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1.
Cities ; : 104104, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104569

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought huge challenges to sustainable urban and community development. Although some recovery signals and patterns have been uncovered, the intra-city recovery process remains underexploited. This study proposes a comprehensive approach to quantify COVID-19 recovery leveraging fine-grained human mobility records. Taking Wuhan, a typical COVID-19 affected megacity in China, as the study area, we identify accurate recovery phases and select appropriate recovery functions in a data-driven manner. We observe that recovery characteristics regarding duration, amplitude, and velocity exhibit notable differences among urban blocks. We also notice that the recovery process under a one-wave outbreak lasts at least 84 days and has an S-shaped form best fitted with four-parameter Logistic functions. More than half of the recovery variance can be well explained and estimated by common variables from auxiliary data, including population, economic level, and built environments. Our study serves as a valuable reference that supports data-driven recovery quantification for COVID-19 and other crises.

2.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science ; 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1330428

ABSTRACT

More than a year after its appearance and still rampant around the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted tragically how poorly the world is prepared to handle systemic risks in an increasingly hyper-connected global social-ecological system. The absence or clear inadequacy of global governance arrangements and mechanisms is painfully distinct and obvious. In this short article, we summarize a set of COVID-19 pandemic-related analyses and lessons that are inspired by Chinese practice. First, strong government response is one of the most important methods to control a pandemic. Second, countries should be concerned about human-to-frozen goods-to-human transmission. Third, sharing resources and experiences through cooperation is crucial to ensure an adequate health response. Based on these insights, we stress the critical importance of coordination and cooperation, and call for a global network to enhance integrated human health risk resilience.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260139

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a huge threat to global health. Due to the lack of definitive etiological therapeutics currently, effective disease monitoring is of high clinical value for better healthcare and management of the large number of COVID-19 patients. In this study, we recruited 37 COVID-19 patients, collected 176 blood samples upon diagnosis and during treatment, and analyzed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in these samples. We report gross abnormalities in cfDNA of COVID-19 patients, including elevated GC content, altered molecule size and end motif patterns. More importantly, such cfDNA characteristics reflect patient-specific physiological conditions during treatment. Further analysis on tissue origin tracing of cfDNA reveals frequent tissue injuries in COVID-19 patients, which is supported by clinical diagnoses. Hence, we demonstrate the translational merit of cfDNA as valuable analyte for effective disease monitoring, as well as tissue injury assessment in COVID-19 patients.

5.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(14): 2959-2976, 2020 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging, rapidly evolving disease that spreads through the respiratory system and is highly contagious. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. In China, the pandemic was controlled after 2 mo through effective policies and containment measures. Describing the detailed policies and containment measures used to control the epidemic in Chongqing will provide a reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in other areas of the world. AIM: To explore the effects of different policies and containment measures on the control of the COVID-19 epidemic in Chongqing. METHODS: Epidemiological data on COVID-19 in Chongqing were prospectively collected from January 21 to March 15, 2020. The policies and prevention measures implemented by the government during the epidemic period were also collected. Trend analysis was performed to explore the impact of the main policy measures on the effectiveness of the control of COVID-19 in Chongqing. RESULTS: As of March 15, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in Chongqing was 1.84/100000 (576 cases) and the infection fatality rate was 1.04% (6/576). The spread of COVID-19 was controlled by effective policies that involved establishing a group for directing the COVID-19 epidemic control effort; strengthening guidance and supervision; ensuring the supply of daily necessities and medical supplies and equipment to residents; setting up designated hospitals; implementing legal measures; and enhancing health education. Medical techniques were implemented to improve the recovery rate and control the epidemic. Policies such as "the lockdown of Wuhan", "initiating a first-level response to major public health emergencies", and "implementing the closed management of residential communities" significantly curbed the spread of COVID-19. Optimizing the diagnosis process, shortening the diagnosis time, and constructing teams of clinical experts facilitated the provision of "one team of medical experts for each patient" treatment for severe patients, which significantly improved the recovery rate and reduced the infection fatality rate. CONCLUSION: The prevention policies and containment measures implemented by the government and medical institutions are highly effective in controlling the spread of the epidemic and increasing the recovery rate of COVID-19 patients.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20155150

ABSTRACT

System-wide molecular characteristics of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. We compared extensive molecular profiles of blood samples from 231 COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill, importantly excluding those with any comorbidities. Amongst the major findings, asymptomatic patients were characterized by highly activated anti-virus interferon, T/natural killer (NK) cell activation, and transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. However, given very abundant RNA binding proteins (RBPs), these cytokine mRNAs could be effectively destabilized hence preserving normal cytokine levels. In contrast, in critically ill patients, cytokine storm due to RBPs inhibition and tryptophan metabolites accumulation contributed to T/NK cell dysfunction. A machine-learning model was constructed which accurately stratified the COVID-19 severities based on their multi-omics features. Overall, our analysis provides insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and identifies targets for intervening in treatment.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20124305

ABSTRACT

Clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia and death. Detection of individuals at high risk for critical condition is crucial for control of the disease. Herein, for the first time, we profiled and analyzed plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of mild and severe COVID-19 patients. We found that in comparison between mild and severe COVID-19 patients, Interleukin-37 signaling was one of the most relevant pathways; top significantly altered genes included POTEH, FAM27C, SPATA48, which were mostly expressed in prostate and testis; adrenal glands, small intestines and liver were tissues presenting most differentially expressed genes. Our data thus revealed potential tissue involvement, provided insights into mechanism on COVID-19 progression, and highlighted utility of cfDNA as a noninvasive biomarker for disease severity inspections. One Sentence SummaryCfDNA analysis in COVID-19 patients reveals severity-related tissue damage.

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