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1.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 2258(1):012013, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830920

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the domestic situation has gradually improved, but small-scale outbreaks are still frequent, the current situation of COVID-19 cannot be eased up. Using target detection algorithms to identify mask wearing to remind people to pay attention to the epidemic, can reduce the probability of cross infection in public places. YOLOv4 is a real-time target detection algorithm with fast detection speed and small size, but it has problems such as insufficient positioning of the bounding box and easy to miss the occluded targets. Based on this, we improve the algorithm and integrates the CBAM attention module into the backbone network. At the same time, the depthwise over-parameterized convolution (DO-Conv) is used to replace the ordinary convolution, which improves the network fitting ability without adding additional parameters. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has improved the positioning accuracy of the bounding box and detection accuracy.

2.
Cell Discovery ; 8(1):38-38, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1815520

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 epidemic has spread rapidly around the world and caused the death of more than 5 million people. It is urgent to develop effective strategies to treat COVID-19 patients. Here, we revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in the dysregulation of genes associated with NAD + metabolism, immune response, and cell death in mice, similar to that in COVID-19 patients. We therefore investigated the effect of treatment with NAD + and its intermediate (NMN) and found that the pneumonia phenotypes, including excessive inflammatory cell infiltration, hemolysis, and embolization in SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs were significantly rescued. Cell death was suppressed substantially by NAD + and NMN supplementation. More strikingly, NMN supplementation can protect 30% of aged mice infected with the lethal mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 from death. Mechanically, we found that NAD + or NMN supplementation partially rescued the disturbed gene expression and metabolism caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, our in vivo mouse study supports trials for treating COVID-19 patients by targeting the NAD + pathway.

3.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1802453

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPrecise prevention and control measures have been adopted to impede the transmission of COVID-19 in China. This study was performed to investigate the effect of protective measures on gastrointestinal infection in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsThe data on the rotavirus and adenovirus antigen tests were collected in outpatient children due to gastroenteritis from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. According to age and month distribution, the positive number and rate of rotavirus and adenovirus in 2020 were compared with 2019.ResultsA 3.8-fold and 4-fold reduction in the number of rotavirus- and adenovirus-positive patients in 2020 were found, respectively. The overall positive rate of rotavirus and adenovirus infection was drastically decreased in 2020 (rotavirus 2020: 18.18% vs 2019: 9.75%, P < 0.001;adenovirus 2020: 3.13% vs 2019: 1.58%, P < 0.001). The proportions of rotavirus and adenovirus in all age groups in 2020 decreased compared with those in 2019. The highest frequency of rotavirus infection occurred among children aged 1?3 years both in 2019 and 2020 (2019: 27.95% vs 2020: 17.19%, P < 0.001), while adenovirus infection was detected in children aged 3?5 years, which had the highest percent positivity (2019: 8.19% vs 2020: 4.46%;P < 0.001). An obvious peak prevalence of rotavirus incidence was found during December-April, and the percent positivity of rotavirus significantly decreased in 2020 (December 2019: 24.26% vs 2020: 8.44%, P < 0.001;January 2019: 40.67% vs 2020: 38.18%, P < 0.05;February 2019: 40.73% vs 2020: 15.04%, P < 0.001;March 2019: 31.47% vs 2020: 7.88%, P < 0.001;April 2019: 15.52% vs 2020: 4.78%, P < 0.001). The positive rate of adenovirus distributed throughout 2019 was 1.91%-4.86%, while the percent positivity during 2020 in the same period was much lower (0.00%-3.58%).ConclusionsOur results confirmed that the preventive and control measures adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic and the collateral benefit of these interventions have significantly decreased the transmission of rotavirus or adenovirus.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333031

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

5.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786456

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 843463, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779935

