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1.
IEEE Access ; 11:28735-28750, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2298603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the need for non-contact medical robots to alleviate the heavy workload and emotional stress experienced by healthcare professionals while preventing infection. In response, we propose a non-contact robotic diagnostic system for otolaryngology clinics, utilizing a digital twin model for initial design optimization. The system employs a master-slave robot architecture, with the slave robot comprising a flexible endoscope manipulation robot and a parallel robot arm for controlling additional medical instruments. The novel 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) control mechanism enables the single robotic arm to handle the endoscope, facilitating the process compared to the traditional two-handed approach. Phantom experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed flexible endoscope manipulation system in terms of diagnosis completion time, NASA task load index (NASA-TLX), and subjective risk score. The results demonstrate the system's usability and its potential to alternate conventional diagnosis. © 2013 IEEE.

3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1376-1380, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040004

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of a local clustered epidemic caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Ningbo and provide reference for the improvement of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control. Methods: Case finding was conducted based on case definitions, and field epidemiological investigation of COVID-19 cases was carried out. In which Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs of the cases were collected for pathogen testing, and the results were analyzed with descriptive epidemiological methods. Results: A total of 74 COVID-19 cases were reported in this epidemic, and the cases were mainly mild ones, accounting for 87.84% (65/74), and there were no severe or critical cases. The epidemic curve showed a human-to-human transmission mode, indicating that a transmission for at least six generations had occurred. The age of the COVID-19 patients ranged from 2 years to 80 years, and 27.03% (20/74) of the cases were older than 60 years. The cases were mainly workers (55.41%, 41/74) and housework/the unemployed (27.03%, 20/74). The COVID-19 epidemic was limited, and no further spread to other areas occurred. The transmission chain among the cases was clear, and the gene sequencing results confirmed that the current epidemic was caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant, which was highly homologous to the strains from other province. Conclusion: The local COVID-19 epidemic in Ningbo was caused by imported cases of COVID-19 from other province, and local community spread occurred through daily contacts between cases and contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(8): 1237-1240, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994239

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the infection rate of secondary close contacts of COVID-19 patients, and assess the infection risk in the contacts. Methods: COVID-19 patients' close contacts (with a clear exposure time to index case) with negative nucleic acid test results and secondary close contacts were surveyed in continuous isolation and medical observation in this prospective study. The dynamic nucleic acid test results of the close contacts and secondary contacts of COVID-19 patients were collected to assess their risk of infection. Results: A total of 4 533 close contacts were surveyed, in whom 14 were confirmed as COVID-19 patients with overall secondary attack rate of 0.31%, and 4 201 secondary contacts were tracked, in whom no subsequent infections occurred. Conclusion: Close contacts of COVID-19 patients entered in centralized isolation for medical observation with negative nucleic acid tese results,the secondary close contacts of COVID-19 patients have no risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1044-1048, 2022 Jul 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the local epidemic of COVID-19 caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Zhenhai district of Ningbo, identify the transmission chain and provide reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: The incidence data of COVID-19 in Zhenhai from 6 to 18 December, 2021 were collected in field investigation. Field epidemiological investigation was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases and analyze the transmission chains. Results: The first case might be infected with 2019-nCoV through direct or indirect exposure when passing through a medium-risk area, then a family cluster was caused, and the epidemic spread through close contacts of family members with others such as work, daily life, and moxibustion. The epidemic lasted for 14 days, and 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported. The median incubation period was 4.0(3.0,5.8)d. All the cases were in a chain of transmission for more than 6 generations, and the intergenerational interval was 3.5(2.0,5.3)d. The gene sequencing result indicated that the pathogen was Delta AY.4 variant of 2019-nCoV. Both the epidemiological investigation and the gene sequencing results supported that the local COVID-19 epidemic in Zhenhai was associated with the COVID-19 epidemic in Shanghai. Conclusions: The transmission chain of this epidemic was clear. Delta AY.4 variant has obvious characteristic to cause case clusters in families, places with poor ventilation, and residential communities. It is suggested to strengthen the health management in key areas and key populations, and increase the frequency of nucleic acid testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 841-845, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903514

