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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809899

ABSTRACT

This study examined the difficulty encountered by caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in managing children's smartphone use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the caregiver- and children-related factors that influence this difficulty. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD were recruited into this study. The caregivers completed a research questionnaire to provide data regarding the difficulty they encountered in managing the smartphone use of children during the COVID-19 pandemic, their general mental health and parenting styles, and the ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms of the children they are caring for. The results indicated that almost 45% of the caregivers of children with ADHD sometimes or often found it difficult to manage the smartphone use of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the caregivers, a short duration of education, poor general mental health, unaffectionate/uncaring and overprotective parenting styles, older children, and inattention and ODD symptoms were significantly associated with increased difficulty in managing their children's smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic. On the basis of the relevant factors identified in this study, an intervention should be developed to enhance the skills of caregivers of children with ADHD with respect to the management of children's smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , Smartphone
3.
Risk management and healthcare policy ; 15:435-445, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743910

ABSTRACT

Purpose The percentage of individuals who were fully vaccinated against COVID-19 was 53% worldwide, 62% in Asia, and 11% in Africa at the time of writing (February 9, 2022). In addition to administrative issues, vaccine hesitancy is an important factor contributing to the relatively low rate of vaccination. The Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed to assess COVID-19 vaccination acceptance levels. However, it has only been tested among Taiwanese, mainland Chinese, and Ghanaian populations (Chen et al, 2021;Fan et al, 2021;Yeh et al, 2021). Therefore, the present study examined the construct validity and measurement invariance of the MoVac-COVID19S among individuals from five countries (ie, Taiwan, mainland China, India, Ghana, and Afghanistan). Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey study recruited 6053 participants across five countries who completed the survey between January and March 2021. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) fit indices were used to examine factor structure and measurement invariance across the five countries. Results The fit indices of the CFA were relatively good across the countries except for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Moreover, the four-factor structure (either nine or 12 items) had a better fit than the one-factor structure. However, the four-factor model using nine MoVac-COVID19S items was the only model that had measurement invariance support for both factor loadings and item intercepts across the five countries. Conclusion The present study confirmed that the MoVac-COVID19S has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess an individual’s willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of people's lives all over the world. This Facebook survey study aimed to investigate the COVID-19-related factors that were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts among members of the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. The online survey recruited 1970 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported experience of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the previous week were collected along with a number of COVID-19-related factors, including level of worry, change in social interaction and daily lives, any academic/occupational interference, levels of social and specific support, and self-reported physical health. In total, 55.8% of the participants reported sleep disturbance, and 10.8% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous week. Multiple COVID-19-related factors were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased worry about COVID-19, more severe impact of COVID-19 on social interaction, lower perceived social support, more severe academic/occupational interference due to COVID-19, lower COVID-19-specified support, and poorer self-reported physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Less handwashing, lower perceived social support, lower COVID-19-specified support, poorer self-reported physical health, and younger age were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts. Further investigation is needed to understand the changes in mental health among the public since the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Media , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315172

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : This study aimed to develop a model for estimating the mediating effects of risk perception and confidence on the association between perceived social support and active coping with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among people in Taiwan. Methods: : The data of 1,970 participants recruited from a Facebook advertisement was analyzed. Perceived social support, active coping with COVID-19, risk perception and confidence were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires. Results: : The structural equation modeling was applied to verify the direct and indirect effects between variables. The mediation model demonstrated that lower perceived social support was significantly associated with a higher level of active coping with COVID-19, and this was mediated by a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: : The present study identified the importance of risk perception on the public’s coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308193

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals’ willingness to vaccinate. The present study developed and validated the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). Methods: A total of 3145 university students (mean age=20.80 years;SD=2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. Results: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω=0.921) and 12-item version (ω=0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.984, TLI=0.971, RMSEA=0.088, SRMR=0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. Conclusions: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.

8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(2): 253-260, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To well control the pandemic of COVID-19, herd immunity should be achieved. However, people, especially those with better physical conditions (e.g., young adults), may not accept COVID-19 vaccines. Understanding university students' willingness or reluctance to uptake COVID-19 vaccination is important. AIM: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the DrVac-COVID19S, an instrument that helps assess motivations/drivers of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among university students. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using convenience sampling and cross-sectional design, university students (930 from Taiwan [38.0% males] and 1,244 from Ghana [63.3% males]) completed the DrVac-COVID19S using an online survey (Taiwanese students) or paper-and-pen method (Ghanaian students). Rasch analysis was used to examine the psychometric properties of the DrVac-COVID19S. RESULTS: All 12 items in the DrVac-COVID19S had a satisfactory fit in the Rasch models (infit MnSq = 0.74 to 1.49; outfit MnSq = 0.72 to 1.42). Moreover, the seven-point Likert scale used in the DrVac-COVID19S demonstrated monotonically increasing in their difficulties, which indicated the ordered category. Additionally, no differential item functioning was displayed in the DrVacCOVID-19S across Taiwanese and Ghanaian students. CONCLUSIONS: The DrVacCOVID-19S has good psychometric features to help healthcare providers assess individuals' (especially university students) motivations or drivers to get the COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534246