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, a series of preventive and control measures in China have been used to effectively curb the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: MP IgM antibody and CP IgM antibody were detected in all hospitalized children due to acute respiratory tract infection in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University from January 2019 to December 2020. These data were compared between 2019 and 2020 based on age and month. Results: The overall detection rate of MP and CP in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019 (MP: 21.5% vs 32.9%, P<0.001; CP: 0.3% vs 0.9%, P<0.001). This study found a 4-fold reduction in the number of children positive for MP and a 7.5-fold reduction in the number of children positive for CP from 2019 to 2020. The positive cases were concentrated in children aged >1 year old. In 2019, the positive rate of MP was detected more commonly in children 3 years of age or older than in younger children. In 2020, the higher positive rate of MP reached a peak in the 3- to 6-year age group (35.3%). CP was detected predominantly in children aged 6 years older in 2019 and 2020, with positive rates of 4.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive rates of MP in 2019 were detected more commonly in July, August and September, with 47.2%, 46.7% and 46.3%, respectively. Nevertheless, the positive rates of MP from February to December 2020 apparently decreased compared to those in 2019. The positive rates of CP were evenly distributed throughout the year, with 0.5%-1.6% in 2019 and 0.0%-2.1% in 2020. Conclusions: A series of preventive and control measures for SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic can not only contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 but also sharply improve the infection of other atypical pathogens, including MP and CP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydophila Infections , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776745

ABSTRACT

First-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have played a significant role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, preventing severe diseases, and reducing mortality. However, the continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the persistence of breakthrough infections, and the seemingly rapid decline in the protective efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have presented additional challenges for the next phase. There is an urgent need to confirm the necessity of further booster vaccination and combination vaccine approaches. This paper summarizes the latest literature on SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccine effectiveness and concludes that it is essential to implement booster immunization strategies. Priority should be given to high-risk groups, the elderly, and immunocompromised people. In addition, heterologous vaccination has a longer duration of effect and a broader spectrum than homologous vaccination, making it more conducive to managing the immune escape of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
Inf Process Manag ; 59(3): 102932, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757434

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are experiencing enormous physical changes and suffering pregnancy-related losses, which may lead to depression symptoms during pregnancy. Given that the onslaught of COVID-19 had exacerbated pregnant women's anxiety because of disruptions in antenatal care and concerns regarding safe delivery, it is worth exploring how they obtain social support to cope with stress during COVID-19. Although many works have explored the impact of coping resources that people have on coping strategies, few studies have been done on the relationship between people's coping strategies and their acquisition of coping resources such as social support. To fill this gap, based on the stress and coping theory (SCT) and social penetration theory (SPT), this study investigates the impacts of pregnant women's different coping strategies on the acquisition of social support and the moderating role of the adverse impacts of COVID-19 and their online participation roles (support providers vs. support seekers) using the data of 814 pregnant women's online behavior from a parenting community in China. Our study indicates that both women's superficial level disclosure and personal level disclosure positively affect online social support received. Moreover, self-disclosure about the adverse impacts of COVID-19 negatively moderates the relationship between personal level disclosure and social support received. Participation role positively moderates the relationship between personal level disclosure and social support received, but negatively moderates the relationship between superficial level disclosure and social support received. This paper makes theoretical contributions to the literature of SCT, SPT and the literature about social support in online communities.

10.
Annals of Translational Medicine ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733031

ABSTRACT

On 28 July 2021, the first indigenous case of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged in Yangzhou, marking the beginning of a public health crisis caused by the new coronavirus pneumonia. It is a significant challenge for hospitals to carry out prevention and control measures to ensure the safety of medical professionals and patients when facing the changes in an epidemic situation. Subei People’s Hospital, as one of the first group of “Grade III-class A” hospitals in Jiangsu Province and the Yangzhou Regional Medical Centre, responded quickly and scientifically to prevent and control the disease. A closed-loop management system was implemented at the hospital entrance (consisting of the outpatient clinic, emergency clinic, fever clinic, and buffer ward) and an epidemic prevention and control group was established with the assistance of multiple departments. This group optimized the pre-screening and triage system, standardized the fever clinic consultation process, and improved the construction of an information-based prevention and control network so that patients were detected, diagnosed, isolated, and treated early. The emergency management capability was improved to achieve zero missed consultations of patients attending for COVID-19 and to effectively maintain medical order during this critical period. This current report systematically summarizes the operational practices and the effectiveness achieved by implementation of the entrance closed-loop management in the hospital and analyzed the key operational issues for future reference by medical institutions and management departments.