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the infection rate in close contacts of COVID-19 patients before and after the last negative nucleic acid test, evaluate the effect of dynamic nucleic acid test in determining the infectivity of COVID-19 patients. Methods: Dynamic nucleic acid test results of COVID-19 cases were collected in a retrospective cohort study. COVID-19 cases with negative nucleic acid test results before their first positive nucleic acid tests were selected as study subjects. Close contacts of the index cases and the secondary close contacts were kept isolation for medical observation to assess their risk of infection. Results: This study included 89 confirmed cases from two local COVID-19 epidemics in Ningbo. A total of 5 609 close contacts were surveyed, the overall infection rate was 0.20%. No close contacts of the COVID-19 cases before the last negative nucleic acid test were infected, and the infection rate in the close contacts of the COVID-19 cases after the last negative nucleic acid test was 1.33%, all of these close contacts lived together with the index cases. No secondary close contacts were infected. Conclusion: COVID-19 patient becomes infectious after the last nucleic acid is negative, and has no infectivity before the last nucleic acid negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(5):669-673, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1848743

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the precise prevention and control strategies of dynamic zero COVID-19 in Ningbo, Zhejiang province. Methods: Based on the incidence data of COVID-19 and case epidemiological survey report in Ningbo in December 2021, the incidence curve of COVID-19 was generated and a dynamics model was developed to estimate the case number of under different intervention measures. The basic reproduction number (R(0)) and real-time reproduction number (R(t)) were calculated to evaluate intervention effect. Results: A total of 74 cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in Ningbo as of 17 December, 2021. The R(0) was estimated to be 4.3. With the strengthening of prevention and control measures, the R(t) showed a gradual downward trend, dropping to below 1.0 on December 11 and 0.4 on December 14. The model fitting results showed that the actual case number was close to the estimated case number (76 cases) when the effectiveness of intervention was 90%. The number of cases decreased by 98.4% compared with that if no intervention was taken. Conclusion: The precise prevention and control strategies of dynamic zero COVID-19 have obvious effect, which can facilitate the rapid control of COVID-19 epidemic in Ningbo.

8.
Analytical and Quantitative Cytopathology and Histopathology ; 43(5):383-392, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1749483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of study and life patterns on the visual acuity of primary and secondary school students in Wuhan, China, during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated factors influencing the development of myopia using questionnaires presented to students in primary and secondary schools in Wuhan. After school resumed in September 2020, we obtained 15,596 valid questionnaires. Students who submitted valid questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and computerized optometry, from which 15,428 valid examination results were obtained. Then we cornpared these results with the screening data collected during the same period the previous year (September 2019). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of myopia among primary and secondary school students in Wuhan in 2020 was 59.95%, representing a 6.02% increase as compared with levels in 2019. For primary, junior, and senior high school students, this increase was 9.76%, 5.30%, and 2.79%, respectively. Primary school students primarily exhibited an increase in mild myopia (7.49%), while junior and senior high school students presented with increased rates of moderate (4.51%;5.74%) and high (1.17%;2.95%) myopia. Compared with 2019, senior high school students exhibited the most pronounced deepening of spherical equivalent, which deepened by -0.639 D, -0.774 D, and -0.775 D from Grade 1-3. In 2020 the students in Wuhan spent <1 hour on outdoor activities, but primary, junior, and senior high school students were engaged with online courses for 3.184 hours, 5.828 hours, and 6.239 hours and electronic products outside of online learning for 1.502 hours, 1.788 hours, and 2.146 hours, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, high grade, long time of near-work, long time of using electronic product, the students' age of using electronic products for the first time was <= 3 years old, parents' myopia, and high education level were risk factors for myopia, while outdoor activity was a protective factor for myopia. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19, home-based online learning mode significantly increased the prevalence of myopia among students in Wuhan. The occurrence of myopia is related to heredity and eye use behavior. Increasing outdoor activities and reducing near-work time are important measures to prevent and control myopia occurrence.

