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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107485, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108361

ABSTRACT

The lungs are directly connected to the external environment, which makes them more vulnerable to infection and injury. They are protected by the respiratory epithelium and immune cells to maintain a dynamic balance. Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of unconventional T cells, which have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Although MAIT cells account for a small part of the total immune cells in the lungs, evidence suggests that these cells are activated by T cell receptors and/or cytokine receptors and mediate immune response. They play an important role in immunosurveillance and immunity against microbial infection, and recent studies have shown that subsets of MAIT cells play a role in promoting pulmonary inflammation. Emerging data indicate that MAIT cells are involved in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and possible immunopathogenesis in COVID-19. Here, we introduce MAIT cell biology to clarify their role in the immune response. Then we review MAIT cells in human and murine lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer, and discuss their possible protective and pathological effects. MAIT cells represent an attractive marker and potential therapeutic target for disease progression, thus providing new strategies for the treatment of lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans
2.
Lancet ; 395(10236): 1569-1578, 2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. INTERPRETATION: In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits. However, the numerical reduction in time to clinical improvement in those treated earlier requires confirmation in larger studies. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19, National Key Research and Development Program of China, the Beijing Science and Technology Project.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Diabetes ; 12(12): 909-918, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a more severe condition compared to those without diabetes, the mechanisms for this are unknown. Moreover, the impact of treatment with antihyperglycemic drugs and glucocorticoids is unclear. METHODS: From 1584 COVID-19 patients, 364 severe/critical COVID-19 patients with clinical outcome were enrolled for the final analysis, and patients without preexisting T2DM but elevated glucose levels were excluded. Epidemiological data were obtained and clinical status evaluation carried out to assess the impact of T2DM and its management on clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Of 364 enrolled severe COVID-19 inpatients, 114 (31.3%) had a history of T2DM. Twenty-seven (23.7%) T2DM patients died, who had more severe inflammation, coagulation activation, myocardia injury, hepatic injury, and kidney injury compared with non-DM patients. In severe COVID-19 patients with T2DM, we demonstrated a higher risk of all-cause fatality with glucocorticoid treatment (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.61; 95% CI, 1.14-11.46; P = .029) and severe hyperglycemia (fasting plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L; adjusted HR, 11.86; 95% CI, 1.21-116.44; P = .034). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM status aggravated the clinical condition of COVID-19 patients and increased their critical illness risk. Poor fasting blood glucose (≥ 11.1 mmol/L) and glucocorticoid treatment are associated with poor prognosis for T2DM patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Survival Rate
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