11.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(2): 100221, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713028

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic and readily transmissible SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global coronavirus pandemic, urgently requiring effective countermeasures against its rapid expansion. All available vaccine platforms are being used to generate safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we generated a live-attenuated candidate vaccine strain by serial passaging of a SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate in Vero cells. Deep sequencing revealed the dynamic adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, resulting in a stable clone with a deletion of seven amino acids (N679SPRRAR685) at the S1/S2 junction of the S protein (named VAS5). VAS5 showed significant attenuation of replication in multiple human cell lines, human airway epithelium organoids, and hACE2 mice. Viral fitness competition assays demonstrated that VAS5 showed specific tropism to Vero cells but decreased fitness in human cells compared with the parental virus. More importantly, a single intranasal injection of VAS5 elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies and prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as well as close-contact transmission in golden Syrian hamsters. Structural and biochemical analysis revealed a stable and locked prefusion conformation of the S trimer of VAS5, which most resembles SARS-CoV-2-3Q-2P, an advanced vaccine immunogen (NVAX-CoV2373). Further systematic antigenic profiling and immunogenicity validation confirmed that the VAS5 S trimer presents an enhanced antigenic mimic of the wild-type S trimer. Our results not only provide a potent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against COVID-19 but also clarify the molecular and structural basis for the highly attenuated and super immunogenic phenotype of VAS5.

12.
Cell Res ; 32(4): 375-382, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707327

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies represent important weapons in our arsenal to against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this potential is severely limited by the time-consuming process of developing effective antibodies and the relative high cost of manufacturing. Herein, we present a rapid and cost-effective lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated-mRNA platform for in vivo delivery of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies. Two mRNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody HB27, which is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, were encapsulated into clinical grade LNP formulations (named as mRNA-HB27-LNP). In vivo characterization demonstrated that intravenous administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP in mice resulted in a longer circulating half-life compared with the original HB27 antibody in protein format. More importantly, a single prophylactic administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice at 1, 7 and even 63 days post administration. In a close contact transmission model, prophylactic administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection between hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, our results demonstrate a superior long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 conferred by a single administration of this unique mRNA antibody, highlighting the potential of this universal platform for antibody-based disease prevention and therapy against COVID-19 as well as a variety of other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2376-2383, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669585

ABSTRACT

Recently, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was first identified in Botswana in November 2021. It was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on November 24. On November 26, 2021, according to the advice of scientists who are part of the WHO's Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution (TAG-VE), the WHO defined the strain as a variant of concern (VOC) and named it Omicron. Compared to the other four VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta), the Omicron variant was the most highly mutated strain, with 50 mutations accumulated throughout the genome. The Omicron variant contains at least 32 mutations in the spike protein, which was twice as many as the Delta variant. Studies have shown that carrying many mutations can increase infectivity and immune escape of the Omicron variant compared with the early wild-type strain and the other four VOCs. The Omicron variant is becoming the dominant strain in many countries worldwide and brings new challenges to preventing and controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The current review article aims to analyze and summarize information data about the biological characteristics of amino acid mutations, the epidemic characteristics, immune escape, and vaccine reactivity of the Omicron variant, hoping to provide a scientific reference for monitoring, prevention, and vaccine development strategies for the Omicron variant.

14.
Microbes Infect ; : 104945, 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654933

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is raging worldwide. The COVID-19 outbreak caused severe threats to the life and health of all humans caused by SARS-CoV-2. Clinically, there is an urgent need for an in vitro diagnostic product to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid quickly. Under this background, commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid POCT products came into being. However, how to choose these products and how to use these products in a standardized way have brought new puzzles to clinical laboratories. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of these commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid POCT products and helps the laboratory make the correct choice. At the same time, to standardize the use of this kind of product, this paper also puts forward corresponding suggestions from six elements of total quality management, namely, human, machine, material, method, environment, and measurement. In addition, this paper also puts forward some ideas on the future development direction of POCT products.