9.
Arthritis & Rheumatology ; 73:3421-3422, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1728577
10.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 401-404, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441450

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 was found in a recovered patient's stool specimen by combining quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and genome sequencing. The patient was virus positive in stool specimens for at least an additional 15 days after he was recovered, whereas respiratory tract specimens were negative. The discovery of the complete genome of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool sample of the recovered patient demonstrates a cautionary warning that the potential mode of the virus transmission cannot be excluded through the fecal-oral route after viral clearance in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Feces/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/transmission , China , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 609-617, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of factor XI in the pathogenesis of postoperative venous thromboembolism is uncertain. Abelacimab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to factor XI and locks it in the zymogen (inactive precursor) conformation. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned 412 patients who were undergoing total knee arthroplasty to receive one of three regimens of abelacimab (30 mg, 75 mg, or 150 mg) administered postoperatively in a single intravenous dose or to receive 40 mg of enoxaparin administered subcutaneously once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism, detected by mandatory venography of the leg involved in the operation or objective confirmation of symptomatic events. The principal safety outcome was a composite of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding up to 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Venous thromboembolism occurred in 13 of 102 patients (13%) in the 30-mg abelacimab group, 5 of 99 patients (5%) in the 75-mg abelacimab group, and 4 of 98 patients (4%) in the 150-mg abelacimab group, as compared with 22 of 101 patients (22%) in the enoxaparin group. The 30-mg abelacimab regimen was noninferior to enoxaparin, and the 75-mg and 150-mg abelacimab regimens were superior to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 2%, 2%, and none of the patients in the 30-mg, 75-mg, and 150-mg abelacimab groups, respectively, and in none of the patients in the enoxaparin group. CONCLUSIONS: This trial showed that factor XI is important for the development of postoperative venous thromboembolism. Factor XI inhibition with a single intravenous dose of abelacimab after total knee arthroplasty was effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and was associated with a low risk of bleeding. (Funded by Anthos Therapeutics; ANT-005 TKA EudraCT number, 2019-003756-37.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Factor XI/antagonists & inhibitors , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor XI/metabolism , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time
12.
Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 16(1):18-21, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1348806

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the practice and technique of using a protective mask (surgical mask) in older adults. Methods: A convenience sample of 287 older adults aged >65 years were recruited between January and February 2017 when there was no respiratory epidemic. Their practice and technique of using a mask were assessed using a questionnaire and an observational checklist, respectively. Results: Older adults' practice and technique of using a mask were unsatisfactory. 30.1% and 26.9% indicated that they never wear a mask when taking care of family members with fever and respiratory infection, respectively. None could correctly perform all 12 steps in wearing and taking off a mask. 92.3%, 96.6%, and 93.7% did not perform hand hygiene before wearing and taking off the mask and after disposing of the mask, respectively. Conclusion: Compliance of older adults with wearing masks during a non-epidemic period was low. The commonly omitted steps of wearing and taking off a mask were related to hand hygiene. We recommend using the knowledge-attitude-practice model to rectify misconceptions and strengthen awareness on the use of masks in the required situations and on commonly omitted or incorrectly performed techniques.

13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(1): 89-95, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033134

