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2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116010

ABSTRACT

The unique mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant are associated with increased transmissibility, immune escape, increased binding affinity to ACE-2, and increased viral load. Omicron exhibited a shift in tropism infecting the upper respiratory tract compared to other variants of concern which have tropism for the lower respiratory tract. The tropism of omicron variants in cell lines of different hosts and tissue origins still remains unclear. Considering this, we assessed the susceptibility of different cell lines to the SARS-CoV-2 omicron BA.1.1 variant and permissiveness among different cell lines for omicron replication. Susceptibility and permissiveness of a total of eleven cell lines, including six animal cell lines and five human cell lines for omicron BA.1.1 infection, were evaluated by infecting individual cell lines with omicron BA.1.1 isolate at a 0.1 multiplicity of infection. Virus replication was assessed by observation of cytopathic effects followed by viral load determination by real-time PCR assay and virus infectivity determination by TCID50 assay. The characteristic cytopathic effect, increased viral load, and productive omicron replication was detected in Vero CCL-81, Vero E6, Vero/hSLAM, MA-104, and Calu-3 cells. Although LLC MK-2 cells showed an increased TCID50 titer at the second infection, the viral load did not show much difference in both infections. Caco-2 cells did not show evident CPE, but they supported omicron replication at a low level. A549, RD, MRC-5, and BHK-21 cells supported omicron BA.1.1 replication without the CPE. This is the first study on the comparison of susceptibility of different cell lines to Omicron variant BA.1.1, which might be useful for future studies on emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
iScience ; 25(10): 105178, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041842

ABSTRACT

The immunity acquired after natural infection or vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 tend to wane with time. Here, we compared the protective efficacy of COVAXIN® following two- and three-dose immunizations against the Delta variant and also studied the efficacy of COVAXIN® against Omicron variants in a Syrian hamster model. Despite the comparable neutralizing antibody response against the homologous vaccine strain in both the two-dose and three-dose immunized groups, considerable reduction in the lung disease severity was observed in the 3 dose immunized group after Delta variant challenge. In the challenge study using the Omicron variants, i.e., BA.1.1 and BA.2, lesser virus shedding, lung viral load and lung disease severity were observed in the immunized groups. The present study shows that administration of COVAXIN® booster dose will enhance the vaccine effectiveness against the Delta variant infection and give protection against the BA.1.1 and BA.2 variants.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 818545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731870

ABSTRACT

We report here a Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Kozhikode district of Kerala state, India, which had caused fatal encephalitis in a 12-year-old boy and the outbreak response, which led to the successful containment of the disease and the related investigations. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA-based antibody detection, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed to confirm the NiV infection. Contacts of the index case were traced and isolated based on risk categorization. Bats from the areas near the epicenter of the outbreak were sampled for throat swabs, rectal swabs, and blood samples for NiV screening by real-time RT-PCR and anti-NiV bat immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA. A plaque reduction neutralization test was performed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies. Nipah viral RNA could be detected from blood, bronchial wash, endotracheal (ET) secretion, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and anti-NiV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies from the serum sample of the index case. Rapid establishment of an onsite NiV diagnostic facility and contact tracing helped in quick containment of the outbreak. NiV sequences retrieved from the clinical specimen of the index case formed a sub-cluster with the earlier reported Nipah I genotype sequences from India with more than 95% similarity. Anti-NiV IgG positivity could be detected in 21% of Pteropus medius (P. medius) and 37.73% of Rousettus leschenaultia (R. leschenaultia). Neutralizing antibodies against NiV could be detected in P. medius. Stringent surveillance and awareness campaigns need to be implemented in the area to reduce human-bat interactions and minimize spillover events, which can lead to sporadic outbreaks of NiV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nipah Virus , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Nipah Virus/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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