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed (1) to identify distinct latent classes of motivation to get vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and previous seasonal influenza vaccination among people in Taiwan and (2) to examine the roles of sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 in these classes. We recruited 1047 participants through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19, previous seasonal influenza vaccination, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, risk perception of COVID-19, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 were determined. We examined the participants' motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and previous seasonal influenza vaccination through latent profile analysis. Four latent classes of motivation were identified: participants with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but low seasonal influenza vaccination, those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but high seasonal influenza vaccination, and those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination. Compared with participants in the latent class of high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those in the other three latent classes had lower levels of positive appraisals of COVID-19 vaccination; participants in the latent class of low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination had lower risk perception of COVID-19 and were also less likely to obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the internet, friends, and family members. The various motivations and behaviors for vaccination, sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase people's motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430991

ABSTRACT

Vaccination appears to be one of the effective strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the challenge of vaccine hesitancy may lower the uptake rate and affect overall vaccine efficacy. Being a low-risk group in terms of serious consequences of infection, university students may possess low motivation to get vaccinated. Therefore, an expanded Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) incorporating perceived knowledge, adaptive response, and maladaptive response was proposed to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination intention among Taiwanese university students. University students (n = 924; 575 males; mean age = 25.29 years) completed an online survey during January to February 2021. The proposed expanded PMT model was examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that perceived knowledge was significantly associated with coping appraisal (standardized coefficient (ß) = 0.820; p < 0.001), and coping appraisal was significantly associated with adaptive response (ß = 0.852; p < 0.001), maladaptive response (ß = 0.300; p < 0.001) and intention (ß = 0.533; p = 0.009). Moreover, maladaptive response (ß = -0.173; p = 0.001) but not adaptive response (ß = 0.148; p = 0.482) was significantly and negatively associated with intention. The present study's results demonstrated a positive path between perceived knowledge, coping appraisal, and intention among university students. Therefore, improving knowledge among this population may increase the intention to uptake the vaccine.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409601

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thrown out a challenge to caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the factors related to the poor general mental health state of the caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) difficulties of caregivers in asking their child to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19, (2) difficulties of caregivers in managing the child's daily performance, and (3) worsened psychological symptoms in children. In total, 161 caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their general mental health state and difficulties in asking their child with ADHD to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19 and in managing the child's after-school learning, sleep routine, and internet use, as well as worsened psychological symptoms. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that caregivers' difficulties in managing ADHD children's self-protective behaviors and after-school learning and the children's worsened emotional symptoms were significantly associated with poor caregiver general mental health state. An intervention that enhances the mental health of caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing their difficulties in managing the children's behaviors and psychological problems is warranted.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390811

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to examine the proportion of caregivers who were hesitant to vaccinate their children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the factors related to caregiver intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. In total, 161 caregivers of children with ADHD were recruited in this study. The caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, concerns about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, unfavorable family attitudes toward vaccines, and children's medication use for ADHD and comorbid psychopathology. The factors related to caregiver intentions to vaccinate their child were examined using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that 25.5% of caregivers were hesitant to vaccinate their children with ADHD, and 11.8% refused to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. The caregivers' concerns about the safety of vaccines and children's regular use of medication for ADHD were negatively associated with caregiver intentions to vaccinate, whereas the children's comorbid conduct or oppositional defiant problems were positively associated with the caregiver intentions to vaccinate. An intervention that enhances caregiver intentions to vaccinate their children with ADHD against COVID-19 by addressing the related factors found in this study is warranted.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325809

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were (1) to identify the variables related to denying the justification for vaccination during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Taiwan and (2) to examine the associations of such denial with perceived risk of COVID-19 and the extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. We investigated whether the participants denied justification for vaccination as well as their sociodemographic characteristics, mental health status, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, perceived risk of COVID-19, and extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. The results indicated that 20.0% of the participants denied justification for vaccination. Participants who were older, had an educational level below college, were not health care workers, were in poor general mental health state, or did not obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the Internet were more likely to deny justification for vaccination. Denial was negatively associated with both extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19 but not associated with the perceived risk of COVID-19. Multiple variables related to denying the justification for vaccination; the denial was negatively associated with the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302327

ABSTRACT

The present study compared the levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals and examined the association of explicit and intrinsic intentions with sexual orientation. We enrolled 171 sexual minority and 876 heterosexual individuals through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' explicit and intrinsic intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination and their risk perception of COVID-19 were measured. We discovered that sexual minority individuals had higher levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive vaccination relative to heterosexual individuals. Intrinsic intention was positively associated with explicit intention after the effects of demographic characteristics and risk perception of COVID-19 were controlled for. Sexual orientation did not moderate the association between explicit and intrinsic intentions. The present study determined the relationship between sexual orientation and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , Intention , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Taiwan , Vaccination
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295826

