and VOCs including Delta (B.1.617.2), Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2. Crucially, Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 substantially improved neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1 (IC 50 = 27.3 ng/mL) and Omicron BA.2 (IC 50 = 121.1 ng/mL) compared with their parental mAbs. Therefore, Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 represents a potential effective countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern. Importance The new highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant caused substantial breakthrough infections and has become the dominant strain in countries across the world. Omicron variants usually bear high mutations in the spike protein and exhibit considerable escape of most potent neutralization monoclonal antibodies and reduced efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines. The development of neutralizing antibodies with potent efficacy against the Omicron variant is still an urgent priority. Here, we generated a bsAb, Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10, that simultaneously targets SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S2 and improved neutralizing potency and breadth against SARS-CoV-2 WT and the tested variants compared with their parental antibodies. Notably, Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 has more potent neutralizing activity against the VOC Omicron pseudotyped virus. Therefore, Bi-Nab 35B5-47D10 is a feasible and potentially effective strategy to treat and prevent COVID-19.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 114, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(6): 887-895.e4, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763630

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant harbors more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, leading to immune evasion from many therapeutic neutralizing antibodies. We reveal that a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-targeting monoclonal antibody, 35B5, exhibits potent neutralizing efficacy to Omicron. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the extracellular domain trimer of Omicron spike with 35B5 Fab reveal that Omicron spike exhibits tight trimeric packing and high thermostability, as well as significant antigenic shifts and structural changes, within the RBD, N-terminal domain (NTD), and subdomains 1 and 2. However, these changes do not affect targeting of the invariant 35B5 epitope. 35B5 potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants by causing significant conformational changes within a conserved N-glycan switch that controls the transition of RBD from the "down" state to the "up" state, which allows recognition of the host entry receptor ACE2. This mode of action and potent neutralizing capacity of 35B5 indicate its potential therapeutic application for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo . Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 751584, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463475

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Though vaccines and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed to fight COVID-19 in the past year, one major concern is the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 VOCs such as B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.351 (South Africa), P.1 (Brazil), and B.1.617.1 (India) now dominate the pandemic. Herein, we found that binding activity and neutralizing capacity of sera collected from convalescent patients in early 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, but not non-VOC variants, were severely blunted. Furthermore, we observed evasion of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs from a VH3-30 mAb 32D4, which was proved to exhibit highly potential neutralization against wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Thus, these results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 VOCs might be able to spread in convalescent patients and even harbor resistance to medical countermeasures. New interventions against these SARS-CoV-2 VOCs are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 126, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147832

ABSTRACT

The efficient induction and long-term persistence of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cells are pivotal to rapidly curb the reinfection. Recent studies indicated that long-noncoding RNAs expression is highly cell- and stage-specific during T cell development and differentiation, suggesting their potential roles in T cell programs. However, the key lncRNAs playing crucial roles in memory CD8 T cell establishment remain to be clarified. Through CD8 T cell subsets profiling of lncRNAs, this study found a key lncRNA-Snhg1 with the conserved naivehi-effectorlo-memoryhi expression pattern in CD8 T cells of both mice and human, that can promote memory formation while impeding effector CD8 in acute viral infection. Further, Snhg1 was found interacting with the conserved vesicle trafficking protein Vps13D to promote IL-7Rα membrane location specifically. With the deep mechanism probing, the results show Snhg1-Vps13D regulated IL-7 signaling with its dual effects in memory CD8 generation, which not just because of the sustaining role of STAT5-BCL-2 axis for memory survival, but more through the STAT3-TCF1-Blimp1 axis for transcriptional launch program of memory differentiation. Moreover, we performed further study with finding a similar high-low-high expression pattern of human SNHG1/VPS13D/IL7R/TCF7 in CD8 T cell subsets from PBMC samples of the convalescent COVID-19 patients. The central role of Snhg1-Vps13D-IL-7R-TCF1 axis in memory CD8 establishment makes it a potential target for improving the vaccination effects to control the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-7/immunology , Proteins/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Secretory Vesicles/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , Biological Transport, Active , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Mice , Secretory Vesicles/pathology
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 113, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123128

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immunity that protects patients from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is not well characterized. In particular, the asymptomatic patients have been found to induce weak and transient SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown; meanwhile, the protective immunity that guide the recovery of these asymptomatic patients is elusive. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific B-cell and T-cell responses in 10 asymptomatic patients and 64 patients with other disease severity (mild, n = 10, moderate, n = 32, severe, n = 12) and found that asymptomatic or mild symptomatic patients failed to mount virus-specific germinal center (GC) B cell responses that result in robust and prolonged humoral immunity, assessed by GC response indicators including follicular helper T (TFH) cell and memory B cell responses as well as serum CXCL13 levels. Alternatively, these patients mounted potent virus-specific TH1 and CD8+ T cell responses. In sharp contrast, patients of moderate or severe disease induced vigorous virus-specific GC B cell responses and associated TFH responses; however, the virus-specific TH1 and CD8+ T cells were minimally induced in these patients. These results, therefore, uncovered the protective immunity in asymptomatic patients and also revealed the strikingly dichotomous and incomplete humoral and cellular immune responses in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity, providing important insights into rational design of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Th1 Cells/pathology
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 180, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744367

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients exhibit differential disease severity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is currently unknown as to the correlation between the magnitude of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In a cohort of 59 recovered patients with disease severity including severe, moderate, mild, and asymptomatic, we observed the positive correlation between serum neutralizing capacity and disease severity, in particular, the highest NAb capacity in sera from the patients with severe disease, while a lack of ability of asymptomatic patients to mount competent NAbs. Furthermore, the compositions of NAb subtypes were also different between recovered patients with severe symptoms and with mild-to-moderate symptoms. These results reveal the tremendous heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAb responses and their correlations to disease severity, highlighting the needs of future vaccination in COVID-19 patients recovered from asymptomatic or mild illness.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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