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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323529

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic would affect pregnancy-associated factors of uninfected pregnant women was rarely reported.Methods: A total of 32,277 pregnant women from six sites (Hubei Province, Guangdong Province, Hebei Province, Shandong Province, Yunnan Province and Beijing City) were finally recruited. We conducted a retrospective combined cohort study to analyze the associations between the number of prenatal examinations (NPE), delivery gestational week (DGW), the risk of caesarean section (CS), stillbirth, neonatal weight, preterm birth, macrosomia, small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and the COVID-19 in two time-periods, the pre-pandemic period (P-2019, 1/1/19-5/31/19) and the pandemic period (P-2020, 1/1/20-5/31/20).Findings: After adjusting for other covariates, we found the NPE, DGW, and SGA were negatively associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the CS and preterm birth rates were positively associated with the COVID-19, with adjusted relative risks (aRRs) of 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.17] and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.02–1.84) respectively in Hubei. For Guangdong, the associations of CS and preterm birth with the COVID-19 were similar in Hubei. In contrast, limited associations were evident in other areas, except for a positive association with macrosomia [aRR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.55)] in Beijing.Interpretation: The CS and preterm birth rates increased slightly in areas that were more affected by the pandemic than other areas among uninfected pregnant women. NPEs were not significantly interrupted and most maternal and neonatal clinical characteristics were within the normal ranges.Funding: National Key Research and Development Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China and National Health Commission Capacity Building and Continuing Education Center.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare to have no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Peking University ethics board (no. IRB00001052-20025).

2.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(10): 199-206, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116445

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: What is already known about this topic? The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic potentially affected prenatal care quality and maternal and fetal outcomes globally.What is added by this report? During COVID-19 pandemic period, the rates of caesarean sections (CS) and preterm birth for uninfected pregnant women increased slightly in areas that were relatively severely impacted by the pandemic in China. The overall number of prenatal examinations did not dramatically decrease, while the eligible examinations significantly decreased in Hubei Province.What are the implications for public health practice? Routine prenatal examinations had been well maintained during the pandemic period in China. In the future, in-time prenatal examinations should be provided to improve the quality of screening and management of high-risk pregnancy under pandemic-affected circumstances. Psychological counseling and transfer treatment channels should be strengthened for pregnant women during lockdown period.

3.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(1): 100071, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978457

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has already become a global pandemic and containing this rapid worldwide transmission is of great challenge. The impacts of temperature and humidity on the COVID-19 transmission rate are still under discussion. Here, we elucidated these relationships by utilizing two unique scenarios, repeated measurement and natural experiment, using the COVID-19 cases reported from January 23 - February 21, 2020, in China. The modeling results revealed that higher temperature was most strongly associated with decreased COVID-19 transmission at a lag time of 8 days. Relative humidity (RH) appeared to have only a slight effect. These findings were verified by assessing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity under the relevant conditions of temperature (4°C-37°C) and RH (> 40%). We concluded that temperature increase made an important, but not determined, contribution to restrain the COVID-19 outbreak in China. It suggests that the emphasis of other effective controlling polices should be strictly implemented to restrain COVID-19 transmission in cold seasons.

4.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100026, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693467

ABSTRACT

Recently, considerable efforts have been focused on intensifying the screening process for asymptomatic COVID-19 cases in the Chinese Mainland, especially for up to 10 million citizens living in Wuhan City by nucleic acid testing. However, a high percentage of domestic asymptomatic cases did not develop into symptomatic ones, which is abnormal and has drawn considerable public attention. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 infections in the Chinese Mainland from a statistical perspective, as it is of referential significance for other regions. By conservatively assuming a development time lag from pre-symptomatic (i.e., referring to the infected cases that were screened before the COVID-19 symptom onset) to symptomatic as an incubation time of 5.2 days, our results indicated that 92.5% of those tested in Wuhan City, China, and 95.1% of those tested in the Chinese Mainland should have COVID-19 syndrome onset, which was extremely higher than their corresponding practical percentages of 0.8% and 3.3%, respectively. We propose that a certain false positive rate may exist if large-scale nucleic acid screening tests for asymptomatic cases are conducted in common communities with a low incidence rate. Despite adopting relatively high-sensitivity, high-specificity detection kits, we estimated a very low prevalence of COVID-19 infections, ranging from 10-6 to 10-4 in both Wuhan City and the Chinese Mainland. Thus, the prevalence rate of asymptomatic infections in China had been at a very low level. Furthermore, given the lower prevalence of the infection, close examination of the data for false positive results is necessary to minimize social and economic impacts.

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