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical application value of routine indicators such as blood routine and liver and kidney function in auxiliary diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Methods: SNK-q and other methods were used to retrospectively analyzed the differences of blood routine test, liver and kidney function and other inflammatory indexes of 30 patients with covid-19, 29 patients with other viral pneumonia, 35 patients with influenza A/B and 25 healthy persons from January 28 to February 14, 2020 in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Results: The neutrophils count increased gradually in COVID-19 group, influenza A/B group and other types of viral pneumonia group, and the difference between COVID-19 group and other viral pneumonia groups was statistically significant(H=-19.064,P<0.05); The lymphocyte count decreased gradually in the control group, influenza A/B group, other viral pneumonia group and COVID-19 group. In addition, DB, UA and GLU were also different among groups. Subgroup analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in N(F=9.581,t=-0.152,P<0.05), N%(F=5.723,t=-0.600, P<0.05), NLR(F=4.773, t=-1.161, P<0.05), PCT(F=17.464, t=-1.477, P<0.05)and CRP(F=7.656, t=-1.973, P<0.05) between patients with lung involvement +-++ and patients with lung involvement +++-++++. There were statistically significant differences in NLR(F=63.931, t=-2.815, P<0.01), AST(F=15.704, t=-1.930, P<0.01), ALT(F=35.551, t=-2.199, P<0.01), LDH(F=7.715, t=-2.703, P<0.05) and GLU(F=6.306, t=-5.116, P<0.05) between the light+common subgroup and the heavy+critical subgroup of COVID-19 clinical classification. Correlation analysis showed that clinical stage and imaging credit period were significantly correlated with NLR (r=0.406, P=0.026; r=0.397, P=0.030), ALT (r=0.403, P=0.049; r=0.418, P=0.047), LDH (r=0.543, P<0.01; r=0.643, P<0.01) and GLU(r=0.750, P<0.01; r=0.471, P=0.042). A total of 5 principal components were extracted from all the included indicators, and the comprehensive information extraction rate was 82.86%. Indicators of a large load included Ur, PCT and CRP in PC1; ALT, AST and GLU in PC2; N%, L%, L and NLR in PC3. It indicated that the indicators of acute infection, liver function and blood routine had certein warning effect on disease surveillance. The results of ROC curve analysis showed that the combined detection of N+TB+Urea was the best practice to distinguish COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia, while the combined detection of N+L+UA was the most effective solution to make a distinction between COVID-19 and influenza A/B patients. In the aspect of disease evaluation, NL+LDH+GLU+ALT combined detection represent the best diagnostic performance to distinguish the clinical stage of light+common type and heavy+critical type, achieving the AUC (ROC) to 0.904, with the sensitivity 75% and the specificity 100% at the cut-off value of 0.477. Conclusion: In addition to etiology and imaging examination, doctors can also improve the routine laboratory tests such as blood routine test, liver and kidney function to assist diagnosis and disease prediction of patients with respiratory tract infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Liver , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 667-671, 2020 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-367950

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the infection rate of close contacts of COVID-19 cases, and to evaluate the risk of COVID-19 under different exposure conditions. Methods: A prospective study was used to conduct continuous quarantine medical observations of close contacts of people infected with COVID-19, collect epidemiological, clinical manifestations, and laboratory test data to estimate the infection rate of close contacts under different exposures. Results: The epidemiological curve of COVID-19 in Ningbo showed persistent human-to-human characteristics. A total of 2 147 close contacts were tracked and investigated. The total infection rate was 6.15%. The infection rates of confirmed cases and positive contacts were 6.30% and 4.11%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Among close contacts of different relationships, friends/pilgrims (22.31%), family members (18.01%), and relatives (4.73%) have a higher infection rate, and close contacts of medical staff were not infected. Differences in infection rates among the close contacts were statistically significant (P<0.005). Living with the case (13.26%), taking the same transportation (11.91%), and dining together (7.18%) are high risk factors for infection. Cross-infection in the hospital should not be ignored (1.94%). The median of incubation period is 5 days. Conclusion: The infection rate of close contacts of COVID-19 cases is high, and isolation medical observation measures should be implemented in strict accordance with the close contact management plan.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(16): 1223-1229, 2020 Apr 28.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326498