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the distinct classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people in Taiwan and to examine the roles of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) cognitive constructs in these unique classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19, PMT constructs of threat appraisal (perceived severity and perceived vulnerability), and PMT constructs of coping appraisal (self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza) were determined. We analyzed participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19 by using latent profile analysis. The present study identified three latent classes, including the participants with high motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both High), those with low motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both Low), and those with high motivation for vaccination but low motivation for preventive behaviors (the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors). Compared with the participants in the class of Both High, participants in the class of Both Low had lower levels of perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy to have vaccination, response efficacy of vaccination, knowledge about vaccination, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza; participants in the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors had lower levels of perceived vulnerability and perceived severity but higher levels of response cost of vaccination. We concluded that varieties of motivations, threat, and coping appraisals should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase motivation to adopt recommended protective behaviors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan , Vaccination
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3413-3420, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281831

ABSTRACT

Objective: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the most robust models in explaining health-related behavior. In this study, we tested the extended TPB to predict university students' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was developed to investigate students' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine based on the components of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and extended components (i.e., knowledge about COVID-19, risk perception of COVID-19, and past influenza vaccination behavior). Non-probability sampling was used to collect data from 3145 students from 43 universities in mainland China in January 2021. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the proposed model. Enrolled students were relatively young (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09), half of them are female (50.2%), and most of them were studying in undergraduate programs (n = 3026; 96.2%).Results: The results showed that students' knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccine and risk perception of COVID-19 positively influenced their attitude toward the uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine. Also, students' attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination uptake and their past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors were positively associated with the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were not significant predictors for the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (R2 = 0.49).Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the extended TPB appears to be an efficient model with the focus on attitude, knowledge, risk perception, and past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors in explaining students' intention for COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
17.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266725

ABSTRACT

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are commonly affected by medical illness. The aim of the present study was to explore the risks of contracting respiratory infectious diseases (RIDs), including upper and lower RIDs and influenza, in children with ADHD. We also examined whether methylphenidate has a protective effect regarding the risk of contracting RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment. Children in the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2016 were included in the present study. Upper and lower RIDs, influenza, ADHD, age, sex, and records of methylphenidate prescription were identified. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the significance of the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD in comparison with that among children without ADHD after adjustment for sex and age. The self-controlled case series analysis was conducted to examine the protective effect of methylphenidate treatment against RIDs. In total, 85,853 children with ADHD and 1,458,750 children without ADHD were included in the study. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, we observed that children with ADHD had significantly higher risks of upper RIDs, lower RIDs, and influenza infection than did those without ADHD. Among the children with ADHD who had a history of methylphenidate treatment, the risk of contracting RIDs was lower during the methylphenidate treatment period than during the nontreatment period. Children with ADHD had a higher RID risk than those without ADHD. Methylphenidate might reduce the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Communicable Diseases , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Taiwan/epidemiology
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244153

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the differences in motivation to receive a COVID-19 vaccination between frontline physicians and nurses and the Taiwanese public. The associations of threat and coping appraisals, as described in Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination were compared between these groups, too. We recruited 279 frontline physicians and nurses and 768 members of the public by a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination, perceived severity of and vulnerability to COVID-19, self-efficacy and response efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination, response cost of COVID-19 vaccination, and knowledge about the mechanism of COVID-19 vaccination in light of PMT were determined. The results demonstrated that frontline health workers had higher motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination than the public. Response efficacy and knowledge of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination in both frontline health workers and the public, whereas perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, and response cost of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation in the public but not in frontline physicians and nurses. The factors related to motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination should be considered when designing programs to increase motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination among frontline health workers and the public.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201922

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hospital visits and attendance at scheduled appointments have dropped significantly. We used the health belief model (in three dimensions) to examine the determinants of non-attendance of scheduled appointments in outpatient clinics due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in Taiwan (n = 1954) completed an online survey from 10 April 10 to 23 April 2020, which assessed how people perceived and responded to the outbreak of a fast-spreading infectious disease. We performed both univariate and multivariate logistic regression to examine the roles of cognitive, affective, and behavioral health belief constructs in nonattendance at scheduled appointments. The results indicated that individuals who perceived high confidence in coping with COVID-19 were less likely to miss or cancel their doctor's appointments, whereas individuals who reported high anxiety and practiced more preventive health behaviors, including avoiding crowded places, washing hands more often, and wearing a mask more often, were more likely to miss or cancel their appointments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-heterosexual participants had a lower rate of nonattendance at scheduled appointments compared with heterosexual ones. The study results increase our understanding of the patients' cognitive health beliefs, psychological distress, and health behaviors when assessing adherence to medical appointments during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Health Belief Model , Humans , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
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