15.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1866-1875, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650510

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly worldwide, posing a severe threat to public life and health. It is significant to realize rapid testing and timely control of epidemic situations under the condition of limited resources. However, laboratory-based standardized nucleic acid detection methods have a long turnaround time and high cost, so it is urgent to develop convenient methods for detecting COVID-19. This paper summarizes the point-of-care testing (POCT) developed for novel coronavirus from three aspects: nucleic acid extraction, nucleic acid amplification, and detection methods. This paper introduces a commercial real-time detection system that integrates the abovementioned three steps and the matters needing attention in use. The primary purpose of this review is to provide a reference for emergency response and rapid deployment of COVID-19 and some other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3836-3840, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628304

ABSTRACT

Respirators are important personal protective equipment to reduce the exposure of respiratory tract infections in health care workers (HCW). It is important to choose suitable respirators through fit testing and wear them correctly. This article introduced the classification of respirators and summarized the purposes, methods and requirements of fit testing, as well as the challenges when performing it. Users can choose the suitable respirators including powered air-purifying respirators and tight-fitting facepiece only when they passed fit testing. Qualitative fit testing (QLFT) and quantitative fit testing (QNFT) assays were two categories of fit testing and studies showed that the effect of QNFT in the detection of leaks was better than that of QLFT. Users should perform fit checking everytime in order to wear the respirator correctly although the respirators were screened by fit testing before. It was difficult to implement fit testing during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the shortage of respirator supply. But now domestic and foreign institutions have re-emphasized the supervision of respirator fit testing as the supply of respirators resumes. Although the fit testing of respirators needs the support of clinical technical systems and faces various cost challenges, it not only has high education value but also provides effective protection for the HCW in medical institutions.

18.
Microbes Infect ; 24(1): 104911, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625930

ABSTRACT

Considering common childhood respiratory viruses and SARS-CoV-2 share similar transmission routes, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to prevent SARS-CoV-2 may affect the epidemiology of respiratory viruses. Therefore, our study aimed to observe the epidemiologic characteristics of common childhood respiratory viruses in 2020 (after the pandemic) compared with 2019 (before the pandemic) in Hangzhou, China. The data were compared between 2019 and 2020 based on age and month, respectively. One or more viruses were detected in 3135/21452 (14.61%) specimens in 2019, which was significantly lower in 1110/8202 (13.53%) specimens in 2020. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most commonly detected virus in 2019 and 2020. The positive rate of adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV)1, PIV2, and PIV3 in 2020 was significantly decreased in 2019. In 2020, RSV replaced ADV as the most predominant virus in children aged 1-6 years, and the positive rate of influenza virus A (FluA), influenza virus B (FluB), PIV1, and PIV2 was not correlated to age. FluA, FluB, and PIV2 were not almost detected from February 2020. The positive rates of ADV and PIV1 were uncorrelated to the month in 2020. By strict NPIs, besides controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, incredible progress has been made to reduce the prevalence of common childhood respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Epidemiologic Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Influenza B virus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2369-2375, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625507

ABSTRACT

At present, the global COVID-19 epidemic has not been completely controlled, and epidemic prevention and control still face severe challenges. As there is no specific treatment for COVID-19, promoting roll-out vaccinations and building herd immunity are still the most effective and economic measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the neutralizing antibody level in the recipients decreases with time, and the vaccine's protective efficacy gradually weakens. It is still inconclusive whether it is necessary to carry out booster vaccination to strengthen the immune barrier to infection. In this paper, we combined the existing data on the effectiveness and persistence of COVID-19 vaccines. We found that it is necessary to carry out a booster vaccination strategy. However, not all subjects need to receive one more dose of vaccine 6 months after the initial immunization. Priority should be given to the high-risk groups, such as the elderly and people with immunodeficiency. A heterologous booster can induce higher immune responses and enhance immune protection than homologous vaccinations. However, more scientific data and clinical studies are needed to verify the safety of heterologous vaccination strategies.

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