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct and evaluate a diagnosis pathway (Xiangya pathway) for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Consecutive subjects aged ≥12 years old who were screened for COVID-19 were included in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 23 to February 3, 2020, and the subjects were further divided into the inception cohort and the validation cohort. The gender, age, onset time of disease of the subjects were recorded. The information of epidemiological history, fever, and the declined blood lymphocytes were collected as clinical indicators, CT scan was used to evaluate the possibility of COVID-19 and range of lung involvement. According to the current Chinese national standards, throat swabs of suspected cases were collected and the nucleic acid of COVID-19 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The Xiangya pathway was constructed with multi-indexes, compared with clinical indicators, CT results and Chinese national standards, their effectiveness of detecting confirmed cases were verified in the inception and validation cohort. Results: A total of 382 consecutive adults who was screened for COVID-19 were included, and 261 cases were in the inception cohort and 121 cases were in the validation cohort. Among the 382 cases, 192 were males (50.3%) and 190 were females (49.7%), with a median age of 35 years (range: 15-92 years). There were 183 cases (47.9%) with epidemiological history, 275 cases (72.0%) with fever, 212 cases (55.5%) with decreased peripheral blood lymphocytes, 114 cases (29.8%) with positive CT findings, 43 cases (11.3%) with positive CT-COVID-19, and 30 cases (7.9%) with positive virus nucleic acid by throat swab. Compared with clinical indicators, the sensitivity and specificity of CT were 0.950 and 0.704, respectively. The accuracy of CT to make a definite diagnosis was higher than that of epidemiological history, fever, and declined blood lymphocyte count (0.809 vs 0.660, 0.532, 0.596, P=0.001, 0.002, 0.003, respectively). The sensitivity of this pathway and the pathway recommended by the Health Commission of China were both high (all were 1.000), while the specificity and accuracy of the Xiangya pathway were higher than the one recommended by the Health Commission (0.872 vs 0.765, 0.778 vs 0.592, both P<0.001). The CT-COVID-19 reduced the missed diagnosis rate caused by false negative of nucleic acid test (31 vs 64), with difference rate of 51.6%, and the positive rate of nucleic acid test was 64.5% (20/31). In validation cohort, the specificity and accuracy of the Xiangya pathway was 0.967, the positive rate of nucleic acid test was 76.9%(10/13). Conclusions: The Xiangya pathway can predict the nucleic acid test results of COVID-19, and can be applied as a reliable strategy to screen patients with suspected COVID-19 among people aged ≥12 years in areas other than Hubei during the epidemic period of COVID-19. The cohort size needs to be increased for further validation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(4): 269-274, 2020 Apr 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3049

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, treatment and the short-term prognosis of 31 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in children from six provinces (autonomous region) in northern China. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, signs, laboratory examinations, chest imaging, treatment and the short-term prognosis of 31 cases of 2019-nCoV was conducted. The patients were diagnosed between January 25th, 2020 and February 21st, 2020 in 21 hospitals in 17 cities of six provinces (autonomous region) of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Hebei, Henan and Shandong. Results: The age of the 31 children with 2019-nCoV infection was 7 years and 1 month (6 months-17 years). Nine cases (29%) were imported cases. Other 21 cases (68%) had contact with confirmed infected adults. One case (3%) had contact with asymptomatic returnees from Wuhan. Among the 31 children, 28 patients (90%) were family cluster cases. The clinical types were asymptomatic type in 4 cases (13%), mild type in 13 cases (42%), and common type in 14 cases (45%). No severe or critical type existed. The most common symptom was fever (n=20, 65%), including 1 case of high fever, 9 cases of moderate fever, 10 cases of low fever. Fever lasted from 1 day to 9 days. The fever of fifteen cases lasted for ≤3 d, while in other 5 cases lasted >3 d. Other symptoms included cough (n=14, 45%), fatigue (n=3, 10%) and diarrhea (n=3, 10%). Pharyngalgia, runny nose, dizziness, headache and vomiting were rare. In the early stage, the total leukocytes count in peripheral blood decreased in 2 cases (6%), the lymphocytes count decreased in 2 cases (6%), and the platelet count increased in 2 cases (6%).Elevation of C-reactive protein (10%, 3/30), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (19%, 4/21), procalcitonin (4%,1/28), liver enzyme (22%, 6/27) and muscle enzyme (15%, 4/27) occurred in different proportions. Renal function and blood glucose were normal. There were abnormal chest CT changes in 14 cases, including 9 cases with patchy ground glass opacities and nodules, mostly located in the lower lobe of both lungs near the pleural area. After receiving supportive treatment, the viral nucleic acid turned negative in 25 cases within 7-23 days. Among them, 24 children (77%) recovered and were discharged from hospital. No death occurred. Conclusions: In this case series, 2019-nCoV infection in children from six provinces (autonomous region) in northern China are mainly caused by close family contact. Clinical types are asymptomatic, mild and common types. Clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results are nonspecific. Close contact history of epidemiology, nucleic acid detection and chest imaging are important bases for diagnosis of 2019-nCoV infection. After general treatment, the short-term prognosis is good.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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